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332 W8 Synchronous Reflection Option B

332 W8 Synchronous Reflection Option B


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

W8. Synchronous Reflection Session Option B

Emphysema and Dyspnea

Dyspnea is a common respiratory symptom which is characterized by a perception or feeling of breathlessness. Reports of Dyspnea are often influenced by the emotional state of the patient and may at times refer to a wide range of subjective perceptions by the patient. It is due to the various overlapping clinical presentations involved in dyspnea alongside other comorbid diseases, such as Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), that makes a clinical diagnostic assessment dyspnea difficult CITATION Ber161 \l 1033 (Berliner, Schneider, Welte, & Bauersachs, 2016). Moreover, dyspnea is attributed to a range of pulmonary and cardiac diseases alongside other psychological and physiological causes that produce similar symptoms. In particular, emphysema and chronic bronchitis are common conditions that lead to shortness of breath and require a careful consideration when a patient is assessed for dyspnea.

Emphysema also produces a feeling of breathlessness in the patient. It mainly results from the patient inhaling various irritants to the lungs, such as tobacco smoke, affecting the air sacs within the lungs. The condition leads to the walls which separate these tiny sacs to be damaged or in causing the air sacs to lose their stretching ability. Consequently, patients with emphysema experience chronic cough and shortness of breath. Symptoms usually take a number of years to develop and lead to high mucus production, frequent lung infections, sleep loss, weight loss, fatigue, and wheezing. The subtle aspects in which these clinical symptoms are similar with dyspnea indicates that evaluating patient outcomes in emphysema requires careful measures of dyspnea CITATION Kap08 \l 1033 (Kaplan & Ries, 2008). Other possible causes, including psychological ones, must be carefully evaluated before confirming the diagnosis of emphysema. In turn, complementing other measures of shortness of breath with emphysema assessments would lead to a more accurate diagnosis of the condition.

Pulmonary Edema

Heart failure, today, is one of the most common causes of premature death in individuals as well as a reason for poor quality of life. A deeper understanding of the effect of pulmonary venous conditions on lung function is important to determine whether the symptoms being experienced by the patient are a result of a lung or heart related disease. Pulmonary edema is a common comorbidity which occurs with heart failure, however, it is not always associated with symptoms linked to heart failure.

Various conditions can lead to the weakening of the heart’s left ventricle and eventually cause it to fail. These can include hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems, or myocardial infarction. The failure of the left ventricle severely decreases the heart’s ability to pump blood and any blood that travels into the left ventricle from the left atrium is unable to flow into the aorta. The cardiac output is reduced as a result and as the left ventricle gets further damaged, the blood continues to build up in the system CITATION Geh04 \l 1033 (Gehlbach & Geppert, 2004). Pulmonary edema results when the buildup of blood increases pressure in the left atrium and eventually in the capillaries and veins. As a result, fluid is pushed up against the walls of these capillaries. The high pressure often causes his fluid to leak out and fall into the space between the alveoli and the capillaries, effectively reducing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. The lymph system attempts to pull the leaked fluid back to lymphatic or vascular space until the flow of the fluid starts to increase the removal capacity of the lymph system. The increased flow of fluid in the alveoli and the interstitial space causes a significant increase in pulmonary edema. It is therefore important to manage the fluid overload by improving cardiac output. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of the left ventricle’s failure and pulmonary edema indicates how the two conditions are closely linked.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Berliner, D., Schneider, N., Welte, T., & Bauersachs, J. (2016). The Differential Diagnosis of Dyspnea. Deutsches Ärzteblatt international, 113(49), 834-845. doi:10.3238%2Farztebl.2016.0834

Gehlbach, B. K., & Geppert, E. (2004). The Pulmonary Manifestations of Left Heart Failure. Chest Journal, 125(2), 669-682. doi:10.1378/chest.125.2.669

Kaplan, R. M., & Ries, A. L. (2008). Health-related Quality of Life in Emphysema. American Thracic Society, 5(4), 561-566. doi:10.1513%2Fpats.200706-080ET

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

346 Community Assessment Paper

346 Community Assessment Paper



346 Community Assessment Paper

Community assessment is a process that helps the inhabitants of the community to learn about healthcare concerns and healthcare systems with the help of identification, analysis, collection, and dissemination of the information. The information about the community is inevitable for community assessment because it explains the strengths, resources, assets, and needs of the community. Community assessment is necessary because it sets the priorities and identifies the priorities based on community needs. In addition, community assessment helps to take decisions regarding the community. Decision making too is based upon the resources available to the community.

This essay will carry out an assessment on Lauderhill, Florida; the community that was developed in the late 50s. The assessment will use several topics as a guide for observational assessment.

Survey of Lauderhill Community


Lauderhill, Florida, that was developed in 1959 with roughly 100 residents covers 8.5 square miles of an area. It is located in Boward County, and its population is 71,635. Its primary co-ordinate for latitude is 26.1404 and longitude is -80.2134. The formal boundary of Lauderhill incorporates 0.05 Sq. Miles of water coupled with 8.52 Sq. Miles of land area CITATION Flo16 \l 1033 (Florida, 2016). Lauderhill is an urban area with 5,000 registered business. Lauderhill attracts people with its beautiful beaches, arts, and cultural events. Lauderhill has a lot of single-family, multi-family, and townhouse residences. In 2005, it was awarded as All America City. The city of Lauderhill is well maintained and contains several healthcare centers, educational facilities, and community centers. As far as transportation is concerned, Lauderhill provides community bus shuttle service to people who cannot afford to own a personal car.


Lauderhill secures 519th position among the largest cities of U.S.A. The population density computed as 8266 per sq. miles that means it 2715% denser than Florida and 9024% denser than national population density. The median age in Lauderhill is 35.9 which is less than that of Florida's, that is 41.6. As far as male to female ratio is concerned then for Lauderhill, it is calculated as 0.8:1. Percentage of families with kids under 18 is 44% and 74% of Lauderhill’s population speaks English and 7% speaks Spanish. 36% of Lauderhill's residents were foreign-born, 20% were born out of the state, and 2% were born outside the United States of America. The culture of Lauderhill is mixed because most of the population is foreign-born, primarily from Jamaica and the West Indies. There is a great number of baby boomers in Lauderhill, that's why it is termed as a retirement community.

Open Spaces and Amenities

The scenery of Lauderhill is lush and green, and designers, while designing the city, ensured that people get ample space and amenities for recreational activities. There is a total of 26 parks, and eight of the 26 parks were built in 33rd Terrace. These parks provide gym, tennis courts, rugby ground, walking tracks, etc. to the people residing in Lauderhill Florida. One of the parks named as Maye Francis Brooks Jenkins Park has amenities like an amphitheater, water fountain, walking/jogging tracks, playgrounds for children and benches for people CITATION Flo163 \l 1033 (Lauderhill, Parks and Facilities, 2016). There is also a number of clubs like camera club and Lauderhill chess club where people get opportunities for recreational activities.


The city provides people with bus shuttle service along with a taxi system. in addition, the road network of Lauderhill easily supports the transportation network of Lauderhill. The road network is according to the standards and was designed so systematically, that it can manage the traffic load easily in rush hours. The most interesting thing about the transportation of Lauderhill is carpooling. Carpooling system is really beneficial, especially for those people who do not own personal cars. Lauderhill's own transportation has also facilitated the residents in the best possible manner.

The condition of vehicles is also good as most of the people who own personal cars have maintained them well. The best thing about Lauderhill is that it does not have any industrial complex due to which heavy traffic is not so frequent on Lauderhill’s roads.


Survey reveals that Lauderhill is the eighth most dangerous small city in the U.S. However, the survey also revealed that owing to unsafe environment residents of Lauderhill own fortified homes. Also, Lauderhill police department has increased patrolling in both active and inactive neighborhoods. Following the increased patrolling the number of some of the minor crimes has been reduced.

Commercial Building and Areas

It has been mentioned in one of the above sections that almost 5000 registered businesses in the city. These 5000 registered businesses provided employment to almost 10,475 people. The businesses include both local businesses and international businesses like chain restaurants. A number of liquor stores can be found in Lauderhill city. Lauderhill is not an industrial city but there are a few industries in Lauderhill such as Queen Court Cosmetics, Business Buyer Toolbox, and Peterson Industries that provided employment opportunities to thousands of people living in Lauderhill.

Government Offices

There is a number of government offices in Lauderhill city that manage the administrative affairs of the city. Government departments of Lauderhill include building department, City Clerk's office, office for the public relations and cultural affairs, fire rescue department, engineering department, office for the planning and zoning, city manager's office. Each and every department has shared the responsibility to manage the affairs of Lauderhill effectively and provide its resident with a secure and better place for living CITATION Flo161 \l 1033 (Lauderhill, 2016). All the offices are public offices that mean every office has the responsibility to serve the general public in its own domain.

Health services

There are a number of hospitals in Lauderhill city. Approximately, there are 15 hospitals and 4 healthcare centers. Healthcare system of Lauderhill includes mental healthcare centers as well. As far as north-eastern and the south-eastern part of the Lauderhill are concerned, they have fewer amenities and annual income for households in these areas is less than $30,000. Due to such a low-income, more often than not these residents look for the community aid CITATION Cli13 \l 1033 (Cleveland, 2013).

The government provides benefits to these people that include Medicare and Medicaid so that these people could afford healthcare services. Most of the residents who live in these low-income areas are foreign-born, especially Jamaicans. These foreign-born communities of Lauderhill feel uncomfortable due to the communication barrier ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6oljlJj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gallo, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Gallo, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WW7MHMBI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WW7MHMBI"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"book","title":"Handbook of geriatric assessment","publisher":"Jones & Bartlett Learning","ISBN":"0-7637-3056-4","author":[{"family":"Gallo","given":"Joseph J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gallo, 2006).


