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Week 10


Stakeholders of the program

The stakeholders of the program include investors, doctors, staff, hospital administration and patients. The doctors are responsible for performing their duties and accepting change. The staff will be responsible for fulfilling their roles and maintain the quality of care.


Stakeholders are responsible for conducting evaluations by relying on feedback from the staff and patients. The most objective clinical evaluation tool according to Oerman and Gagerson (2017) is a rating scale as it allows measurement of the student's performance in a practical sense. Feedback methods are used for evaluating the performance of the staff and identifying the performance gap. This will allow them to take appropriate actions for improving service. The method highlights the positive and negative characteristics of the program. The stakeholders will identify where the staff is lacking that will help in determining their needs. Training materials will be adopted according to the needs of staff CITATION Mar041 \l 1033 (Gysels, Hughes, Aspinal, Addington-Hall, & Higginson, 2004).

Formative assessment

Oerman and Gagerson (2017) identify evaluation legends as effective tools leading to the best levels of measurements. The best part of this method is its ability to distinguish between three types of performers; satisfactory, unsatisfactory and the ones needing improvement. It clearly elaborates that the students rated as 2 or above are satisfactory and possess adequate skills required in the clinical profession. Any rating that is less than 2 exhibits the unsatisfactory performance CITATION MHO17 \l 1033 (Oermann & Gaberson, 2017).

Both formative and summative evaluation methods are included as the formal method considers the assessment on the basis of rating scales. Oerman and Gagerson (2017) state that these scales provide an actual level of competency in numerical form. The summative methods are incorporated for determining the competency in the form of observations CITATION MHO17 \l 1033 (Oermann & Gaberson, 2017).


Gysels, M., Hughes, R., Aspinal, F., Addington-Hall, J. M., & Higginson, I. J. (2004). What methods do stakeholders prefer for feeding back performance data: a qualitative study in palliative care. International Journal for Quality in Health Care , 16 (5), 375–381.

Oermann, M. H., & Gaberson, K. B. (2017). Evaluation and testing in nursing education (5th ed). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 11

Week 11

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Week 11

Studies have proved that around 40% -80% of the information provided to patients' during treatment is forgotten by them immediately and half of the information that they recall is incorrect. In order to avoid this situation, the teach-back technique is used by the healthcare staff. It is a way of checking the understanding level of the patient that is provided to them by the staff by asking patients about their learning in their own words. This technique involves teaching the patient in a manner that is easy for them to understand. This method not only improves the patient’s understanding but decreases the rate of callbacks and appointments and results in increasing the patient's satisfaction and better outcomes (Peter et al., 2015).

This method is executed and practiced to know how well the practitioner has explained the concept. It is not a test for the patient. It requires planning the questions that will be asked to the patient. The information is split into sections in order that is easy for a patient to understand. After understanding the patient is asked to describe the knowledge in their own words. Chances are that if they parrot the words they might not have developed a full understanding of the concept (Dinh, Bonner, Clark, Ramsbotham & Hines, 2016).

This technique can be used in the patient family teaching, as often the patients can't remember the provided information, in such scenario this technique should be used not only on the patient but also on the family members of the patient. A study proves that stimulation for a teach-back method with the registered nurses is effective and it should be in the educational design for delivering topics like i.e. self-management for asthma patient or for a patient of organ transplant surgery(Mangold, 2016).


Mangold, K. (2016). Utilization of the Simulation Environment to Practice Teach-Back With Kidney Transplant Patients. Clinical Simulation In Nursing, 12(12), 532-538. doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2016.08.004

Dinh, H., Bonner, A., Clark, R., Ramsbotham, J., & Hines, S. (2016). The effectiveness of the teach-back method on adherence and self-management in health education for people with chronic disease: a systematic review. The JBI Database Of Systematic Reviews And Implementation Reports, 14(1), 210. doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2016-2296

Peter, D., Robinson, P., Jordan, M., Lawrence, S., Casey, K., & Salas-Lopez, D. (2015). Reducing Readmissions Using Teach-Back. JONA: The Journal Of Nursing Administration, 45(1), 35-42. doi: 10.1097/nna.0000000000000155

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 11 Discussion

Student name

Submitted by



Tort law and health care

Under torts law, a wrongful, unlawful act harming or affecting life, body, health, belongings or other protected right of another individual. The right of tort (also known as liability , tort or damage law ) is one of the most important areas of civil law. The liability / non-contractual damages law rules determine the conditions under which a person must be liable for unlawfully inflicted damage caused either by an act of his own or by an event for which the law makes him responsible. They are therefore intended to compensate for unlawfully inflicted damage through compensation .

Individual cases : a) Intentional or negligent violation of life, body, health, freedom, property or other rights of another (such as the legitimate possession, not the mere claim) (Showalterm 87). The client is liable for damages caused by his or on the basis of the performance of the work imposed by the agent. However, this legal provision is not applied to the contract for work - there the person responsible for the work bears the personal responsibility. The case-law clearly assumes today that this liability is objective and does not depend on the guilt for the bad choice of the principal. However, the client has the right to recourse / claim against the injuring party.

Medical negligence cases are typically grounded on negligence. With this objective, the legislation would have to be amended to offer a right to effective health protection. However, it is not merely about stipulating new rights. The challenge is to reform the existing ones to have a single set of rights for all, which is financed in a manner consistent with the criteria of justice stipulated in our Magna Carta, and that has budgetary stability. A government unable to enforce minimum rights of access to health for its citizens, not only short falls of its constitutional obligations and the expectations of the population, nor does it generate the conditions for other efforts to bear fruit and productivity can be improved and, therefore, the income of individuals.

Works cited

Showalter, J. Stuart. The law of healthcare administration. Health Administration Press, 2012.87

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 11 Evidence Based Practice

Healthcare and Nursing

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

This is a qualitative literature review about the Advanced Practice Nursing (EPA) models are supported by the trajectory of countries such as the USA. United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Belgium and Ireland, among others, with a broad, although unequal, degree of development. The appearance of these new roles has been conditioned by the historical context of each country, depending on its political-economic, social and health situation (Duffy, 2018). Initially, the EPA emerged as an alternative to the lack of physicians, in response to the growing demands of the population and, more recently, as a formula to search for more cost-effective organizational systems and to guarantee the accessibility of users to certain services. agile, coordinated and of quality.

The data is collected from content analysis. The experience of other countries allows us to analyze the procedure of design and application of these new models, as well as the structural arrangement in which they are integrated (Dotevall, et.al. 2018). The EPA devoted more time to each consultation, with greater dedication to providing information to the patient and / or family about their health problem and their therapeutic management, although this dedication limited the potential economic savings that were intended, among other issues. In Spain there are precedents in some autonomous communities, such as Andalusia and the Basque Country, where figures that contemplate advanced nursing roles have been created.

At present, it is necessary to outline the possible strategic lines to achieve its full development and ensure the achievement of the best consequences in global relations of fitness and excellence of life of patients through chronic processes, refining the excellence of services and cost. -effectiveness of the interventions, greater cohesion of the healthcare teams and, of course, that all this contributes to the sustainability of the health system and to the satisfaction of the users (Jairath, et.al. 2018).

The source is creditable as it is selected from scholarly article. The study also highlights a slight increase in the demand for visits of some patients to the EPA consultation, mainly those who had asthmatic problems or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which seems to respond to the ability of the EPA to detect problems or potential complications not previously studied, which shows that the EPA adds an important qualitative component in the care of chronic patients. In recent years there has been talk of in / sustainability of public health systems and the need to contain spending while meeting the needs of the population.


Duffy, E. G. (2018). healthcare policy: implications for advanced nursing practice. Advanced Practice Nursing Roles: Core Concepts for Professional Development, 165.

Dotevall, C., Winberg, E., & Rosengren, K. (2018). Nursing students' experiences with refugees with mental health problems in Jordan: A qualitative content analysis. Nurse education today, 61, 155-161.