The number of schools in 33rd Terrace is 21. However, the vital part is that most of the schools are private, save a few. The percentage of bachelor’s degree holders in Lauderhill is also very less i.e. 19% compared to other cities. Such a low percentage of bachelor’s degree holders owe a smaller number of technical colleges and universities in Lauderhill. As far as 33rd Terrace is concerned then there are only three schools in this area.

Residential Areas

Primarily, Lauderhill was designed as a housing community, and most of the houses are still in original shape as designed by Herbert Sadkin; the designer of Lauderhill community. Lauderhill provided people with single and multi-family houses, however, the recent development in real estate sector witnessed the construction of apartment complexes. The size of dwelling also varies, condition of the houses also varies as some of the houses are old and some are new. However, none of the old houses are up for sale or vacant.


Lauderhill has a mixed culture, however, the most common religion observed in the community is Christianity. In the vicinity of 33rd Terrace, there are around 20 churches. None of the churches is located on 33rd Terrace, however, Christian Family Center Good Shepherd is located on 33rd Terrace. Most of the people living in the community are affiliated with a religion that can be observed easily on Sundays. On Sundays, people would like to spend the day together while attending the Sunday mass in unison.


There is a reliable postal service in Lauderhill city that provide efficient, universal, and trusted delivery services. Postal service in Lauderhill has helped the business to grow. In addition, there are a number of communication services that are operational in Lauderhill that help people to communicate effectively through cellular networks or landlines. Moreover, while roaming around North West 33rd Terrace, graffiti on walls was observed that communicate to the people in a different style. Some of the graffiti was holding political symbols.


The environment of Lauderhill is normally hot and oppressive due to long summers. However, the winters are short and during winters the weather is mostly cloudy, comfortable, mostly clear and windy. The soil of Lauderhill is deep and is on the rise in freshwater marshes. In addition, the soil of Lauderhill is poorly drained. The major pollutant presents in Lauderhill’s air is Fine Particulate that is injurious for a person's health when the concentration level is high. It causes haze that reduces visibility in the air.


Albeit, Lauderhill is a really beautiful city and provides all amenities to the people that are required. However, during the survey, some problems were observed as well. The problem includes the high crime rate, dense population, poverty in some of the areas, a smaller number of schools, and some environmental threats in the form of Fine Particulate. The community of Lauderhill and especially North West 33rd Terrace seems strong; however, the health and well-being of the residents need some improvement. The improvement in the city can be observed on a daily basis and government offices are also working to alleviate poverty. Some of the issues that are mentioned in the sections above need a special care on part of the government of the city.



Cleveland, C. (2013). Community Health Needs Assessment - Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved from Cleveland Clinic: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/-/scassets/files/org/florida/about/2013-florida-chna-and-isr.ashx?la=en

Florida, L. (2016). City Profile, Lauderhill, Florida.

Gallo, J. J. (2006). Handbook of geriatric assessment. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lauderhill, F. (2016). Parks and Facilities. Retrieved from City of Lauderhill, Florida: https://www.lauderhill-fl.gov/parks-recreation/parks-list-view2

Lauderhill, F. (2016). POLICE DEPARTMENT, Lauderhill, Florida.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

346 W10 Journal H

346 W10 Journal H

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Food insecurity is a serious issue in the US due to which the prevalence of malnutrition is increasing at an alarming rate. Malnutrition is a condition that develops from not getting enough micronutrients, calories, or protein. It can either be established from nutrient’s overconsumption or nutrient’s deficiency. The homeless population of Lauderhill, Florida, is severely suffering from hunger and malnutrition, which needs special consideration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a teaching plan to address the serious issue of malnutrition for the population of Lauderhill.

Purpose: The purpose of this teaching plan is to determine various factors that contribute to malnutrition in the homeless population of Lauderhill. Consideration of these factors will allow developing a plan to cater to various health complications related to hunger and malnutrition. Moreover, it will provide better insight regarding malnutrition and its behavioral impact on the target population.

The goal of teaching/learning experience (HP 2020 goal statement): Understanding of key dimensions of malnutrition in the homeless population to propose better intervention plan.

Cultural characteristics (primary or secondary) related to the learning needs of the client group: In the considered case of malnutrition issues in the homeless population of Lauderhill, majority of the target population is comprised of African Americans. The dietary preference of African Americans is associated with cultural influence and necessity. It is notable to mention that the prevalence of fried food is higher in African Americans as compared to the general population of Lauderhill. Cooking various foods with rich gravies is prominent in the target population, which can lead to over-malnutrition.

Objectives (minimum of three)

Learning Domain (Cognitive, Affective, or Psychomotor)

Learning Content

Instructional Methods and Time Allotted

Method of Instruction: Teaching Tools

Evidence-Based Resources Used for this Topic

Methods Used to Evaluate Learning

Cognitive learning domain: Cognitive learning domain is established as the one necessary form to apprehend the better idea of learning in case of the target population. This specific approach can be used in the teaching context of teaching to attain better forms of factual knowledge.

Selection of Comprehension as the objective of cognitive domain: This particular objective is considered to successfully achieve the level of comprehension in the case of learners. This level of the cognitive domain is used to expect someone to be able to understand the entire learning scenario.

Consideration of the prospect of apprehension can be feasible to enhance the understanding level in case of a particular issue of malnutrition that specifically exists in case of homeless African American community.

The homeless population is more likely to suffer from multifactorial etiologies. Consideration of these multifactorial etiologies illustrates that the target population can suffer from malnutrition, poverty, and mental illness. It is notable to mention that the cognitive behavior of a homeless individual is significantly impacted due to their contemporary issue of homelessness. Majority of the homeless population of Lauderhill is comprised of adult African Americans, so they are more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety.

Malnutrition is a condition that occurs due to the deficiency or overconsumption of nutrients. There are two main types of malnutrition; under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Under-nutrition is caused by not getting a sufficient amount of calories, protein, and carbohydrates. While over-nutrition is caused through excessive intake of nutrients. In that particular scenario, the amount of nutrients usually exceeds than the necessary requirement needed for metabolism and development.

Audience response system will be developed within a month to ensure the rapid feedback from the concerned individuals.

Development of an audience response system to identify the actual concerns of the target population.

Point of care resources is used to address the issue of homelessness and malnutrition in the target population. The point of care resources is comprised of relevant articles and guideline to improve quality of life.

Ask various questions to see whether the target population understand cognitive complications regarding homelessness and malnutrition or not.

Bloom’s Taxonomy is the theoretical approach that is used to effectively determine the most suitable objective in the context of psychomotor objectives. This specific approach comprised of different physical activities that play a crucial role in the process of learning.

The particular objective of coordination in case of psychomotor perspective will be used to enhance the learning level.

Selection of the coordination eventually helps to develop physical coordinate plans when it comes to adopting practical options in dealing with the homeless group of people.

Thoughts and feelings have the potential to influence the behavior of the individual. The homeless population is vulnerable to various affective disorders. The affective disorders in homeless person include depression and bipolar disorder. The bipolar disorder has the potential to cause unusual mood swings and shifts in activity levels. Therefore, homeless people are prone to have trouble concentrating or feeling empty and worried.

Symptoms: The symptoms of under-nutrition include;

Inability to concentrate

Irritability and tiredness

Lack of interest or appetite for food

Loss of muscle mass and fat

The long duration of wounds to heal

Always feeling cold

The Symptoms of over-nutrition include;

Type 2 diabetes


Heart problems

Hair loss



High blood pressure

The maximum time range of two months will be provided to develop comprehensive open educational resource (OER) in the form of developing all the relevant activities such as publishing relevant learning material.

Offering open educational resource (OER) is a suitable instructional method approach to achieve the objective of the psychomotor domain of learning.

Clinical practice guidelines include recommendations to improve patient care. Clinical practice guidelines regarding malnutrition help to improve patient outcomes.

Ask patients to restate various psychomotor disorders in their own words

The affective domain is another aspect of consideration to figure out the prevalence of the issue of homelessness effectively. It is the explanation of the practical measures that can be helpful to emotionally understand the intensity of the issue of homeless African American target population.

Receiving is the first and crucial objective in the context of the affective domain to achieve the desired targets of learning.

It is recognized as the first stage of learning to convince target population to listen to the actual aspect of concern carefully.

The homeless population of Lauderhill is prone towards Psychomotor agitation, which is a serious psychological issue. Psychomotor have the potential to affect neurological functions or mental health of an individual. It is notable to mention that a feeling of anxious restlessness is higher in the homeless population, which needs special consideration.


The major reason behind under-nutrition is lack of nutrients. It is important to mention that a poor diet can contribute to malnutrition issues. Moreover, individuals health complications regarding absorption of nutrition from food can also contribute towards malnutrition.

The instructional method in the form of immediate feedback can develop within the time period of two weeks to ensure the immediate response to actual concern in case of the target population.

Application of immediate feedback assessment technique to involve the target population in the learning process.

Literature databases are usually developed to assess the quality of care regarding malnutrition in the target population.

Observation of return demonstration is an effective evaluation tool that helps to recognize the understanding of patients.


Alamy, M., & Bengelloun, W. A. (2012). Malnutrition and brain development: an analysis of the effects of inadequate diet during different stages of life in rat. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(6), 1463-1480.