Jairath, N. N., Peden-McAlpine, C. J., Sullivan, M. C., Vessey, J. A., & Henly, S. J. (2018). Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team. Nursing research, 67(2), 188-195.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Week 12

Week 12

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Week 12

Correlation between the nursing code of ethics and patient teaching

The American nursing associated has formulated nine provisions under the nursing code of ethics to ensure that the welfare of the patient is taken care of and social justice is ensured to each patient. All these provisions provide the basic guidelines for the nursing profession. These provisions state that each patient is worthy of respect and should be treated with dignity. It serves as a map for the nurses using which they can maintain the integrity of their profession and integrate the laws of justice into their practice ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XJx1g8kO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Peterson & Potter, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Peterson & Potter, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1804,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/2H8V8RHH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/2H8V8RHH"],"itemData":{"id":1804,"type":"article-journal","title":"A Proposal for a Code of Ethics for Nurse Practitioners","container-title":"Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners","page":"116-124","volume":"16","issue":"3","source":"Wiley Online Library","abstract":"Purpose To review established codes for health care professionals and standards of practice for the nurse practitioner (NP) and to utilize these codes and standards, general ethical themes, and a new ethical triangle to propose an ethical code for NPs. Data Sources Reviews of three generally accepted ethical themes (deontological, teleological, and areteological), the ethical triangle by Potter, the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) standards of practice for NPs, and codes of ethics from the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Conclusions A proposal for a code of ethics for NPs is presented. This code was determined by basic ethical themes and established codes for nursing, formulated by the ANA, and for physicians, formulated by the AMA. The proposal was also developed in consideration of the AANP standards of practice for NPs. Implications for Practice The role of the NP is unique in its ethical demands. The authors believe that the expanded practice of NPs presents ethical concerns that are not addressed by the ANA code and yet are relevant to nursing and therefore different than the ethical concerns of physicians. This proposal attempts to broaden NPs’ perspective of the role that ethics should hold in their professional lives.","DOI":"10.1111/j.1745-7599.2004.tb00382.x","ISSN":"1745-7599","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Peterson","given":"Moya"},{"family":"Potter","given":"Robert Lyman"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Peterson & Potter, 2004).

Strong relation exists between the patient teachings and the nursing code of ethics. All the nine provisions serve as the basic guiding principles of the patient education and teaching strategies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CdMUIcGg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Patient education needs as reported by congestive heart failure patients and their nurses - Hagenhoff - 1994 - Journal of Advanced Nursing - Wiley Online Library,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Patient education needs as reported by congestive heart failure patients and their nurses - Hagenhoff - 1994 - Journal of Advanced Nursing - Wiley Online Library,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1797,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WL5HZE9J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WL5HZE9J"],"itemData":{"id":1797,"type":"webpage","title":"Patient education needs as reported by congestive heart failure patients and their nurses - Hagenhoff - 1994 - Journal of Advanced Nursing - Wiley Online Library","URL":"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1994.tb01139.x","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Patient education needs as reported by congestive heart failure patients and their nurses - Hagenhoff - 1994 - Journal of Advanced Nursing - Wiley Online Library,” n.d.). Teaching patients regarding their medical conditions and symptoms ensure that they take proper care of themselves and follow the proper doctor guidelines. Patient's education helps to reduce the risk of re-hospitalization and the possibility of error. The nursing provisions 1-5 provide the basic guidelines to the nurses so that they take care of patient not as a professional duty but a moral obligation. Understanding the patient’s temperament, learning ability, strengths and weaknesses is an important part of teaching patient. Nursing code of ethics ensures that nurses apply all the strategies, tools and knowledge to improve the patient's understanding of the health problem. Provision seven and four, specifically ensures that nurses adopt professional standards of development to take action for optimal patient care that is the basis of patient teaching.

Some patients are unable to take care of themselves, nurses need to teach the family of the patient about the patient care. Provision eight ensures that the rights of the patients are protected while teaching the patient and its family about the healthcare ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KKSpvSyy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}American Nurses Association: Ethics and Human Rights Statement}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(American Nurses Association: Ethics and Human Rights Statement, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1789,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/SMLC56D8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/SMLC56D8"],"itemData":{"id":1789,"type":"article-journal","title":"American Nurses Association: Ethics and Human Rights Statement","page":"1","source":"Zotero","language":"en"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (American Nurses Association: Ethics and Human Rights Statement, n.d.).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY American Nurses Association: Ethics and Human Rights Statement. (n.d.). 1.

Patient education needs as reported by congestive heart failure patients and their nurses - Hagenhoff - 1994 - Journal of Advanced Nursing - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2019, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1994.tb01139.x

Peterson, M., & Potter, R. L. (2004). A Proposal for a Code of Ethics for Nurse Practitioners. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(3), 116–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2004.tb00382.x

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 13 Evidence Based Practice

Evidence-based practices to guide the clinical practices

Term Paper

13th April, 2019

EBP is the conscious, explicit and judicious use of the best current clinical research data in the personalized care of each patient. The growing use of the notion of evidence-based policy is often equated with an unimportant rhetorical clause or the defense of a normative model of public decision rooted in the theory of rational choices. This undoubtedly results from the translation problem raised by the word “evidence" and the lack of knowledge of the debates and concrete devices that have developed around these approaches. Indeed, in a growing number of decision areas, the knowledge access regime is changing profoundly, particularly with regard to knowledge from the world of research (increasing profusion of knowledge produced, difficulty of access related to the privatization of scientific databases, etc.) (Melnyk et al, 2014). The difficulties encountered by the actors to know what knowledge is available and to control access and use become an important issue, whether it is to support certain decisions ( evidence-based decision) , illuminate (evidence-informed decision ) or simply to be able to choose not to take it into account, but in an informed manner ( evidence-aware decision ).

Research Objective

Evaluate the efficiency of organizational communications to promote EBP health care.

Research Hypothesis

Whether the efficiency of organizational communications to promote EBP health care or otherwise.

Research Questions

What are the main stages in the expansion of “evidence-based health practice”?

What is a controlled clinical trial?

What is the essence of randomization?

How are evidence-based medicine and the quality of care provided?

Research Methodology

This study is accepting one approach such as qualitative to achieve detailed information about the Evidence-based practices to guide the clinical practices. It is a deductive research as already existing tools have been adequately tested in various areas. The study will require extensive input with respect to both technical and theoretical data which are available in documentary sources. For this purpose, both primary and secondary sources will be utilized involving official document, books, journals, newspaper articles and open sources.

Credibility of sources

These sources include systematic reviews, research reports, and summaries of scientific journals that summarize clinically relevant published research and clinical practice guidelines.

Research Findings

It has been proven that the use of evidence-based health can improve the quality, cost-effectiveness of medical care, make more rational use of limited health resources. The quality and efficiency of medical institutions are among the most pressing problems in the management of health care, which is directly related to the final results and expenditure of resources.

There are clinical protocols - forms of standardization of medical care, which are based on the logic that is based on algorithms and is considered the most effective at the present stage. Unlike existing in many countries, medical and economic standards, clinical protocols should be formed only on the basis of the principles of evidence-based medicine (Straus et al, 2018).

The use of randomized controlled studies for the purpose of testing new or already existing methods of diagnosis and treatment contributes to the formation of certainty and agreement on issues in which there is a clash of diverse, often opposing expert opinions due to the lack of weighty evidence that they are correct. The greatest costs for solving tasks of ensuring the quality of medical care should be planned not for quality examination, but for ensuring defect-free technologies of medical care and stimulation of defect-free work. Priority should be given to identifying the causes of the poor quality of medical care that is associated with the imperfection of technology inside the institution. To this end, it is necessary to monitor the process by identifying deviations from the standard (Dang and Dearholt, 2017).


On this condition, it is necessary to introduce quality management programs for the provision of health care for the skin doctor, moreover, it is worthwhile today to form a chain of the doctor’s system management decision regarding the choice of prevention method based only on evidence-based medicine data, which provides information regarding evidence-based research and taking into account the level of evidence.


Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher‐Ford, L., Long, L. E., & Fineout‐Overholt, E. (2014). The establishment of evidence‐based practice competencies for practicing registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in real‐world clinical settings: Proficiencies to improve healthcare quality, reliability, patient outcomes, and costs. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 11(1), 5-15.

Straus, S. E., Glasziou, P., Richardson, W. S., & Haynes, R. B. (2018). Evidence-Based Medicine E-Book: How to Practice and Teach EBM. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Dang, D., & Dearholt, S. L. (2017). Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice: Model and guidelines. Sigma Theta Tau.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Week 14 Term Paper





Dementia is a neurological impairment intervening memory, learning, organization and planning abilities gravely. Dementia has many symptomatic ramifications—Alzheimer’s disease is one of them. Following ways can be used to manage its cognitive and behavioral consequences (Winblad et. al., 2016).

Ways to improve health outcomes

Health technology

Unwanted experience of forgetting significant happenings and losing memory progressively brings immense discomfort, fear and anxiety on the part of both client and caregivers. Technological advancements have demonstrated active participation in mitigating its unwanted consequences of dementia encapsulating (Prince et. al., 2016):

They usually forget appointments and meetings with family or important phone calls, adaptive telephones are specifically designed for it

Formalized electronic clocks are designed for dementia patients because their neurological impairment renders them confused in guessing day, night and timing

Tracking devices are used to grab their location instantly because their declining memory leaves them helpless in remembering even familiar places

Community resources

Many dementia associations are having online support systems where they offer their services on 24/7 basis concerning the provision of instrumental, social, informational and emotional support to the client. Number of these government and non-government programs are being operated throughout the country providing referral to the resources, professionals and support groups (Winblad et. al., 2016).