Kaiser, M. J., Bauer, J. M., Rämsch, C., Uter, W., Guigoz, Y., Cederholm, T., & Tsai, A. C. (2010). Frequency of malnutrition in older adults: a multinational perspective using the mini nutritional assessment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(9), 1734-1738.

Laus, M. F., Duarte Manhas Ferreira Vales, L., Braga Costa, T. M., & Sousa Almeida, S. (2011). Early postnatal protein-calorie malnutrition and cognition: a review of human and animal studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(2), 590-612.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

346 W11 Discussion Post

346 W11 Discussion Post

Author name


Today Miami is facing serious climate changes that have resulted in an increased temperature and changed weather patterns. These changes have also resulted in Sea-Level Rise (SLR). SLR is a threat to community health as it leads to saltwater imposition to freshwater levels. High-quality drinking water is essential for preserving one's health and quality of life. These rising sea levels are offering potentialintimidations to human health ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g3zjwrei","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jamshidi, Niksokhan, Ardestani, & Jaberi, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Jamshidi, Niksokhan, Ardestani, & Jaberi, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2625,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZUXLP9VW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZUXLP9VW"],"itemData":{"id":2625,"type":"article-journal","title":"Enhancement of surface water quality using trading discharge permits and artificial aeration","container-title":"Environmental earth sciences","page":"6613-6623","volume":"74","issue":"9","author":[{"family":"Jamshidi","given":"Shervin"},{"family":"Niksokhan","given":"Mohammad Hossein"},{"family":"Ardestani","given":"Mojtaba"},{"family":"Jaberi","given":"Haleh"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jamshidi, Niksokhan, Ardestani, & Jaberi, 2015). These are not only causing different diseases but also causes other harms such as flooding.

Saltwater imposition in Miami has affected the quality of drinking water for hundreds of inhabitants. Sea level rises to cause an increase in soil saturation resulting in the development of pressure on drainage canals and infrastructure. Duringperiods of intense rainfall, the pressure causes cracks in sewer and drinking water lines. All these results in the conscription of fecal coliform bacteria and other impurities. These eventually affect community health and put them at the risk of life-threatening infections.

This environmental threat can be addressed with nursing efforts. Firstly, they can play their role by spreading awareness related to the quality of water. They can be part of different community-based programs to guide communities about the proactive strategies that can be taken to avoid any disease due to the low quality of water such as vaccination ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"K9knLOmk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(AnAaker, Nilsson, Holmner, & Elf, 2015)","plainCitation":"(AnAaker, Nilsson, Holmner, & Elf, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2624,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/5KNVZ4GM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/5KNVZ4GM"],"itemData":{"id":2624,"type":"article-journal","title":"Nurses’ perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study","container-title":"Journal of advanced nursing","page":"1883-1891","volume":"71","issue":"8","author":[{"family":"AnAaker","given":"Anna"},{"family":"Nilsson","given":"Maria"},{"family":"Holmner","given":"AAsa"},{"family":"Elf","given":"Marie"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (AnAaker, Nilsson, Holmner, & Elf, 2015). Moreover, they can guide people about water consumptions and checking the quality of water. If there is low quality of water found in any test, no one should consume it and search for other alternatives ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aOYtivoz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jamshidi et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Jamshidi et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2625,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZUXLP9VW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/ZUXLP9VW"],"itemData":{"id":2625,"type":"article-journal","title":"Enhancement of surface water quality using trading discharge permits and artificial aeration","container-title":"Environmental earth sciences","page":"6613-6623","volume":"74","issue":"9","author":[{"family":"Jamshidi","given":"Shervin"},{"family":"Niksokhan","given":"Mohammad Hossein"},{"family":"Ardestani","given":"Mojtaba"},{"family":"Jaberi","given":"Haleh"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jamshidi et al., 2015). In addition, nurses should check patients for possible systems of infections from water consumption and treat them accordingly. Thousands of people are dying as a result of diarrhea and other water-borne diseases. Therefore, nurses should guide people about this disease and possible prevention strategies.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY AnAaker, A., Nilsson, M., Holmner, Aa., & Elf, M. (2015). Nurses’ perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(8), 1883–1891.

Jamshidi, S., Niksokhan, M. H., Ardestani, M., & Jaberi, H. (2015). Enhancement of surface water quality using trading discharge permits and artificial aeration. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(9), 6613–6623.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W11 Discussion Response

346 W 11 Discussion Response

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W 11 Discussion Response

Miami is the cultural and financial center of South Florida yet still there is an environmental issue that is unaddressed. This issue is the storage of radioactive waste under Miami drinking water. Radioactive wastes are usually the byproducts of nuclear fission or nuclear technology. They are extremely hazardous to health as these waste products decay over a long time and need a separate place having proper disposal facilities. However, due to the mismanagement, these byproducts are dumped into the drinking water of the people (Lutze & Ewing, 1988).

Exposure to any radioactive material is one of the major sources of cancers and other skin disease yet drinking the water contaminated with radioactive materials byproduct is alarming (Samant & Pandey, 2018). However, a group of activists known as “citizens allied for safe energy” tried to fight against authorities by filing a petition to stop the nuclear waste disposal and succeeded yet still there is no check and balance on this issue and no proper disposal place is built to ensure the safety of citizens.

Response 1: Dear Amanda in your post you have highlighted some great points I also agree that skin cancer is one of the major concerns in the US. Although different seminars are conducted to spread awareness about this disease yet still most of the people are unaware of the actual cause and prevention of this disease. I think that nurses play an important role in managing patients having cancers. It is, therefore, necessary that nurses know about what advice they should give to their patients regarding this issue. Also, community nurses need to spread awareness among people on the prevention of skin cancer.

Response 2: Dear Ashley in your post you mentioned about the issue that every citizen of Florida is facing that is mosquitoes. I also agree with you as due to these mosquitoes people are at severe risk of getting sick. I think that nurses can play an important part in preventing this issue as they are the ones who are directly in contact with patients and their attendants. They can spread awareness regarding this issue and can tell about different precautionary measures that can be taken to avoid getting sick.


Lutze, W., & Ewing, R. C. (1988). Radioactive waste forms for the future.

Samant, M., Pandey, S. C., & Pandey, A. (2018). Impact of Hazardous Waste Material on Environment and Their Management Strategies. In Microbial Biotechnology in Environmental Monitoring and Cleanup (pp. 175-192). IGI Global.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W12 Cultural Diversity And Values

346 W12 Cultural Diversity and Values

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Deserving and Undeserving Population Regarding Type 2 Diabetes


A critical consideration is required to determine the deserving and undeserving population regarding health care services. In the modern world, determining vulnerable population is becoming difficult for healthcare officials. Limited resources and services are needed to be used in an effective manner to provide efficient health care services for a community. A vulnerable population is referred as poor, chronically ill, mentally retarded, medically underserved, and the one with disabilities (Ferguson, 2007). It is important to find out the difference between deserving and undeserving population regarding type 2 diabetes. Critical consideration of both populations will provide better insight to develop healthcare policies for the deserving and undeserving population. Here, the focus is to critically determine the deserving population regarding type 2 diabetes to provide them with effective treatment.


Distinguish deserving population from undeserving population is necessary for health officials to provide suitable health care services for the deserving population. The deserving population is the one with premature birth, cancer, and mental disability etc. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is high in such a population, which needs to be catered. It is important to mention that the deserving population is genetically suffering from various health complications. Deserving population in the case of type 2 diabetes includes population who has inheritance disorders and impaired glucose tolerance. It is evident that gene mutations are linked with type 2 diabetes. Family history of type 2 diabetes is more likely to influence newborns due to gene mutation (Gloyn & McCarthy, 2001). In the considered case of type 2 diabetes, the deserving population also includes people with impaired glucose tolerance. Naturally, some individuals have a higher blood glucose level which results in type 2 diabetes. Population with impaired glucose tolerance is highly susceptible to type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is safe to say that deserving population in the considered case of type 2 diabetes include the one with inheritance disorders and impaired glucose tolerance.

On the other hand, it is essential to determine the undeserving population regarding type 2 diabetes to make a proper healthcare assessment in this regard. Type 2 diabetes in the United States is highly associated with physical inactivity and dietary choices. It is important to mention that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in physically inactive individuals. Lifestyle choices play a significant role in controlling the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Lack of exercise is a serious issue regarding type 2 diabetes as it increases the cholesterol level in individual if they are unable to digestion their diet through adequate exercise. In addition, inadequate dietary choices are also responsible to increase the susceptibility of type 2 diabetes in an individual. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages often increases the BMI of an individual. Individuals with BMI 25 and higher are more vulnerable to type 2 diabetes as compared to those with less BMI. Inadequate diet choices can lead to obesity, which can increase the chances of type 2 diabetes. Healthcare officials need to establish a screening process to determine the reason behind type 2 diabetes in an individual. Chromosomal genetic tests and molecular test provide reliable data to determine the cause of type 2 diabetes in an individual.


In a nutshell, it is critical to establish that identification of the deserving and underserving populations need to identify to ensure the proper implications of all the available resources. The healthcare sector is responsible to timely determine about the prospects of deserving and undeserving populations to effectively implement healthcare structure. Application of prior screening is one useful practical measure to make inferences about the population that requires healthcare services on a priority basis.


Ferguson, C. C. (2007). Barriers to serving the vulnerable: thoughts of a former public official. Health Affairs, 26(5), 1358-1365.

Gloyn, A. L., & McCarthy, M. I. (2001). The genetics of type 2 diabetes. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 15(3), 293-308.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

346 W12 Discussion Reply

364 W12 Discussion Reply



346 W12 Discussion Reply


Hey Shania, I have to say I couldn’t agree more with what you suggested in the post. The homeless children with Type 2 diabetes certainly are the most deserving population in this regard. Given the hike in insulin prices in the past couple of years and the rise of the death toll among those suffering from diabetes, all, because they were rationing their supply, is despicable. These individuals, much like the homeless children are faultless in this area and should have access to what they need ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eyUowyrT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Prasad, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Prasad, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":496,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/54T9JDS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/54T9JDS2"],"itemData":{"id":496,"type":"webpage","title":"The human cost of insulin in America - BBC News","URL":"https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-47491964","author":[{"family":"Prasad","given":"Ritu"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,14]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Prasad, 2019). However, giving insulin to an obese patient suffering from type 2 diabetes, especially if poor lifestyle was what lead to obesity in the first place would be similar to giving new liver to an alcoholic, he is only going to ruin another liver through extensive drinking. Again, I would have to agree with your statement regarding everyone has the right to access to medication. However, that right does become subject in case of shortage of the said medication.


Hey Vanessa, I must say that you make some excellent points there. In my opinion, the idea of deserving vs. undeserving is truly subjective, given the situation at hand. While it is true that everyone has an equal right to healthcare services and they should be able to receive them whether they are obese, alcoholic, or have a history of drug abuse. However, when there is a shortage of medical supplies that can treat Type 2 Diabetes, I believe that the most deserving population in this regard would be the one that has the very best odds of survival. Here, the cost would become inconsequential and availability will take precedence, whether it is for an alcoholic drug abuser or a homeless five-year-old. Since there will be ample medication to go around, everyone will receive some ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gQ8QBmfX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brody, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Brody, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":498,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/J8KXJBJ2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/J8KXJBJ2"],"itemData":{"id":498,"type":"webpage","title":"The Cost of Not Taking Your Medicine - The New York Times","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/17/well/the-cost-of-not-taking-your-medicine.html","author":[{"family":"Brody","given":"Jane"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",4,17]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",8,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brody, 2017).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brody, J. (2017, April 17). The Cost of Not Taking Your Medicine—The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/17/well/the-cost-of-not-taking-your-medicine.html

Prasad, R. (2019, March 14). The human cost of insulin in America—BBC News. Retrieved August 9, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-47491964

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W14 Discussion

346 W 14 Discussion

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W 14 Discussion

Despite being the tourist destination Miami also has some real life-threatening health issues that are often neglected. Although the government and many health care facilities have joined hands to prevent and cure chronic diseases yet there still are many diseases that needed attention. One such disease that require attention is Diabetes. It is the fifth deadliest disease in the US. According to the survey conducted by the health council organization in 2008, the death ratio due to diabetes in Miami-Dade was highest than any other city in Florida (“Statistics About Diabetes | ADA,” n.d.).

Diabetes can be described as a metabolic disease in which the blood sugar level of the person increases. Diabetes is of two types that are Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. In Type 1 the body loses its ability to make insulin while in Type 2 although the body produces insulin yet still the cells in the body do not respond to it effectively. Several reasons increase the risk factor of getting diabetes one such factor is obesity (American Diabetes Association, 2010).

It is necessary to spread awareness among people through community health education program about maintaining a healthy lifestyle to prevent diabetes. As research shows that changing lifestyle can help in preventing and delaying of diabetes. This happens because a balanced diet will help improve weight problems and by having a controlled weight the chances of getting diabetes will decrease significantly. Also, events like free diagnosis camps should be organized so that most people can get benefit from it. Diabetes is a common ailment in some families it is important to regularly check the blood sugar and engage in physical activities while maintaining a healthy lifestyle to control the disease.

To meet the health needs of patients a patient-centered approach is recommended. According to this approach a comprehensive plan regarding preventing the side effects caused by diabetes should be included. As patients with diabetes have an increased risk of getting cardiovascular diseases so it is important to prevent smoking, address blood pressure as well as lipids control and weight management to avoid any further issues.


American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 33(Supplement 1), S62-S69.

Statistics About Diabetes | ADA. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2019, from https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W14 Discussion Responses

346 W14 Discussion Responses

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W14 Discussion Responses

Reply to Jacob’s Post

Hello Jacob, your post was very enlightening and helped me look at drug abuse from a different perspective. After reading the post I can tell it is well researched and every important aspect of heroin users is being explored. I like that the column starts by discussing how the number of heroin users has increased over time and it is evident that new techniques need to be used to raise awareness. I agree with you here, people have built immunity against support groups and other means of help that is being provided. Addiction can be difficult, the focus of the post about the diseases that come with dirty syringe usage is a great way to raise awareness (Niculescu et al., 2015). I like your contemporary take on how the restriction of syringes is only going to make addicts deviate from the safer way of doing recreational drugs. If we cannot stop addicts immediately, then we can make the policies more relaxed so at least drug related activities can be made less dangerous and health problems can be reduced.

Reply to Kell’s Post

I agree with you a 100% Kell, even I have been a victim of eating contaminated food. God knows the aftermath and the toll it takes on one's body. I appreciate the fact that your post explores the ongoing health issues that are associated with unclean food. I like that you talked not just about human but animal health as well. I am someone who is very passionate about wildlife and contaminated food not only impacts humans but animals as well. One of the major positives of this column is that it reflects on the seriousness associated with the issue, this problem can even result in death. The way you have talked about the challenges associated with this issue with the help of well-researched evidence makes it more effective (Wright & Kelly, 2017). The idea that you are pitching to bring a significant change is practical and easily achievable. Indeed the smallest details like washing of the hands, using gloves and checking the temperature of the food while cooking can bring the biggest change. The post ties everything nicely by talking about the need for staying up to date regarding the data on emerging bacteria and toxins, which can help in keeping the community healthy in the long-run.


Niculescu, I., Paraschiv, S., Paraskevis, D., Abagiu, A., Batan, I., Banica, L., & Otelea, D. (2015). Recent HIV-1 outbreak among intravenous drug users in Romania: evidence for cocirculation of CRF14_BG and subtype F1 strains. AIDS research and human retroviruses, 31(5), 488-495.

Wright, S. L., & Kelly, F. J. (2017). Plastic and human health: a micro issue?. Environmental science & technology, 51(12), 6634-6647.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W6. Tajah's Discussion Post Response

Tajah's Discussion Post Response




Tajah's Discussion Post Response

Tajah has composed the discussion post in quite an impressive and interactive manner. She has perfectly highlighted the importance of educating the general public about healthcare, personal hygiene, care and disease prevention, instead of only focusing on disease or healthcare treatment. One of the most important flaws of the healthcare system in almost all parts of the world is that it is only focusing on providing the treatment to the ailing patients, instead of focusing on creating awareness and educating people about how they can stay healthy and protected against the diseases.

Tajah has talked in her discussion post that almost all of the financial budget is being used in efforts of providing treatment. I completely agree with the point that it would have been much better if even half of the budget would have spent in educating the people about disease prevention. Education and awareness about disease prevention are greatly important because of the fact that it would help the general community to focus on their health in a natural way (World Health Organization, 2010). They would not have to use the medication, which is costly in itself and would also not have to face the side effects, even if minimal. The hefty budget which is used in drug manufacturing and pharmaceutical industry would have been saved for making people more knowledgeable about how they can stay healthy, avoid being sick and forced to take medication (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2010).

Tajah's description of determinants of health and human behavior which causes interlinked diseases and physical suffering clearly points to the need of governments' policies, focused on disease prevention, instead of on disease treatment. In addition to it, she has also mentioned that the healthcare insurance plans do not cover the whole cost of medical expense, which also highlights the importance of controlling diseases, instead of spending millions of dollars on patients in the hospitals.


Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010, August 27). Determinants of Health. Retrieved from Healthy People.gov: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health

World Health Organization. (2010, May 10). The determinants of health. Retrieved from Health Impact Assessment: https://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W7 Hamilton's Discussion Response

Hamilton's discussion response

Author name


The incidence and relentlessness of natural disasters are snowballing across the World. The severity of the disaster is reliant on the healthcare system’s capability to retort damaged. For this purpose, different disaster management plans can be formed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wKFVX6Lk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Smolowitz et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Smolowitz et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2424,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/8U2TLL7J"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/8U2TLL7J"],"itemData":{"id":2424,"type":"article-journal","title":"Role of the registered nurse in primary health care: Meeting health care needs in the 21st century","container-title":"Nursing Outlook","page":"130-136","volume":"63","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Smolowitz","given":"Janice"},{"family":"Speakman","given":"Elizabeth"},{"family":"Wojnar","given":"Danuta"},{"family":"Whelan","given":"Ellen-Marie"},{"family":"Ulrich","given":"Suzan"},{"family":"Hayes","given":"Carolyn"},{"family":"Wood","given":"Laura"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Smolowitz et al., 2015). However, these plans cannot be successful without the effective role of public health nurses in these plans. These nurses have an effective role in enhancing population health in the United States. They manage and provide care, identify and examine the impact of diseases as well as promote wellness. These are registered nurses (RNs) and experts in their fields who develop close bonds within the communities they assist.

Moreover, they have different roles to play in the communities such as disease prevention specialist, community educator, researcher as well as an advocator. The most important role is program planning and policy development. They play this role to support the health of communities, families as well as individuals. They have all sort of information and they provide that information to health planners and policymakers.