Three types of tests are used for dementia detection; psychometric, neurological and physical. Psychometric tests detect the behavioral abnormalities and thinking patterns attached with the brain functioning e.g., Dementia Rating Scale. Neurological techniques use MRI for brain imaging communicating structural abnormalities in brain. Physical exam helps regulating homeostasis and life style factors (Small, 2016).


Outreach programs targeted at dementia patients aim at providing training and supervision to the clients based on the evidence-based approaches, widely acknowledged by the researchers, field practitioners and patients. These programs focus more on gaming, reminiscing, effective communication skills—both verbal and non verbal in nature, arts and crafting, gardening and music playing. These activities are highly symptom specific in nature e.g., reminiscing for recalling memories (Winblad et. al., 2016).

Referral and follow-up

Dementia can be managed through electronic instruments but some cases are severe enough requiring professional assistance—referral is offered to ease their struggle for finding best suited clinics and professionals—neuropsychologists, psychologists, geriatricians and neurologists. Severity can be estimated through inconclusive diagnosis, behavioral ramifications, atypical presentation and family disputes (Small, 2016).


Winblad, B., Amouyel, P., Andrieu, S., et al. (2016). Defeating Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias: a priority for European science and society. Lancet Neurol., 15, 455–532. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987701

Small, G. W. (2016). Detection and prevention of cognitive decline. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 24, 1142–1150. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27745823

 Prince, M., Comas-Herrera, A., Knapp, M., et al. (2016). World Alzheimer report 2016: improving healthcare for people living with dementia: coverage, quality and costs now and in the future. London, UK: Alzheimer’s Disease International. Retrieved from https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2016.pdf2016. 

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 2 Project

Week 2 Project

Gina Ortwein

Week 2 Project

The United states of America faced a short period where the cost curves of health care were almost flat. This was majorly because of settled and well-established care system for well-managed practices (Baird, 2011). However, the health care system of US with time required enhancements to cater a large population. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is an act passed on 23rd of March, 2010, with new regulations and strategies about healthcare facilities available to US citizens. The two parts of legislation that constitutes the reform law of US Healthcare include Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA) and Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Previous President, Mr. Barack Obama gave a complete overview and evaluation of this PPACA. According to it, after Medicare PPACA is the complete and inclusive health care plan. PPACA was passed with only 60 votes in the Senate and 219-212 votes in the House. However, Medicare was approved in 1965, in the Senate with total of 68-21 votes and 313-115 in the House. As reported by Barack Obama, not only PPACA passed with a smaller number of votes, it also had to face several encounters by Supreme Court and Congressional. He claims it a political wonder which is obvious from facts stated above. The main purpose of the PPACA is to facilitate maximum people with health insurance, provide health care at lesser cost and advance the care system management. This law was modified and later termed as “Obamacare” and “Affordable Care Act”. PPACA provides comprehensive set of regulation for provider, employers, health insurance companies, and individuals related to health care field. On 30th of March 2010, this reform was modified by Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA). Different law section of this act was called effective on different dates. The Individual Mandate, for example, section of PPACA, according to which a person can obtain specified aid for healthcare facilities which is also called minimum essential coverage or has to pay tax as consequence, was effective from 2014. On the other hand, the Employer Mandate, according to which employers are obliged to pay specified amount of coverage to stated employees was made effective next year, that is in 2015. As PPACA is detailed and vast, it covers various health care areas and constitutes of multiple discrete provisions. To combat healthcare issues like poor management, uneven distribution, and costly expenditures, new reforms were introduced which included patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACOs). (Longworth, 2011). They are described as follows:

Accountable care organization (ACO)

Accountable care organization (ACO) is one of the significant features of PPACA. The goal of ACO is to minimize disintegration and inadequacy of present health care system. This goal is to be realized by reassuring an advanced and restructured system of healthcare and analysis of health benefits which will be based on treatment methodology and physician guided proficient system.


The idea of establishing ACOs was first presented by Elliott S. Fisher, MD, MPH, of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice in 2006. The main concept behind ACO is that minimizing disintegration in system, decreasing care cost, and enhancing coordination among ACO, the output can increase. ACO are described by State of Massachusetts’ Special Commission on the Health Care Payment System as it is part of reform for health care.it is described as delivery system of health care constituting hospitals, physicians, as well as clinical and non-clinical providers who are responsible for management. For an ACO, it can be either a physically located organization or virtually networked organization. A huge physician association would develop an agreement with other hospitals and supplement providers can be an example. According to a report to Congress, the Medicare Payment Advisory Committee (MedPac) defined the ACO is almost same fashion. However, in MedPac, the financial risk was also included. It said that an ACO will divide the profit in case of enhanced care integration but it will also be held liable for financial punishment if the condition of an ACO is not maintained or is not up to the mark according to structure of the ACO. But more importantly the ACOs are motivated by the new health reform presented. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services put forward regulations to execute ACOs for patients of Medicare on March 31, 2011. It has three fundamental aims. Firstly, as mentioned by the 6 aspects of these quality in Institute of Medicine report: safety, patient focused, time accuracy, equity, efficiency and effectiveness, better care must be taken for every patient based on these. Secondly Better health of population should be focused, I regard with creating awareness about annual medical checkup, influenza vaccination and basic reasons of illness that include physical inactiveness, poverty, malnutrition, and substance abuse. Thirdly, decreasing cost by reducing waste and inadequacies and also not suppressing the beneficiaries to get any help they need (Longworth, 2011).


According to proposed statement, the least number of people befitting from Medicare are 5000, including some exemptions from rural and underdeveloped areas. Thee founder of an ACO can be mainly a physician, an independent practice care or group of employees. Participants of ACO can be providers, specialist, hospitals or emergency hospitals. The condition for becoming ACO is that it must be a lawfully a discrete unit, having personal tax identification number, personal administration and management hierarchy. Keeping this in view, concern have risen that some of the association or entities with more than half population, may join hands and become market dominant. To tackle this concern, it is stated that any ACO that has less than 30% of market share will be excluded from this concern, but any ACO with more than half of market share will face a comprehensive review (Longworth, 2011).


Many of the ACOs are considered effective as they have brought improvements in quick access to physicians, patient gratification and health system parameters. With any other challenges faced by ACOs, one of them is that few organizations are unaware of its cost structure, they have limited authority over physicians who are loosely associated and cannot execute sharing of patient cost in case of unjustified medical treatment. But the continuous development of ACO contracts, also commercially proposes positivity by professionals and originations affiliated to health care as well as health insurance companies involved (Skinner, 2016).


Originally, The American Academy of Pediatrics introduced the idea of a medical home in 1967 to take care of children suffering from chronic diseases. They improved this idea in 2002 and provided key rules which now are referred as structural features of PMCH. These include integrated and in time care, support of electronic medical information available at places at all time, ethnically driven and quality ensured and associated to community services. It was later observed that much more efforts are required to help people with chronic diseases and to cater that need, this concept was further expanded for adults also. Given that, the adult population tends to have more advantage from PCMH because of its affordable, integrated, and comprehensive structure. After the enhancement, many related organizations evaluated what term “medical home” suggested. And now an association of expert physician organizations recommends the coordinated key features of PCMH. The Joint Principles were ratified by American Medical Association in 2008 CITATION Bol11 \l 1033 (Bolin, 2011).


There exist in total six concepts of predominate idea of PCMH. To achieve status of PMCH, an entity has to be sufficing according to criteria in all concepts. The concept areas are similar to the standard according to the NCQA PCMH Recognition. These criteria are established by proof-based regulations and finest practices. Each practice to get recognized must comply with all forty core criteria and at minimum, 25 of elective criteria of the concept.


The key role of PMCH is based on practice features and defining PCMH as a place for care incorporation, active engagement of patient and family, implementation of fundamental care principles, extensive and joint care. However, the highlighted aim of this structure is varied in different states in the country CITATION Aut17 \l 1033 (Kieber-Emmons & Miller, 2017)

In present, PCMH is encouraged by many skilled professionals and humanitarian special interest groups, public and private funders. It is because of the aptitude of the combined and unified system.