In case of any disaster in the communities, they react to immediate requirements of the exaggerated population. They play the role of researchers here and conduct an assessment to categorize the urgent needs of the population ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"cHh8ODHR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kemppainen, Tossavainen, & Turunen, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Kemppainen, Tossavainen, & Turunen, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2423,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/PPYS3X4B"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/PPYS3X4B"],"itemData":{"id":2423,"type":"article-journal","title":"Nurses' roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review","container-title":"Health Promotion International","page":"490-501","volume":"28","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Kemppainen","given":"Virpi"},{"family":"Tossavainen","given":"Kerttu"},{"family":"Turunen","given":"Hannele"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kemppainen, Tossavainen, & Turunen, 2013). For example, in case of outbreak of Cryptosporidium parasite, they can provide information about the emerging patterns of the disease. They can use their clinical knowledge as well as their strong bond with the communities they serve in planning and implementing programs and policies to fulfill the requirements of exposed populations. They can plan interventions timely and reduce the symptoms of the disease in an effective manner. Then they will also be able to communicate their health and illness experiences of patients to the health planners and policymakers in order to design effective policies.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K., & Turunen, H. (2013). Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), 490–501.

Smolowitz, J., Speakman, E., Wojnar, D., Whelan, E.-M., Ulrich, S., Hayes, C., & Wood, L. (2015). Role of the registered nurse in primary health care: Meeting health care needs in the 21st century. Nursing Outlook, 63(2), 130–136.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W7 Martine's Response

346 W7 Martine's Response

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W7 Martine's Response

Martine offers a critical appraisal of nurses’ contribution to epidemiology. They play an instrumental role to formulate policies to prevent diseases, infections and remove loopholes in the system. The post further underpins the essential contribution made by epidemiologist nurse in the framework of research. For instance, these nurses collaborate with communities to conceive interventions and reduce the impact of the menace. All of these aspects are productive for ensuring sound and sustainable health of patients. The bottom line is that it is the fundamental obligation of each nurse regardless of the specialized framework.

In addition, the post successfully conveyed the information pertinent to the significance of nurse epidemiologist for patient’s recovery, safety and advancement in the research process. I thoroughly commend the post for highlighting prominent issues and enlightening readers. However, an expanded description of nurse epidemiologist would have added to the knowledge base of readers. The primary focus of nurse epidemiologist is preventing the disease instead of treating infections. Boosting public health and protecting other members or co-workers from attracting infections are their objectives in most of the cases. Research study reveals training is the defining component of competency and outcome of the nurse epidemiologist. The nature of the job involves diverse settings as lab, office or an exam room. Thus, education and training ought to be conducted in a seasoned manner under the supervision of healthcare professionals ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"M0trmhky","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Barnard, 1982)","plainCitation":"(Barnard, 1982)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":843,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/TT9G6IPN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/TT9G6IPN"],"itemData":{"id":843,"type":"article-journal","title":"The occupational health nurse's contribution to epidemiology","container-title":"Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health","page":"172-175","volume":"8","source":"JSTOR","archive":"JSTOR","abstract":"Epidemiologie studies usually require a team approach. The value of involving occupational health nurses in epidemiologie studies is the basis of this paper. Examples of epidemiologie studies to which nurses have contributed substantially are presented. The trained occupational health nurse who is responsible for a defined population of workpeople has a unique position in the workplace. Her (or his) training and experience as an observer, and knowledge of toxicology and environmental health effects, should enable her (or him) to identify groups of workers requiring specific health monitoring and surveys and to assist in epidemiologie studies. The potential contribution of the occupational health nurse to the work of the team conducting epidemiologie surveys, or as an independent health practitioner undertaking studies on her own, is discussed. Better opportunities for training should be made available in order for the occupational health nurse to contribute to epidemiologie studies in the workplace.","ISSN":"0355-3140","author":[{"family":"Barnard","given":"Jennifer M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1982"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Barnard, 1982).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnard, J. M. (1982). The occupational health nurse’s contribution to epidemiology. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 8, 172–175. Retrieved from JSTOR.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W7. Ashley Response

Ashley response

Author name


Critical thinking is very important for nurses along with clinical skills. For nurses, it refers to their ability of clinical decision-making in a logical manner using the reasoning process. This critical thinking also requires them to adhere to intellectual standards. They are always an integral part of the interdisciplinary team and are required to use critical thinking for prioritizing and making key decisions to save patients’ lives (RegisteredNursing.org, 2019). For example, in the case of the outbreak at Watersedge, nurses were required not only to provide patients with necessary medication and care but also collect some data and make decisions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5dq1p5ks","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stanhope & Lancaster, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Stanhope & Lancaster, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2437,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/BAR25MEF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/BAR25MEF"],"itemData":{"id":2437,"type":"book","title":"Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing-E-Book","publisher":"Elsevier Health Sciences","ISBN":"0-323-44381-8","author":[{"family":"Stanhope","given":"Marcia"},{"family":"Lancaster","given":"Jeanette"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2018). They were also responsible for prioritizing the patients’ needs and do the needful that can reduce the symptoms in the community. All these tasks were requiring the use of critical thinking by nurses.

Moreover, nurses are also required to provide valuable information to health planners and policymakers as they have a close association with patients in different settings. They are the best resource of information for policymakers. They not only provide information but also apply their critical thinking in analyzing the problems and devising different solutions.

Furthermore, they also advocate for the client in different interdisciplinary client care conferences. The purpose of these conferences is to provide a platform for different professions and departments so they can converse and resolve complex patient care problems (RegisteredNursing.org, 2019). Nurses use their critical thinking skills and advocate on behalf of patients. In addition, they are also a source of linkage among other members of the team. During discussions, they require group skills such as negotiation, compromise and conflict resolution along with critical thinking (RegisteredNursing.org, 2019). Their critical thinking enables them to listen considerately to the opinions and plans of others in order to negotiate the finest plan of care for patients.


RegisteredNursing.org. (2019). Collaboration with Interdisciplinary Team: NCLEX-RN. Retrieved from https://www.registerednursing.org/nclex/collaboration-interdisciplinary-team/

Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2018). Foundations for population health in community/public health nursing (5th ed.) St Louis: Elsevier

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

346 W8 Tajah And Ashley Responses

346 W8 Tajah And Ashley Responses

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W8 Tajah And Ashley Responses

Response to Tajah’s Post

Despite mass awareness movements, deaths related to smoking-related illnesses are increasing with every passing year. Every year in the USA, more than 480,000 people lose their lives due to illnesses and diseases that they had contracted due to smoking (Gallus, Ghislandi & Muttarak, 2015). Smoking is responsible for 1 in 5 deaths in the USA (Gallus, Ghislandi & Muttarak, 2015). Smoking accounts for causing more deaths than alcohol, car accidents, HIV, gun violence, and drug addiction. Smoking harms every organ of the human body. Smoking affects the lungs, heart, mouth, and skin (Gallus, Ghislandi & Muttarak, 2015). Cancer is the worse disease that smoking can cause. .According to a report published by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, smoking leads the chart of a preventable cause of death. Tajah has rightly demanded to declare all products that use tobacco illegal. Tajah rightly argues that if the government has declared other drugs illegal to use, possess and sell, then why the government is yet to ban tobacco and all other products that use it. Bearing the fact in mind, smoking accounts for more deaths than any other drug. While smoking proves detrimental for first-hand smokers, it also has serious implications for passive smokers (Gallus, Ghislandi & Muttarak, 2015). Passive smokers are the people that inhale the smoke unwittingly coming out of the mouth of an active smoker. Certainly, the rights of passive smokers are undermined because they have the freedom to do what they want. However, active smokers are making them live in an environment in which their ability to exercise their freedom of choice is undermined. Furthermore, there is a strong argument from the smokers' community regarding an embargo on tobacco products that it is tantamount to undermining their rights. Tajah has rightfully quashed their argument saying that in such case all drugs would have been legal to use. The government must act now and consider living in a safer and healthy environment as a fundamental human right. Additionally, the government must act to provide a safer environment for the generations that are yet to come.

Response to Ashley’s Post

American society has been known to be addicted to some of the most injurious substance over the years, and tobacco is one of them. There are serious health implications that result from the consumption of tobacco. The worst disease one can imagine is cancer that can be caused by the consumption of tobacco (Stanton et.al, 2016). Apart from cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lungs diseases, and numerous other dreadful complications come along smoking (Stanton et.al, 2016). While it is shocking to see why the government has not been able to place a ban on the manufacturing and distribution of the tobacco, it is evident that government is receiving billions from the taxes imposed on the sales of the cigarettes. Ashley has rightly argued that everything that proves to injurious to human health ought to be banned. Be it fast food or cigarette, both causes numerous health complications in human beings. Both cigarette and fast food have proven to be the causes of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Ashley seems upset due to the fact that people knowingly make these detrimental health choices. An important aspect that Ashley has highlighted is the environmental issue related to the consumption of tobacco. Not only the smoke of the cigarette proves to be a scourge for passive smokers, but the cigarette butts are also contributing to exacerbating land pollution(Stanton et.al, 2016) . The fact that the deaths due to the consumption of tobacco are easily preventable is unbeatable. More than 480,000 Americans lose their lives due to the consumption of tobacco and illnesses related to it. Additionally, a whopping 16 million Americans are afflicted with at least one smoking-related disease. There is a need for a large scale awareness campaign on this issue like the one conducted in 2012 and 2015 by the CDC (Stanton et.al, 2016). Certainly, the campaigns conducted by the CDC have proven to be successful because it prompted a large number of smokers to quit their harmful habit.


Gallus, S., Ghislandi, S., & Muttarak, R. (2015). Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Tobacco control, 24(1), 82-88.