There is no doubt that PPACA has benefited a lot of people and is truly a significant achievement. PPACA is required and it is difficult to replace with any other reform as it is more affordable. However, till date it is not able to fulfill its purpose like it was proposed CITATION Ski16 \l 1033 (Skinner, 2016). Another key purpose of ACA was to make the health care system convenient and affordable for everyone. During the first 5 years ACA was implemented, according to President’s Special Communication reports, a significantly slower increment in expenditure of health care is observed. But it is not determined if the slow increment was because ACA was implemented or due to other aspects like recession’s long-term effects or increment in copayments and deductibles. It is observed that there are various improvements and changes required in PPACA and it suggest that more key improvements are required for proficient use of this reform. In conclusion, this model can be basis to improve and provide a better one in future at lower cost and more facilities.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bolin, J. N. (2011). Patient-Centered Medical Homes: Will Health Care Reform Provide New Options for Rural Communities and Providers? Family & Community Health, 34(2), 93-101. doi:10.1097/FCH.0b013e31820e0d78

Kieber-Emmons, A. M., & Miller, W. L. (2017). The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Framing Typology for Understanding the Structure, Function, and Outcomes of PCMHs. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine , 472-479.

Last Name, F. M. (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Pages From - To.

Last Name, F. M. (Year). Book Title. City Name: Publisher Name.

Skinner, J. C. (2016). The Past and Future of the Affordable Care Act. JAMA, 497–499.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Week 4 Assignment

Healthcare and Nursing

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Healthcare and Nursing

Importance of Academic Integrity

Academic integrity means honesty in academic tasks which infers that one can trust on the task completed by a student in terms of honesty and other academic policies. There are several reasons for the significance of academic integrity at higher education, taking into account that it extends beyond the traditional boundaries of academic honesty. Academic integrity is necessary for the intellectual development of students. Dishonest behavior undermines the credibility of learning. Academic integrity is one of the tools to safeguard the reputation of students and reflect a positive contribution to academia. Moreover, academic honesty is one of the basic tools that can ensure incorporation of the best of intellectual abilities and potentials to strive for academic progression, leading to success (Lampert & L, 2008). Through higher education, actions are somewhere a reflection of values, adhering to academic integrity that is one of the ways that can ensure moral and social values. Academic integrity ensures and adds worth to the task and the work is completed by a student because higher education is positioned at a distinguished scale in terms of academic series. Academic Integrity is an underlying essence of preference that is required by the organizations as well. Employers want to hire those employees who have high academic and personal integrity as personal integrity leads to academic integrity (Lampert & L, 2008). Today, organizational framework prefers to invest in developing the kind of human capital that can cast a positive influence on the organization, along with a recruitment of an individual that is trustworthy and has the potential to carry out a mission successfully.

Example of Academic violations in course work or capstone paper

There are several examples of violation of academic integrity such as plagiarism, creating and providing false information. Plagiarism is termed as the usage of other’s intellectual material without crediting the original author (Lampert & L, 2008). If an individual copies the whole text from the work of some other author without acknowledgment, it would be plagiarism. The paraphrasing of another person’s original metaphor or literary device is also included in it. Plagiarism is one of the most common violations of academic integrity that can cast serious and negative impact on student’s academic life. Cheating is termed as deceit, fraud or dishonesty in a capstone paper or course week (Lampert & L, 2008). If an individual copies or attempts to copy the work of some other person, it would be cheating. Copying others answers also comes under cheating. Cheating also includes resubmitting someone’s capstone paper or course work. In capstone research paper, cheating also includes copying other’s answers. Providing false information refers to the furnishing of false information in an academic assignment of the capstone paper (Lampert & L, 2008). If an individual fabricates or alters the original information and presents it as legitimate, then it would be included in providing false information. Providing false information is termed as violation of academic integrity because it can misdirect a reader or evaluator, and may challenge the authenticity of original work.

Avoiding academic violations

There are several steps that can be taken to avoid the violation of academic integrity, identified above. It is asserted that the mitigating strategies are both professional and personal that is, mandatory for a student to follow because plagiarism, cheating and providing false information are the most reoccurring incidents in writing course paper or capstone paper (Lampert & L, 2008). In order to avoid plagiarism, an individual should cite the text that is copied from the original source. Moreover, the copied text should be rephrased along with quoting the name of original author so that a reference can be made to the original work. Cheating can be avoided by adhering to personal integrity that affirms that an individual should try to remain honest to work. Cheating can also be avoided by asking for permission from the teacher or instructor regarding extension in capstone paper or rephrasing the text and mentioning the original source of the text (Lampert & L, 2008). However, providing false information can also be avoided by staying adhered to personal integrity because it directs an individual to stay honest to oneself in order to remain just and moral. It can also be mitigated by using strong authentication and verification procedures while attempting course work or capstone appear. Sometimes fabrication is also passive because unauthentic source is used, in order to address such case, information from credible source would be used for attempting course work or capstone paper (Lampert & L, 2008).


Lampert, L. D. (2008). Student academic integrity. American Library Association.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Week 5 Critical Appraisal

RCA Evaluation Table

Student’s Name


Course Code


Evaluation Table

First Author



Sample &



Data Analysis







Worth to

Studied (and




Barnett, A., Smith B., Lord, S. R., Williams, M., & Baumand, A. (2003)

Study meant to identify the relationship between exercise and falls among the older people in the society.

It meant to identify whether supervised exercise among the older people could be the best way to reduce the risk of falling among the older people.

The study was completed using qualitative method, where individuals were observed

The samples were 163 people who live in South West Sydney.

Subjects were randomized into exercise intervention group.

-Independent variables: Exercise among older people

-Dependent variable:

Risk of falling down.

-The study focuses on two variables the relationship between falling and intensive exercise.

-It also test whether exercise can improve balance

The fall of participants were measured periodically12 times using survey, which was done periodically.

The physical and general health of participants was also measured.

The data were statistically analysis. The descriptive statistic was used to arrive at appropriate result.

The finding indicates that participants in a weekly exercise has a high possibility of improving balancing and also reduce the rate at which older people fall.

It is also discovered that the more an older person exercise the stronger he or she become and gain balance as well.

It is worth practice since it has great impact to the people.

Oh, D. H., Park, J. E., Lee, E. S., Oh, S. W., Cho, S. I., Jang, S. N., & Baik, H. W. (2012).

It analyzes whether exercise programs are helpful in reducing the fear of falls among the elderly patients who had experience fall previously.

Qualitative research method where a group of people were randomly selected and used to complete then study.

65 randomly selected elderly people residing suburb region.

The two variables were tested independent and dependent variable

Exercise program and decrease in fear of fall in the future for those who have fallen previously.

It measures the rate of falling based on whether a participant is afraid of falling or not.

Reduce fear of falling among the adults under exercise program.

The data were statistically analyze and the descriptive statistic were used

Continual exercise reduces the fear of falling.

Exercise also improve balance hence risk the risk of falling among the elderly.

Release flexibility and muscle strength, which is associated with the quality of life.

It worth practice due to positive impact registered.

Taylor, D., Hale, L., Schluter, P., Waters, D. L., Binns, E. E., McCracken, H., Wolf, S. L. (2012).

It determines whether mobility balance and lower limb strength improves during exercise.

Qualitative research method was used to complete the study.

Eleven sits across Zealand.

Participants were Six hundred eighty-four community-residing older adults.

Major variables are strength, mobility, falls and mobility among the elderly people.

The number of falls obtained according to falls calendar.

The balance of participants and strength were also measured.

It is discovered that the number of falls in all groups are the same. The strength also increases the same across all groups. It means that the strength and mobility balance does not depend on exercise.

It cannot be used to reduce the number of falls among the elderly people in the society.


Barnett, A., Smith B., Lord, S. R., Williams, M., & Baumand, A. (2003). Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces

Falls in at-risk older people: A randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing, 32(4), 407–414.

Oh, D. H., Park, J. E., Lee, E. S., Oh, S. W., Cho, S. I., Jang, S. N., & Baik, H. W. (2012). Intensive exercise reduces the fear of additional

Falls in elderly people: Findings from the Korea falls prevention study. Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 27(4), 417–425

Taylor, D., Hale, L., Schluter, P., Waters, D. L., Binns, E. E., McCracken, H., . . . Wolf, S. L. (2012). Effectiveness of tai chi as a

Community-based falls prevention intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(5), 841–848.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Week 6

Prevention of Communicable Diseases




Instructor’s name


Prevention of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria

The viral Ebola disease outbreak was reported in Nigeria on the 20th of July 2014 (Fasina et al., 2014). Nigeria was among other West African countries that were encompassed by the same outbreak. The Ebola Virus spread so fast among these countries majorly because they had never experienced an Ebola Virus Disease outbreak before and thus were not well prepared to face out the unfamiliar infectious disease. Following this emergent concern, Ebola was declared

A Public Health Emergency of International by The World Health Organization (Check Hayden, 2014). A rapid response team was established by The Lagos State Government to intervene and work a way out of the epidemic.

Primary prevention

A lot of community enlightenment had been done months before the outbreak occurred to control the tensions that would build up after Ebola Virus was declared an epidemic. This was done through electronic and print media such as the radio and television interviews were the major highlight was on environmental and hand hygiene. Social media, short messaging services were used by an information unit that had been created as communication tools to clear any misconceptions from the population. Across Lagos, the public schools were provided with toilet facilities, water, and hand hygiene kits before they resumed their learning which had been delayed by the state government. After a confirmation of the index case was made, a contact's list was created from the index case made. Some contacts did not show any symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease and therefore from their homes follow up was conducted as they were non-contagious. The people who were living around the Lagos State Government hospital were worried of contamination as a result of Ebola Virus Disease victim's body cremation, but through the awareness made in the community, these fears were dispelled.

Secondary prevention

This was considered to report the new infectious disease cases at the earliest stage possible as well as to intervene to reduce the infection’s risk of spreading among the population. Screening programs were run to recognize infected individuals and the patients diagnosed with Ebola Virus Disease were taken to a hospital facility that had been turned into an Ebola treatment center after the outbreak had been reported.

Tertiary prevention

This benefits both the community and the patient by improving the patient’s quality of life through medical attention to prevent the worst outcomes. Tertiary prevention has a limited impact on the spread of infectious disease.

There were instances of children whose parents were patients and died from Ebola Virus Disease being drawn away from their homes because of stigma. New homes were provided to such children. They were also taken back to school. The Lagos State government gave Ebola Virus Disease survivors who had suffered infection or were affected some monetary incentives as compensation for job loss. Their families and themselves were too offered psychosocial and counseling support.


Check Hayden, E. (2014). Ebola declared a public-health emergency. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.15689

Fasina, F., Shittu, A., Lazarus, D., Tomori, O., Simonsen, L., Viboud, C., & Chowell, G. (2014). Transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria, July to September 2014. Eurosurveillance, 19(40). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.es2014.19.40.20920

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 6 Discussion: Feeding The World

Week 6 Discussion: Feeding the World

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Week 6 Discussion: Feeding the World

My response to a post supporting my classmate’s position on this issue of poverty and inaccessibility of food is the main topic of this discussion. Even though, food disparity is somehow being reverted to a considerable extent with the help of welfare organizations, government spending, public initiatives, etc. But many parts of the world are still facing a colossal gap in poverty, mostly due to food shortage (Mehrabi, Ellis, & Ramankutty, 2018). If I look at the community in which I live, I can see that there are times when food is scarce, and it becomes a real issue. If that is the case, then my day-to-day life would be hugely affected. Not only this but it would have a critical impact on the immediate community as well. How would it affect my community and me? Firstly, discussing the impact this drastic change could have on my life would include my inability to perform at my work due to feeling hungry at all times.

Moreover, not only would I suffer the unsatisfactory feeling of being hungry at all times but also develop certain illnesses due to the shortage of nutrition and vitamins. Without food, I can probably starve and become isolated. Secondly, the effect it can have on my community can be related to a considerable extent. People would develop food insecurities which can have severe consequences for the well-being and health of children and adults all the same. The community is more likely to develop some chronic diseases. Food shortage would also have a considerable impact on the employability as most people would not be able to perform well at work due to the feeling of being starved at all times. This would eventually lead to more stress and psychological factors. There can be a shortage of medical care, utilities, and transportation.


Mehrabi, Z., Ellis, E. C., & Ramankutty, N. (2018). The challenge of feeding the world while conserving half the planet. Nature Sustainability, 1(8), 409.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Integrated Patient Resource Management System


The healthcare facility that started as a medium scale organization with the primary objective of catering the patients through their efficient service. The healthcare facility specifically deals with obese patients with the risk of complications such as diabetes. Respective paper will briefly evaluate how the obesity management, lowering of AIC and diabetes management can be made more efficient with the implementation of an integrated Information system, and Patient Resource Management System. As the working for the facility grew, the burden on their employees and nursing staff also grew. One of the primary reasons of this burden was their manual record and management system that was consuming too much time with reduced efficiency. Under such circumstances, the staff was not being able to cater their Patients appropriate. To overcome this constraint and increase the efficiency of the staff of the healthcare facility, it is important that the healthcare facility owners must consider the implementation of an automated information management system.

Problem Statement

The healthcare facility needs to enhance their efficiency and patient experience by implementing an automated Information management system.

Proposed Recommendation

To address the problem, it is recommended that the healthcare facility must implement the ‘Management Information System’ (MIS) that specifically focus on Patient Relationship Management (PRM).

Significance of MIS

Management information systems encompass all the computer systems and networks that organizations use to track their operations (Rainer et al. 2013). Throughout the years, the extent of MIS has expanded past quite recently alluding to accounting applications, and it now covers the full scope of business intelligence applications and can likewise incorporate the equipment that runs them and the staff that keeps them working (Rainer et al. 2013).

Management information systems are about business (Rainer et al. 2013). They gather and process information in a way that ought to help the companies that utilization them to better manage their resources and make development. Be that as it may, underneath the surface, MIS systems depend on science (Rainer et al. 2013). Business, then again, is every now and again given the judgment and intuition of its pioneers, regardless of the possibility that those pioneers utilize information and science to direct their decision-production. This can bring about a social detach (Rainer et al. 2013).

Extensive and complex MIS infrastructures can deal with changing organizational sizes moderately effortlessly, since the contrast between a substantial business and an extremely expensive one is negligible, in light of present circumstances (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016). At the flip side of the extreme, systems that keep running on a solitary computer for a private company can likewise serve those organizations well with apparatuses that are anything but difficult to utilize (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016). The difficulties come in the center, where an organization is changing in size and scope and might exceed its MIS programming (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016).

The force of management information systems additionally conveys the test of getting an organization's specialists to become tied up with them. Moreover, the client relationship management programs that many companies use to manage their business strengths are a fantastic case of this (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016). PRM programming permits companies to maintain extensive databases of information on each client and prospect (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016).

For management information systems to work, they require well skilled and well-learned staff. Furthermore, MIS requires business professionals who see how to utilize innovation to drive business objectives. Protecting the system running and from intruders takes server chairmen, network engineers, security experts and system support workforce (Pearlson, Saunders & Galleta, 2016).

Significance of PRM

Patient services and their efficiency level is becoming an integral part of the organizational objectives and the success measures. To stabilize the position of the organization in the target market, the managers are investing more energy, time and finances in making their Patients more satisfied and contended with the products or services being provided. In enhancing the Patient satisfaction, the role of virtualized, efficient, flexible and 24/7 available contact centers has been recognized greatly. Based on these specifications of a desirable contact center, our specialty will be the cloud contact center. However, simply deploying the cloud contact center is not enough. To add a spark and specificity to our organizational structure and Patient services, our golden nugget is the integration of elasticity and flexibility within the cloud contact center that is being set up. The reason for declaring the elasticity and flexibility feature of the cloud contact center as the golden nugget is that it enhances the services being provided for the better satisfaction of the Patients.

Patient satisfaction is thoroughly achieved and maintained by the managers only if they can maintain and manage the efficiency of the systems that enable an interactive, reliable and trustable communication between the two. This can only be achieved by the integration of cloud computing with the PRM needs and requirements. Since elasticity and flexibility is one of the key features of the cloud computing, it is easier to transform the very same into the golden nugget of the organization. Inability to meet the Patient care requirements, the organization may eventually.

Integrating the elasticity within the cloud contact centers enables the organizations to create the continent structure with several on-demand accessibility options for the Patients. Not only this, but it also enables the technical stability of the contact center by allowing them to create a shared environment of resources including the servers, storage units, services and the transparent networking options. By having such extensive, flexible and reliable features within the cloud contact centers, the organizations can achieve highest Patient satisfaction level by optimal use of the managerial and other supportive needs. In other words, the feature of elasticity enhances the optimized capabilities of the contact centers.

PRM Initiative Road Map

Before formally devising the roadmap for the PRM plan it is important to consider some important factors that include the sponsorship of the seniors, commitment of the top management, need assessment at the level of the organization and detailed cost analysis. Once done and the PRM plan is agreed to be implemented, following roadmap can be used.