Stanton, C. A., Keith, D. R., Gaalema, D. E., Bunn, J. Y., Doogan, N. J., Redner, R., ... & Higgins, S. T. (2016). Trends in tobacco use among US adults with chronic health conditions: National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2005–2013. Preventive medicine, 92, 160-168.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

346 W8. Discussion Post

346 W8 Martine's Response

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

346 W8 Martine's Response

Tobacco smoke contains various chemical products that are harmful to health. It includes carcinogens and mutagens, respiratory and eye irritants, reproductive and systemic toxicants. The government has taken measures against tobacco exposure to control the harmful impact of smoking which is not much effective. For instance, it is illegal to smoke at public places. However, it cannot decrease the amount of smoking. Instead, when people try to smoke at the non-public place or indoor it destroys the indoor environment. Every year, tobacco causes 450,000 premature deaths in America. According to me, smoking should be illegal. This is because of the harmful impact of second-hand smoke. People have freedom to decide whether they want to smoke or not but freedom should not be given on the things that have an impact on someone else's life.

Secondhand smoke is a combination of smoke from cigarettes and from the smoke breathed out by smokers. It contains approximately seven thousands of harmful chemicals in which seventy types of chemical leads to cancer. The report indicates that about 2.5 million non-smokers adults died since 1964 because of tobacco exposure. There is no way to be free from secondhand smoke. People who smoke leave smoke in the air which non-smokers inhale. Non-smokers can be family member or stranger around the smoker. They get affected by the smoke the same as they are smoking. Every year about thousand infants die during pregnancy because their mothers inhale second-hand smoke. It also causes lung cancer, stroke, and heart diseases ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KRMUBhG2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(CDCTobaccoFree, 2017)","plainCitation":"(CDCTobaccoFree, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":845,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/U34FJ684"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/U34FJ684"],"itemData":{"id":845,"type":"webpage","title":"Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke","container-title":"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention","abstract":"See the data and statistical information on the health effects of secondhand smoke.","URL":"https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects/index.htm","language":"en-us","author":[{"family":"CDCTobaccoFree","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",1,11]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,5]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CDCTobaccoFree, 2017).

Various countries have made the law that smoking at the public place is prohibited. The reason for taking this step is to control health issues. The government wants to save the health of non-smoker however the law is not giving benefit either to non-smoker or smoker. The reason is that it is difficult for the people who are addicted to tobacco not to light the cigarette for long time. They try to find the place for smoking time to time. Therefore, it automatically makes places unsuitable for other people. People breathe smoke while moving around that places and get affected. This is why health issues due to the secondhand smoking is not decreasing.

People think it is difficult to ban the cigarette because of two main reasons. First, the power of big firms producing cigarettes. They are making a profit on producing and selling the large number of cigarettes which becomes part of GDP. Therefore, it is not easy for the government to shut down the firms all at once. Second, people think it is a personal choice and the government has no right to ban it because of non-smoker population. However the question arises here what kind of profit or freedom it is that is resulting in the critical health issues and death ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"q2937NpF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Should Smoking Be Banned in Public Places?,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Should Smoking Be Banned in Public Places?,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":844,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/AKMSI9RB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/AKMSI9RB"],"itemData":{"id":844,"type":"webpage","title":"Should Smoking Be Banned in Public Places?","container-title":"DebateWise","abstract":"Many countries have laws that prohibit smoking in public places because it affects non smokers as well. There are many good arguments for and against it.","URL":"https://debatewise.org/debates/1160-should-smoking-be-banned-in-public-places/","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,5]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Should Smoking Be Banned in Public Places?,” n.d.). It does not make any sense that people cannot smoke at the place which is meant for everyone while they can smoke at their home or car. Smoke does not stay at one place its cloud move around and somehow reach to the non-smoker. In other words, only twenty-five percent of tobacco is used by the smoker whole remaining seventy-five percent is left for the people who care for themselves.

The bottom line is that tobacco exposure is harmful to the people causing cancer, lung disease, and even death. The government prohibited smoking at a public place is not effective either for smoker or non-smoker. If the government really wants to reduce the health issue caused by tobacco then cigarettes should be banned. There is no other way to save the non-smoker health.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY CDCTobaccoFree. (2017, January 11). Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. Retrieved July 5, 2019, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects/index.htm

Should Smoking Be Banned in Public Places? (n.d.). Retrieved July 5, 2019, from DebateWise website: https://debatewise.org/debates/1160-should-smoking-be-banned-in-public-places/

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600

346 W9 Reflective Journal G

346 W9 Reflective Journal G

Name of the Writer

Name of the University

346 W9 Reflective Journal G


Edward W. Smith, Jr. Family Center is located in the heart of Lauderhill, Broward County, Florida. This place is administered as a homeless place by the LifeNet4Families. It provides help and support to the families living in the community. The centre's main goal is to direct attention and fix the needs and problems of the community. Furthermore, it focuses on helping families and individuals that going through a crisis. This centre annually serves and helps around six thousand people or families. It also works towards highlighting the needs of the community and procuring help for them. The community around this centre is facing multiple issues and this centre is working on providing food and other necessities of life for these people ("Program Overview", 2019). Furthermore, they provide facilities on site as well so that the people they are currently housing can have the best care possible. The analysis in this piece of work is based on focusing learning on the homelessness and rising health issues within this area.

Describe the learning needs of this population

The population living in and around the city of Lauderhill and Broward County are currently facing two main problems such as homelessness and rising health problems. In the case of the city of Lauderhill, there has been seen a spike in cases regarding diabetes rates and high amounts of healthcare disparities in this area. This was visible in the report published in the health report published by the county’s health department. Other than diabetes infant deaths, HIV/AIDS-related deaths have seen an uprise of over two hundred percent compared to the overall county ("Broward's Black Communities Rife with Health Problems", 2019).

Moreover, over the last years homelessness has seen a rise of over six percent and according to a survey revealed that around two thousand four hundred and fifty individuals had slept most of their last nights at a homeless shelter. Also, the more people are homeless the more atrocities are committed against them resulting in thing needing eve more medical and social help for survival. In the census conducted this year revealed that around nine hundred and fifty-seven people or thirty-nine percent of the whole population of the area was not even sleeping in shelters but sleeping on the roads ("Broward's Black Communities Rife with Health Problems", 2019).

Identify barriers to learning

There are several different barriers to learning towards the several problems that are running amuck in this area. Primarily, the main barrier would be the lack of focus on the learning objectives. The public is bombarded with notices and advertisements that tell them the different problems that are currently prevalent in their society. Rather than worrying about focusing on just one problem they are confused leading to no action taken.

Secondly, the people in this area have not had the best of experience with organizations in the past who promise them solutions for their problems and leave midway. In this regard, LIFENET4FAMILIES has been the best as they have successfully worked in alleviating the problems of the community to the best of their ability.

Lastly, there is also a lack of having a sense of community within this area. If there is no connection between the people who are the basis for the learning being proposed. This makes the work even harder and makes it impossible to achieve the desired target.

Create behavioural objectives related to learning

Some of the behavioural objectives that will be studied in this learning could be knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.


The people of Lauderhill will know the rising ills in their society such as the hike in health issues and the rise in homelessness around them.


This learning would also help in giving an understanding to the people about how harmful these health and social problems are to their everyday life and the lives of people around them.


Furthermore, the application of the things they have learned from this learning opportunity into their lives would be expected at a high ratio. This will result in lowering of the problem on the rise in their society.


A community survey would be taken to understand how much application of the different things being taught in this learning opportunity has been done. This will show how much the people have understood the message presented to them.


It is thought that the public would be able to evaluate the different or any effort put in by the government to alleviate their problems. A good threshold that they can keep is the homeless centre being run by LifeNet4Families and measure their efforts with any new initiative being brought in.

Identify desired health outcomes of teaching/ learning project

In response to the objectives set above, the health outcomes would be in cohesion with them. So the primary health objective that would be decreased in the health discrepancies in the area of Lauderhill, Florida. These health discrepancies revolve around rising rates of diabetes and HIV/AIDS cases in this area. The health outcome that this study is looking for is a decrease in the cases regarding diabetes and HIV/AIDS in this area. This can be done through knowledge and awareness of the causes of these diseases and how the preventive methods can be employed to reduce the cases. Furthermore, homelessness is another social and health outcome that is desired from this learning. If awareness and credible knowledge are completely understood by the locals of this area, it is expected to decrease the number of homeless people currently roaming the streets. This would also lessen the load on organizations such as LifeNet4Families who put their day and night in serving the ills of the society.

Identify & select appropriate teaching and evaluation strategies

The most appropriate evaluation strategy for this learning opportunity should be a comparative analysis. This comparative analysis would reveal the difference in the number of cases for diabetes and HIV/AIDS. So to evaluate the strategies employed in this learning opportunity analysis of the number of cases of diabetes and HIV/AIDS before the strategies were employed will be done. This would then be compared with the number of cases that will be presented after the strategies are employed. Any change in the ratio of the cases would determine if the strategies employed in the learning opportunity were successful. The same method of evaluation would also be done to analyze the frequency of homeless cases in Lauderhill, Florida. If the frequency of homeless cases decreases after the strategies were employed than that means that the strategies employed were successful and should be continued further. If no change is seen than the approach should be changed to increase more awareness of this social discrimination.


This piece of work has analyzed the neighbourhood of Lauderhill, Florida and its connection to the homeless centre organized by LifeNet4Families in this area. This work further analyses the health concerns that are prevailing in this society such as high diabetes rate, high rate of HIV/AIDS and rise in homelessness. Moreover, an analysis of the behavioural objectives that need to be the focus of this study is done and further outcomes are also discussed. Finally, a comparative evaluation technique would be used to inform of the results of the strategies employed in this learning strategy.