Cost Assessment PRM Road Map

Element for Cost Assessment



Project Team


Project Team holds a greater importance since it is responsible for the width and breadth of the plan coordination and implementation.



During the PRM implementation, the need for new hardware is inevitable. This must be done in a competitive manner.

PRM specific Applications


Evaluate these applications for the price, efficiency, and security.

External/internal consultation


Thorough consultation throughout the planning and implementation phase is essential for quality.

Information System Support


IS support staff is needed to align the implemented PRM system.

PRM Plan Road Map

Having assessed the cost of implementation and the components of the PRM, a proper roadmap needs to be implemented that will ensure proper integration of all the current units and systems of the healthcare facility. Following is the diagrammatic representation of the road map that is designed to be implemented. Owing to the enhanced technology support and demand of abrupt response from the Patients, it is suggested to implement the PRM solution over the cloud. Since the current system is not well integrated and holds discrepancies between various non-homogenized systems, the cloud platforms will be a good option to centralize them all at once. Transacting the entire organizational systems over the virtual cloud will require a significant investment regarding hardware, security, and management; yet this one time cost will be beneficial for the long-term Patient service system and support.

Following is the suggested PRM roadmap.

Closely observing the given Roadmap, it can be noticed that it gives a well-integrated approach to all the required components of the organization. This roadmap not only supports virtualization of the existing systems but also supports the customization of applications such as iSupport and eMerchandization. Furthermore, the approach is Patient oriented and creates ease of accessibility and functionality for the naïve Patients.

Selection of the PRM System

While selecting the PRM system, it is important to consider that some of the existing applications are cloud based. Furthermore, the technology and organizational IS are progressing towards the goal of virtualization for the sake of removing demographical and geographical constraints for the organization as well as Patients. Therefore, it is ideal to implement the PRM system that greatly supports virtualization and cloud computing. Based on the idea of our roadmap and the need assessment, the ORACLE PRM suite can be chosen. Following is the diagrammatic representation of the system, which replicates our roadmap scenarios.

Implementation Process of PRM

For the proper integration, functioning and processing of any software system within the organization's existing body, it is important that it is done through proper channel and medium. Our company has a special focus on the Patient care and relations as it is believed to be one of the essential components to make the company successful and sustainable. For this purpose, we previously had a manual Patient Relation System that was dependent upon self-visits and telephonic communication with the Patients along with manual file handling and management. This was not the very appropriate and sufficient way of dealing with the Patients, and there was a grave need of system upgrade. For this purpose, the company decided to purchase new, automated Patient Relations Management (PRM) software for efficient and productive Patient management.

Now the company was concerned to adopt a medium and the approach that could help them smoothly integrate their system into the company without having any risks of failures and uncertain costs. For this purpose, various life cycle models were considered and evaluated depending upon their weaknesses and strengths. Later, one of them had to be chosen to implement and integrate the new system.

Available Choices

Following three options were considered by the company:

Iterative Development Model: The Iterative Development Model is the basic combination of the Linear and the Iterative methodologies. This methodology was designed with the principle to focus on the risk factor. That is how the risk has to be assessed and how can it be minimized. This objective is fulfilled by breaking the entire project into smaller modules and carry out them in an iterative manner so that the risk factors are assessed and weighted throughout the life cycle. Each concentric iteration represents each of the following steps: 1. Objectives, alternatives, and constraints of the iteration; 2. Identify the risks and resolve it; 3. Verifying the deliverables; 4. the next iteration.

Water Fall Model: The Waterfall model is a linear system development methodology. It works by splitting itself into sequential phases that might be overlapping or distinct. The main objective of the waterfall methodology is put a greater emphasize on the phases such as Planning, scheduling, budgeting and the implementation that has to be done once the entire cycle has been completed i.e. at the end. The Waterfall methodology has its very own strengths and weaknesses, whose evaluation can determine when it is feasible to implement it and when not to do so.

Technology Life Cycle: The respective lifecycle concentrates on the choice of technology to be implemented depending upon the requirements. It requires great research, expertise, and investments. Furthermore, it is more useful for those projects and organizations that require the high level of uniqueness, quality, creativity, novelty or security. Other than that, it only covers the technology aspect of the systems; therefore, it is inappropriate to be implemented in the respective organization for the PRM software system.

Out of these choices, the Iterative Development Model was chosen. The reason for choosing the given model is that it offers modularity, iterative and incremental integration, repeated evaluation, and iterative enhancements. It is also simple to implement and integrate within the current organizational structure, without any hardcore training and investment.

PRM Placement Life Cycle Model

The product will be implemented in a modular manner i.e. if we will replace the entire existing manual PRM at once with the PRM software, it will put a strain and stress on the understanding and productivity of the associated employees. Therefore, the new PRM system will be integrated modularly. In the first iteration, only the front-end of the PRM system will be implemented i.e. only Graphical Interphase and computer based Systems where the employees could enter the data of the Patients and produce their print outs. This will be part one of module 1. In part 2 of module 1, the risks, problems, and issues of the same module will be analyzed and removed. In part 3 of module 1, feedback and evaluation for determining the success of module 1 will be produced. And in part 4 of module 1, documentation will be produced giving a green signal to the next module.

Repeating the same steps, the system will be implemented in four modules i.e. Module 1 is Front End Implementation; Module 2 is Implementation of database to save and manipulate Patient data; Module 3 is Online system for PRM i.e. online and web-based portal, and Module 4 will be designated to implement any changes or alterations that were found in part 2 of each module. This will ensure that the entire system has been integrated without any work stress or additional pressure over the resources of the organization.

Efforts to Extend the System

In case, the company intends to extend, upgrade or enhance the new system, it will not be a challenging task and could be done through additional modules and iterations. This will involve little cost and workload for the managers.


The new system, since it is automated and integrated slowly will enhance the productivity and capacity of the current Patient relation manager. The acquisition of the new system will require the additional cost of the training of the employees, but in return, it will enable the company to acquire a 360O view of their Patients and interact with them rapidly and promptly. Assuring satisfaction of the employees will also ensure the success and sustainability of the company. Therefore, it can be said that the investment will be worth it. Furthermore, the Iterative Development Model gives another advantage here i.e. in the case of any problem or defect in any of the module; it can be caught early and removed without creating a negative impact on the change in the rest of the modules of the system. Late identification of the issues requires more cost in debugging and replacing it.

In the case of the new PRM system being implemented through Iterative Development Model, the financial investment will be only required for the acquisition of system and employee training. The cost of debugging will be reduced. Therefore, the ROI would start coming in as soon as the new PRM system is implemented and the trained employees have started working on it efficiently.

Future Considerations and Expansion of MIS System

Since the healthcare facility aims to grow and develop further in future, it is important that it must gradually adopt more efficient and productive aspects of MIS as well. PRM is one of the primary requirements for the automation of healthcare facility management system. For more efficiency, I would recommend, that the management must consider the implementation of DSS (Decision Support System) as well. The DSS is the type of MIS that helps in establishing Business Intelligence and promote better decision making for more profitability, efficiency, and optimization of the organizational processes.


Ward, J., & Peppard, J. (2016). The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Stair, R., & Reynolds, G. (2013). Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Al-Mamary, Y. H., Shamsuddin, A., & Aziati, N. (2014). The Role of Different Types of Information Systems in Business Organizations: A Review. International Journal of Research, 1(7), 333-339.

Rainer, R. K., Cegielski, C. G., Splettstoesser-Hogeterp, I., & Sanchez-Rodriguez, C. (2013). Introduction to information systems: Supporting and Transforming business. John Wiley & Sons.

Pearlson, K. E., Saunders, C. S., & Galletta, D. F. (2016). Managing and Using Information Systems, Binder Ready Version: A Strategic Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Khodakarami, F., & Chan, Y. E. (2014). Exploring the role of Patient relationship management (PRM) systems in Patient knowledge creation. Information & Management, 51(1), 27-42.

Hollensen, S. (2015). Marketing Management: A Relationship Approach. Pearson Education.

"VanguardSw." (2013). Decision Support Systems Software. Vanguard Corporation.


Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

Week 8 Discussion: Medicaid






Medicaid receives funding from the respective states, as well as from the federal government. There is a fair share of the amount which the federal government pays to each and every state of the United States of America, for the sake of funding for the Medicaid program. The share is set up according to the population, as well as the economy of the state. Moreover, the states also use a specific amount of the healthcare budget for the sake of Medicaid funding.

Medicaid program provides free health care facilities to a great number of American populations. The poor population is the most basic unit of the American society which is eligible for Medicaid funding. More specifically, low-income families are eligible to get benefits from the funding program. However, not all low-income individuals are included in the program. The poor, disabled populations, pregnant women, children of low-income families are eligible for the funding program (Sommers, & Grabowski, 2017).

Qualified Medicare beneficiary is one of the most feasible options to achieve the savings in the Medicare program. It provides the opportunity of getting hospital insurance and medical insurance. In addition to it, it also provides the opportunity of sharing expenses, in the form of coinsurance and copayments (Sommers, & Grabowski, 2017).

Medicaid cannot be funded as a block grant program, because in that the federal government pays a specific amount to all the states and they have to manage the expenses in that fixed amount. If the cost of care increases, the state would have to use its own funds to support the program. It would impact the care services provided to the low-income population, who would not be able to receive the treatment, so it is not feasible.


Sommers, B. D., & Grabowski, D. C. (2017). What is Medicaid? More than meets the eye. Jama, 318(8), 695-696.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Week 8 Reflective Journal

Add Title Here, up to 12 Words, on One to Two Lines

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Institutional Affiliation(s)

Author Note

Reflective Journal

The course of nursing and healthcare helped me gain personal knowledge and great skills. This was a very vast subject and covered a lot of areas related to healthcare that are going to help students in their professional life. As a health care professional, I can say that this course has set a strong foundation for beginners to prosper in this field. The assessments in this class were very interesting and helpful in learning about the constantly changing trend. And how we can work towards making our healthcare system better for the community. We learned about the new approaches in practicing health care. There have been a lot of new innovations in healthcare industry shifting most of the paperwork in hospitals to computers. Online appointments, online booking and free online or email consultations has been made available for patients to save time. Minor illness can now be treated over smart phone or computer using apps like Doctor on demand and online care anywhere.

We learned about the intra-professional collaboration among the staff at any health care facility. Intra-professional collaboration is evident when nurses, physicians and other staff work togetherto best of their capabilities as a team. This is done by following some standard rules i.e. communicate with each other, share opinions and ideas, provide care,help and assist one another in order toprovide the best patient care.

We learned about the current facts about the health care delivery and clinical system and how it can be improved. A lot of positive changes can be brought by providing patient-friendly, cost-effective, quality care. The whole health caredelivery and clinical systems should be focused on patients and health care professionals to make choicescoherent with this goal.

We learned about the ethical challenges that health care professionals face on daily basis and how to be prepared for them. A good health care professional is someone who can foresee any challenge coming their way and have a plan in mind to cater with situation. We conducted a number of presentations and assignments on ethical considerations in health care i.e. protecting patient’s privacy, maintaining a strong healthcare workforce, balancing the quality and efficiency of the services.

Population health concern is another area we covered during this course. The rate at which population is growing affects thedevelopment and planning of medical facilities and community health. The effect of a growing population is huge nursing and medical services as well as on hospital facilities.

We learned about the latest technologies to improve healthcare outcomes. Compiling all of the patient’s health record and information in one easily accessible record is one of the best innovation in the recent times. This method can help reduce the chances of miscommunication. Electronic prescribing is another technology that we learned about in this course which minimizes the errors by allowing doctors to prescribe medication electronically to the pharmacy. With the help of remote monitoring tools, patients are able to monitor their health at home and save time and money.

There have been a number of discussions in the class on Health policy. Not only had we learned about the health policy of our particular State, we also compared it with the rest of world’s take on health policy. Budget, finance and delivery of healthcare, quality of care and access to it, these factors combine to design health policy. CITATION Car17 \l 1033 (Sean, 2017)

Just like any other sphere of life, leadership is important in healthcare as well. Healthcare providers must become leaders so that they can bring awareness regarding health. We learned about the healthcare economic models in this course. It is essential to keep a balance between quality of the services and taking care of the patients’ financial background. A good health policy covers this matter. And lastly we learned about health disparities, how we can reduce them and eventually with good health care policies, they can be eliminated. CITATION Ama19 \l 1033 (Green, 2019)


BIBLIOGRAPHY Green, A. (2019). Reducing disparities in health care . Patient Support and advocacy , 19-25.

Sean, C. (2017). Health care technology Advances . Contiuum , 209-212.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600






Challenges that surprised me:

Prior to starting work on PICOT question and theoretical framework, I thought it would be a great challenge for me because conduction of research demands an individual to be highly skillful in both technical and non-technical terms. However, when I started working on it, finding a suitable question was the first problem that I encountered because I had many problems in mind that I vowed to address. Surprisingly, I had a hard time wrapping my head around the selection of PICOT questions that I had thought to be the easiest task. On the other hand, finding a theoretical framework was quite easy for me as I had good command over nursing and psychological theories.

Advice for the individuals writing literature review for the very first time

It is very important to explore the theoretical framework that provides the author with an appropriate framework to guide further research practices. If we are having theoretical overview in mind, finding the suitable literature article becomes easy for us. Secondly, familiarizing oneself with various research databases is another important factor that one must take into account prior to writing literature review (Eccles, 2016). Hence, I would suggest building strong theoretical knowledge and technical skills of literature search for the individuals writing literature review for the very first time.

Thoughts on theoretical knowledge guiding the practice

I had an idea that theory is the base of research and further practice but I was completely unaware of its practical glimpse. I came to know that theory is not only important for providing direction to the research but also clearing ambiguities that might hinder one’s ability to find interlink between variables (Chan et. al., 2018). Apart from practical considerations such as choosing research articles and critically analyzing them, it is important for the researcher to have sufficient theoretical knowledge about the association of different variables so that research findings could be implemented in the practice vividly.


Chan, G. K., Barnason, S., Dakin, C. L., Gillespie, G., Kamienski, M. C., Stapleton, S. (2018) Barriers and perceived needs for understanding and using research. Journal of Emergency Nursing 37, 24–31.

Eccles, M. P. (2016) Welcome to implementation science. Implementation Science 1, 1–3.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Weight Of The Nation 2

Weight of the Nation


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Weight of the Nation


World health organization has reported that obesity is the major leading condition for communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Various studies have evaluated that prevention and anticipation of obesity and obesity-related diseases should be managed in a well-organized way so that we can prevent ourselves from acquiring these disorders. Research and studies have shown that obesity is preventable with an appropriate and balanced diet and changes in sedentary lifestyles. The changes in life includes the regular habit of physical activities and also world health organization has recommended physical activity of 150 minutes per week ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2a6ie4ql95","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (Rutkow, Jones-Smith, Walters, O\\uc0\\u8217{}Hara, & Bleich, 2016)}","plainCitation":"(Rutkow, Jones-Smith, Walters, O’Hara, & Bleich, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":126,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/U8HWTW4K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/U8HWTW4K"],"itemData":{"id":126,"type":"article-journal","title":"Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States","container-title":"Journal of public health policy","page":"514-527","volume":"37","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Rutkow","given":"Lainie"},{"family":"Jones-Smith","given":"Jesse"},{"family":"Walters","given":"Hannah J."},{"family":"O’Hara","given":"Marguerite"},{"family":"Bleich","given":"Sara N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rutkow, Jones-Smith, Walters, O’Hara, & Bleich, 2016). Students and children are becoming obese in recent years as there are junk food and fast food items available openly. Research has shown that with pleasurable food items and pictures display, certain areas in the brain changes accordingly. Obesity and obesity-associated diseases are preventable with portion control and physical activity in routine life.

Weight of the Nation

In recent researches, it has been evaluated that controlled and well-organized multidisciplinary approaches and multifactorial determinants of weight gain can significantly reduce the onset of obesity among communities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"am1rgjacb5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gardner, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Gardner, 2014)"},"citationItems":[{"id":127,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/C7EU3JQB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/C7EU3JQB"],"itemData":{"id":127,"type":"article-journal","title":"Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina An Obesity Prevention Movement","container-title":"North Carolina medical journal","page":"407-412","volume":"75","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Gardner","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gardner, 2014). Females are observed to gain weight more often as compared to males however, there are variations among different ethnic groups. The significant factors that are responsible for weight reduction are balanced and controlled portion diet and physical activity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1nf25lrllm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kline et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Kline et al., 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":208,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/QMKFD3A4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/QMKFD3A4"],"itemData":{"id":208,"type":"article-journal","title":"A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America","container-title":"Obesity reviews","page":"19-27","volume":"18","author":[{"family":"Kline","given":"Lydia"},{"family":"Jones‐Smith","given":"Jessica"},{"family":"Jaime Miranda","given":"J."},{"family":"Pratt","given":"Michael"},{"family":"Reis","given":"Rodrigo S."},{"family":"Rivera","given":"Juan A."},{"family":"Sallis","given":"James F."},{"family":"Popkin","given":"Barry M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kline et al., 2017). The research has shown that physical activities improve metabolic mechanisms of the body that help in sustaining and maintaining weight even females planning to conceive requires to manage their weight to reduce gestational diabetes ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6jte8s5q6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hanson et al., 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hanson et al., 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":520,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TGFPUY4L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/TGFPUY4L"],"itemData":{"id":520,"type":"article-journal","title":"Interventions to prevent maternal obesity before conception, during pregnancy, and post partum","container-title":"The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology","page":"65-76","volume":"5","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Hanson","given":"Mark"},{"family":"Barker","given":"Mary"},{"family":"Dodd","given":"Jodie M."},{"family":"Kumanyika","given":"Shiriki"},{"family":"Norris","given":"Shane"},{"family":"Steegers","given":"Eric"},{"family":"Stephenson","given":"Judith"},{"family":"Thangaratinam","given":"Shakila"},{"family":"Yang","given":"Huixia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hanson et al., 2017).