Broward's Black Communities Rife With Health Problems. (2019). Retrieved 16 July 2019, from https://miami.cbslocal.com/2013/02/02/report-browards-black-communities-rife-with-health-problems/

Program Overview. (2019). Retrieved 16 July 2019, from https://www.lifenet4families.org/portal/program-overview1

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

5 Dynamic Reflection


A. I had a conversation about choosing the right therapy for the patient with my colleague. There was a disagreement when I was suggesting cognitive therapy but my colleague disapproved. During my conversation with a colleague, there was a disagreement that evoked a bioreaction in the form of anger and fight. I considered for several minutes about the inappropriate behaviour of my colleague. Later I experienced a feeling of guilt due to my inability of controlling myself. The conversation ended on a serious note because no one of us was ready to accept other's point of view. The conversation ended with verbal dismissal because I told my colleague that I can't be part of this team.

B. According to the four levels of a conversation, I used sincerity and pretence. This allows me to adopt appropriate conversation style that prevents me from causing harm to others. I used pretence in conversation when my colleague asked me if his performance was good. I didn't agree but I said yes because I didn't intend to disappoint him. My colleague used sincerity and replied to me negatively when I asked the same question.

The tone and the language depict that I and he were listening at a different level. I used soft tone and humble language that could make him feel encouraged. While he used harsh tone and straight forward words for criticizing me.

My points of disagreement were that one must not discourage others even if they are wrong.

C. I could have listened differently if I would have chosen authenticity. By considering the facts I would have understood the situation.

By using pretence and sincerity I would have managed to understand the needs, purpose and concerns.

Accuracy stresses on considering the facts and comparing explanations for attaining value.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Albright, G., Adam, C., Serri, D., Bleeker, S., & Goldman, R. (2016). Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviours. Mhealth, 2 (44).

Rawson, K. A., Gunstad, J., Hughes, J., Spitznagel, M. B., Potter, V., Waechter, D., et al. (2010). The METER: A Brief, Self-Administered Measure of Health Literacy. J Gen Intern Med, 25 (1).

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300

5 Year Plan

Five Years Career Plan




My Career Plan

The oncology nurses are the caretaker of all cancer patients of all ages. It is a challenging field of nursing and the nurse has to take care of the patient along with his/her family during the treatment. They have to deal with all the anxiety which comes with this disease. The field of oncology is different from the early days. This field is dynamic and is evolving slowly as new therapists are introduced. Oncology nurses have to play a very important role in the career path the chose ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"02rGFM8H","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jacobson, J. O., et al., 2009)","plainCitation":"(Jacobson, J. O., et al., 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":178,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/MCBPPVL8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/MCBPPVL8"],"itemData":{"id":178,"type":"article-journal","title":"American society of clinical oncology/oncology nursing society chemotherapy administration safety standards. Journal of Clinical Oncology, .","page":"5469","volume":"27(32),","author":[{"family":"Jacobson, J. O.,","given":""},{"family":"Polovich, M.,","given":""},{"family":"McNiff, K.","given":""},{"literal":"LeFebvre, K. B"},{"literal":"K. B., Cummings,"},{"literal":"& McCorkle"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jacobson, J. O., et al., 2009)

As an oncology nurse, the individual has to face many challenges that come with the long learning career and professional growth. It gives you a chance to develop a strong relationship with patients. The pay system depends on your experience and the level of education that you have. In 2016, the Bureau of labor have highlighted the mean annual of nurses to be $68,450 and they have defined a range from $47,120 to $102,990 annually. There are various additional bonuses for high achievers (Jacobson, J. O., et al., 2009).

Career Options for an Oncology Nurse

Like most of RNs, an Oncology nurse will help in diagnostic tests, will keep the records of the patient medical history and will take vigorous signs. Another important thing about this profession is that the oncology nurse has to teach the patient and his/her family to maintain health after the treatment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CHQAIW0q","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}How to Become an Oncology Nurse.,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2014)","plainCitation":"(“How to Become an Oncology Nurse.,” 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":180,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/5JMSDF3L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/5JMSDF3L"],"itemData":{"id":180,"type":"post","title":"How to Become an Oncology Nurse.","issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“How to Become an Oncology Nurse.,” 2014)


Firstly bachelors or associate degree is needed to become a registered nurse and specialized degree in oncology is taken at the graduate level.

Field of study:

The field of study is nursing that is an advanced practice nurse, with a specialization in oncology. The nurse will be further trained to prescribed medicines, to understand primary care techniques and to do diagnostic tests.

Key responsibilities:

Medication that is administered, chemotherapy and other sorts of cancer treatment that includes taking care of the patient while they are going through their treatment, assist doctor, report and observe patients status and maintain his/her record.

Licenses and certifications:

License as a Registered Nurse is required and there are various other certifications that are important (“How to Become an Oncology Nurse.,” 2014). Certification can be obtained by passing the exam, NCLEX-RN. This exam will show that you have the capability to deliver four important elements of nursing. Those are, provide a pleasant environment that reveals care and will focus on the control of infection. Secondly, you need to have psychological integrity which is that you have the capability to cope with the stressing environment. Thirdly, you need to remain committed to preemptive medicines and need to avoid the emergence of big problems (“How to Become an Oncology Nurse.” 2014).

There is post-master certification that focuses on the disease. The course is either program type that teaches to examine the pathophysiology of cancer, epidemiology, palliative, genetic and system management. This program includes both clinical practices and class work. (Lewis, A. E., 1999)The Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation has certified up to 36000 nurses In the USA. ONCC offers various options of certification that include4s, (OCN) Oncology Certified Nurse, Advanced Oncology Certified Nurse Practitioner (AOCNP), (CPHON) Certified Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurse and CBCN, Certified Breast Care Nurse. Each certification is linked with an exam that has multiple choice questions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"LDuliKU6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Coleman, E. A., Coon, S. K., Lockhart, K., Montgomery, R, & Stewart, C., 2009)","plainCitation":"(Coleman, E. A., Coon, S. K., Lockhart, K., Montgomery, R, & Stewart, C., 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":182,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/YHCKA85V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/YHCKA85V"],"itemData":{"id":182,"type":"article-journal","title":".Effect of certification in oncology nursing on nursing-sensitive outcomes. Clinical journal of oncology nursing.","author":[{"family":"Coleman, E. A.,","given":""},{"literal":"Coon, S. K."},{"literal":"Lockhart, K.,"},{"literal":"Montgomery, R"},{"literal":"Stewart, C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Coleman, E. A., Coon, S. K., Lockhart, K., Montgomery, R, & Stewart, C., 2009).

Related Alternative careers:

Some fields that are related to oncology are critical care nursing, rehabilitation nursing, and genetic nursing. LVNs that is licensed vocational nurses, LPNs that is Licensed practical nurses can give the nursing care but must be supervised by a registered nurse. Other nursing careers that are related to oncology are careers at nuclear medicines technologists, who will be dealing with the identification and treatment of cancer using radioactive drugs. Another option is of radiation therapist who has to do a specialization in the use of radiation for curing cancer (Coleman, E. A., et al., 2009).

The role of an oncology nurse has expanded and the nurse has to be involved in researches, direct patient care, and management and nurse navigations.

Oncology nurses can work in any setting like hospitals, Clinics, cancer centers, with physicians, in-home care agencies that include hospice care and palliative and they can also work in big care facilitating agencies. In addition to the diversity in the work location there are various areas that an oncologist can focus:

In addition to variety in work locations, there are many areas of oncology in which to focus. These include:

Gynecologic oncology: A certified registered Nurse practitioner fits as a Gynecologist nurse as the Oncology Nurse Practitioner have various background including adult care, women’s health, oncology, etc. they have a background knowledge of gynecology as well as oncology so they usually work on GYN malignancies and assist the physician in treatment like chemo, research protocol and radiography ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YzGDmhe2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brotto, L. A., Heiman, J. R, Goff, B., & Lentz, G., 2008)","plainCitation":"(Brotto, L. A., Heiman, J. R, Goff, B., & Lentz, G., 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":183,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/BKTNFKE3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/BKTNFKE3"],"itemData":{"id":183,"type":"article-journal","title":"A psychoeducational intervention for sexual dysfunction in women with gynecologic cancer. Archives of Sexual behavior .","page":"317-329.","author":[{"literal":"Brotto, L. A."},{"literal":"Heiman, J. R"},{"literal":"Goff, B."},{"literal":"Lentz, G."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brotto, L. A., Heiman, J. R, Goff, B., & Lentz, G., 2008).

GYN are responsible for managing post-operative cancer patients, that management includes dealing with wound care. Secondly, giving colposcopy to those having gentile cancers. Thirdly, providing cancer screening care patients with high-risk factors (Coleman, E. A., et al., 2009).

Radiation oncology:

Radio oncology advanced practice nurses, NP, as well as CNS, are the emerging members of this multidisciplinary field of oncology. They are responsible for providing care to the patient directly and are deeply involved in the specialized procedures and they are also responsible for the initial follow-ups. They are also responsible to be more involved with the patient that is going through radiation therapy. They need to provide care and emotional support during the treatment plus the doctor also needs their assistance. An advanced practitioner will add up to this workload and an oncology nurse is the best person needed in such situation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iYVA9G1l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Carper, E. & Haas, M., 203AD)","plainCitation":"(Carper, E. & Haas, M., 203AD)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":184,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/WIFZNJQE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/WIFZNJQE"],"itemData":{"id":184,"type":"article-journal","title":"Advanced practice nursing in radiation oncology. In Seminars in oncology nursing","volume":"22, No. 4","author":[{"literal":"Carper, E."},{"literal":"Haas, M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["203"]],"season":"211"}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Carper, E. & Haas, M., 203AD).