The upsurge in obesity globally has called for prompt action in the advancement in research and preventive measures to be taken by the government or healthcare facilities to break the chain. It is important to work and collaborate as a team to take action for the prevention of obesity because of the significant upsurge in the cases. Studies have shown that the National Institute of health is spending around $800 million every year to research the discipline of obesity, prevention and its treatment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1j01n7om65","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf ({\\i{}The Weight of the Nation}, n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(The Weight of the Nation, n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":763,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AA6GXUEA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AA6GXUEA"],"itemData":{"id":763,"type":"motion_picture","title":"The Weight of the Nation: Part 2 - Choices (HBO Docs)","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"1:12:53","abstract":"Subscribe to HBO Docs: http://itsh.bo/10r45k3\n\nTo win, we have to lose. The four-part HBO Documentary Films series, The Weight of The Nation explores the obesity epidemic in America. \n\nHBO Docs on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hbodocs\nHBO Docs on Twitter: https://twitter.com/HBODocs \nHBO Documentary Films homepage: http://itsh.bo/I83ODm.\nHBO Documentary Films on HBO GO® http://itsh.bo/kUIs4w.\nHBO Documentary Films on Connect: http://connect.hbo.com/documentaries\n\nCheck out other HBO Channels\nHBO: http://www.youtube.com/hbo\nGame of Thrones: http://www.youtube.com/GameofThrones \nTrue Blood: http://www.youtube.com/trueblood \nHBO Sports: http://www.youtube.com/HBOsports \nReal Time with Bill Maher: http://www.youtube.com/RealTime \nCinemax: http://www.youtube.com/Cinemax \nHBO Latino: http://www.youtube.com/HBOLatino\n\nThe Weight of the Nation: Part 2 - Choices (HBO Docs)\nhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLv0Vs...","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLv0Vsegmoo&list=PLVVILW-m7zH1gAQyHHgaeHy4WnmPm7g0N&index=3&t=0s","shortTitle":"The Weight of the Nation","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Weight of the Nation, n.d.). It has been observed that various companies are launching some medicines and drugs such as RDX that promises people to drop their weight significantly however, is not medically proven to reduce weight.

Metabolic activities of the body needs to be regulated as various diet-related programs are only concerned about how to reduce weight but are not helping people to sustain and maintain weight afterward ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1hjh7na316","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gardner, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Gardner, 2014)"},"citationItems":[{"id":127,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/C7EU3JQB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/C7EU3JQB"],"itemData":{"id":127,"type":"article-journal","title":"Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina An Obesity Prevention Movement","container-title":"North Carolina medical journal","page":"407-412","volume":"75","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Gardner","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gardner, 2014). Health education and promotion can significantly improve sedentary lifestyles of communities, however, it has been observed people get bored when organizations address the issues of consuming fruits and vegetables and leave junk food items from food ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1pmt17i5l9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Heymsfield & Wadden, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Heymsfield & Wadden, 2017)"},"citationItems":[{"id":765,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/476MZQ8Q"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/476MZQ8Q"],"itemData":{"id":765,"type":"article-journal","title":"Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity","container-title":"New England Journal of Medicine","page":"254-266","volume":"376","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Heymsfield","given":"Steven B."},{"family":"Wadden","given":"Thomas A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Heymsfield & Wadden, 2017). Primary healthcare nurses can significantly play an important role in educating people regarding their health issues particularly obesity.


Training and educating people regarding health issues are essentially important and a collaborative effort is required to control the communicable disease from communities to reduce disease burden. Healthcare organizations, healthcare facilities, governmental organizations, and Medicare and Medicaid companies need to collectively struggle to promote a healthy lifestyle because it is not a one day process to reduce obesity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1fubf316c3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (Bray, Fr\\uc0\\u252{}hbeck, Ryan, & Wilding, 2016)}","plainCitation":"(Bray, Frühbeck, Ryan, & Wilding, 2016)"},"citationItems":[{"id":764,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/VZTCNF7B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/VZTCNF7B"],"itemData":{"id":764,"type":"article-journal","title":"Management of obesity","container-title":"The Lancet","page":"1947-1956","volume":"387","issue":"10031","author":[{"family":"Bray","given":"George A."},{"family":"Frühbeck","given":"Gema"},{"family":"Ryan","given":"Donna H."},{"family":"Wilding","given":"John PH"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bray, Frühbeck, Ryan, & Wilding, 2016). It is time to get up and struggle to control the weight of the nation otherwise it would be late for the people and organizations to control it ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2b2o5jnb2p","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf ({\\i{}The Weight of the Nation}, n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(The Weight of the Nation, n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":763,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AA6GXUEA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/p8kwKNoG/items/AA6GXUEA"],"itemData":{"id":763,"type":"motion_picture","title":"The Weight of the Nation: Part 2 - Choices (HBO Docs)","source":"YouTube","dimensions":"1:12:53","abstract":"Subscribe to HBO Docs: http://itsh.bo/10r45k3\n\nTo win, we have to lose. The four-part HBO Documentary Films series, The Weight of The Nation explores the obesity epidemic in America. \n\nHBO Docs on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hbodocs\nHBO Docs on Twitter: https://twitter.com/HBODocs \nHBO Documentary Films homepage: http://itsh.bo/I83ODm.\nHBO Documentary Films on HBO GO® http://itsh.bo/kUIs4w.\nHBO Documentary Films on Connect: http://connect.hbo.com/documentaries\n\nCheck out other HBO Channels\nHBO: http://www.youtube.com/hbo\nGame of Thrones: http://www.youtube.com/GameofThrones \nTrue Blood: http://www.youtube.com/trueblood \nHBO Sports: http://www.youtube.com/HBOsports \nReal Time with Bill Maher: http://www.youtube.com/RealTime \nCinemax: http://www.youtube.com/Cinemax \nHBO Latino: http://www.youtube.com/HBOLatino\n\nThe Weight of the Nation: Part 2 - Choices (HBO Docs)\nhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLv0Vs...","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLv0Vsegmoo&list=PLVVILW-m7zH1gAQyHHgaeHy4WnmPm7g0N&index=3&t=0s","shortTitle":"The Weight of the Nation","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Weight of the Nation, n.d.). Various studies have shown that there is a strong association in physical activity to control weight and numerous success stories are been observed to be read online on social media regarding weight loss. Therefore, it is not impossible to achieve it as it only requires strict discipline, commitment and balance in lifestyle to maintain a healthy lifestyle.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bray, G. A., Frühbeck, G., Ryan, D. H., & Wilding, J. P. (2016). Management of obesity. The Lancet, 387(10031), 1947–1956.

Gardner, D. (2014). Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina An Obesity Prevention Movement. North Carolina Medical Journal, 75(6), 407–412.

Hanson, M., Barker, M., Dodd, J. M., Kumanyika, S., Norris, S., Steegers, E., … Yang, H. (2017). Interventions to prevent maternal obesity before conception, during pregnancy, and postpartum. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 5(1), 65–76.

Heymsfield, S. B., & Wadden, T. A. (2017). Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(3), 254–266.

Kline, L., Jones‐Smith, J., Jaime Miranda, J., Pratt, M., Reis, R. S., Rivera, J. A., … Popkin, B. M. (2017). A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America. Obesity Reviews, 18, 19–27.

Rutkow, L., Jones-Smith, J., Walters, H. J., O’Hara, M., & Bleich, S. N. (2016). Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States. Journal of Public Health Policy, 37(4), 514–527.

The Weight of the Nation: Part 2 - Choices (HBO Docs). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLv0Vsegmoo&list=PLVVILW-m7zH1gAQyHHgaeHy4WnmPm7g0N&index=3&t=0s

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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