Surgical oncology:

Surgery is the treatment option for cancerous tumors who cannot be controlled through chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Such tumors are mostly solid tumors. The patient is then placed in any care center for further treatments. Surgical oncology Nursing provides a wide range of examinations of the patient from his/her stage of diagnoses to the point of survivorship. Various nursing staffs are required in this team and from navigation to advanced practice nursing ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Xn1iqquf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Surgical Oncology Nursing | ONS}, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Surgical Oncology Nursing | ONS, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":185,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/RX69XBH4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/RX69XBH4"],"itemData":{"id":185,"type":"article","title":"Surgical Oncology Nursing | ONS","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Surgical Oncology Nursing | ONS, 2019).


The number of agents who will be using immunotherapy is increasing and so are the nurses facing challenges with managing the agents. Oncology nursing society and clinical nurses get a set of recommendation for dealing with the patients that are going through immunotherapy. They receive administration procedures and safety measures to reduce risk factors during the treatment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tzkTan0u","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wiley, Kathleen;, Kristine B, & LeFebvre, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Wiley, Kathleen;, Kristine B, & LeFebvre, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":186,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/XLNV8HJH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/XLNV8HJH"],"itemData":{"id":186,"type":"article-journal","title":"Immunotherapy Administration.","volume":"Vol. 21","author":[{"literal":"Wiley,"},{"literal":"Kathleen;"},{"family":"Kristine B","given":""},{"literal":"LeFebvre"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wiley, Kathleen;, Kristine B, & LeFebvre, 2017).

There are lots of other career option for oncological nurses like the can work in a department like bone marrow transplantations, Breast ontology, infusion of chemotherapy and genetic counseling (Coleman, E. A., et al., 2009).

Career Plan Report

I chose to study nursing because nurses sacrifice their time and energy for the good of others. I personally find it interesting to deal with people especially when they need help and support. I, therefore, chose to do bachelors of Science in nursing. I have a specialty preference before entering into clinical work or other professional fields. I will do specialization in oncology and I want to work on my degree before going into clinical work.

After doing my BSN I will have the options of applying for leadership jobs. Such job comes with a high salary and they do not include that much supervision from a doctor so you will get to explore your leadership qualities as well. Those jobs will make you work on researching and critical thinking capabilities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jS1cEtWH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Marquis, B., & Huston, C., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Marquis, B., & Huston, C., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":187,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/598URRSS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/598URRSS"],"itemData":{"id":187,"type":"book","title":"Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application.","edition":"Eighth ed","author":[{"literal":"Marquis, B.,"},{"literal":"Huston, C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Marquis, B., & Huston, C., 2015). I had to do further certifications to be part of such organizations.

Before entering into the professional field I will have to register myself with the Nursing and midwifery council and I had to revalidate this registration for every three years. I will also meet some condition before practicing nursing. Those conditions include 450 hours of registers practice and 35 hours of professional development practice (Your career options in nursing. 2014).

They will also check my personal qualities of dedication, hard work, and patient care patterns. I am planning to work as a clinic nurse, or in cancer hospital or in a care center and I have to do further certification in these five years. I have to target employers as a fresh graduate nurse with a specialization in oncology. I will search the target areas and I will prepare my resume according to the requirements of the target organizational and will send an application along with my resume. I will have to think of techniques for a good work/life balance.

Strategies for maintaining work/life balance and personal wellness

Specify the time for work and personal life:

Nurses have to deal with lots of workload, stress and much more during the work hours. Such things might waste their time so in order to have a balance between personal and professional lifetime set should be defined where you will work and complete your task in that specific time zone. You have to accept the stress which works brings with itself and you have to cope anyway. Soon I will specify a time zone where I will focus only on my work and the rest of the time I will spare for my personal life.

Maintain an exact energy level:

I will have to maintain my energy level so that I will not panic in my working hours and disturb my work/life balance. I will take off my diet, will do exercise and will not take stress over my work. I will have to practice them daily so that the will be part of my routine in these five years. I selected those strategies because for me those are the most important steps to keep work/life balance.

Professional Nursing Organizations

Being a graduate in oncology and having a thrust for clinical research oncology I think that the Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center, Florida will be the best organization to start my professional life with ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nQtGfrs5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida. Baptistjax.com.}, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida. Baptistjax.com., 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/HZPJPF7P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/HZPJPF7P"],"itemData":{"id":189,"type":"article","title":"Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida. Baptistjax.com.","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida, 2019).

Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center:

This cancer center tries to beat cancer in extraordinary ways and saves millions of lives every year. The will deliver services in a highly organized way and provide an efficient outcome for each and every patient. It brings together the clinical breakthrough of all the top American cancer centers. It provides the most preferred health facilities in the USA.

The Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center includes in an acute clinical practice and it helps them to develop an area of very productive scholarship. It provides multidisciplinary oncology training related to patient care. It includes its members in research programs and high-quality management programs. It gives recreational opportunities and a chance to build a professional career for young graduates. It has employees from a diverse academic background and it gives the opportunity to every candidate equally to develop professionally in a dynamic society. The mission of this care center is to pluck out the roots of cancer from Texas in particular and the whole nation in general. It has research-based patient care and it wants to be the number one cancer hospital in the world (Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida, 2019). The reason I want to be the part of tis cancer center first as a trainee then as an employee just because of its research-based treatments strategies

It is strongly dedicated to provide high-quality care for every member associate to this institute, either the staffs or the patients who are under treatment. It has designed dozen of care centers and the have the facilities of the shared electronic health record within the institute. It enhances its service both for the staffs and the patients every year. Its aim is to provide excellent health facilities and encourage people who are fighting with cancer.

It serves the needs of its employees and employer through various measures like, it focuses on the health of its employees who might be having some health issues such as heart issues or obesity. It lets its employee use evidence-based approach for screening of the patient and data collections for research purpose. Each employee has personal health portals with his/her blood composition results, including blood sugar and cholesterol data that will keep a track of their health and wellbeing.

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center:

Mayo Clinic has located in the heart of New York and 120,000 cancer patient visit it every year. The center has extensive experts that make it possible to handle every sort of cancer. Mayo Clinic doctors and researchers work together as a team to provide the best service for their patients ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oSzekVPP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Molina, J. R., et al., 2007)","plainCitation":"(Molina, J. R., et al., 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":191,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/GW4MAGLM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/LY9XXHSK/items/GW4MAGLM"],"itemData":{"id":191,"type":"article-journal","title":"Predictors of survival from urachal cancer: a Mayo Clinic study of 49 cases. Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society.","page":"2434-2440.","author":[{"literal":"Molina, J. R.,"},{"literal":"Quevedo, J. F."},{"literal":", Furth, A. F.,"},{"literal":"Richardson, R. L"},{"literal":"., Zincke, H.,"},{"literal":"& Burch, P. A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Molina, J. R., et al., 2007).

I want to work with this cancer center because of their team based working patterns and their patient-centric research works. I want to work in their research team to enhance my knowledge of the field of oncology more. I will be glad to work with a team of experts who have the capability to be the number one in the world.

It provides its member with a platform to do research and development. They are directly involved in research work related to cancer. It does the treatment of its patient through three stages where the doctors provide safe doses for timely recovery. It also provides training grants to its trainees.

Certification and further education:

The benefits of being certified are that the knowledge on oncology is confirmed and it shows your commitment towards your profession. It makes you ready for the responsibilities that you’re going to have. It increases your marketability and credibility and it makes you the part of a global nursing system.

The oncology nursing society acclaims that ball the oncology nurses and those who can take of cancer patients needs to have certifications as proof of their additional skills. I want to get the certification of AOCNS that is an Advanced Oncology Certified Clinical Nurse Specialist. Because it deals with all aspect of the care of the cancer patients and it deals with high degree cancer and helps to do the assessment, management, and treatment of the patient. I will get it from the oncology nursing certification corporate because they are the authentic body that provides this certificate. The will conduct a computer-based test and discount are also available for the exams.

I had my four years bachelors in nursing with socialization in oncology and in order to become a specialist in this field I have to study further. I am thinking to do a two years master’s program to be a professional and certified Nurse practitioner. During the master (MSN) I will also be doing supervised clinical practices related to oncology because that is the eligibility criteria for the Certification of Advanced Oncology Certified Nurse Practitioner (AOCNP).

The characteristics of the type of organization that I want to work with:

I chose this career as an oncology nurse because of my nature of taking care of people when they are going through the hardest times of their lives. They ate those people who need your guidance to go through paths they did not choose for themselves. It is, therefore, I want to work with an organization that will be patient-centric and that will focus on the grooming of employee both personally and professionally. I would like to work with an organization like the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center because they provide the platform for research and development. They work in a team which will help to gain emotional and professional support.

This course helped me to build leadership qualities such as:

It gave me insight into my decision making power, by the help of this course I got to know that what career plan that I have to choose to be the best practicing nurse and how to decide that. We worked closely with other fellows and it helps to build my emotional intelligence. Secondly, this course taught us to make the right choices while handling the patients so that helped me build up my integrity. Thirdly, critical thinking was the focus of this course that helped me to generate new ideas and also boost up my qualities of conducting researches. Such skills are vital in the environment related to health care and it increases the collaboration among the teams. The skills of critical thinking in autonomous nurses is also helpful to have a bright career. This course taught me to remain dedicated and committed to my passion and it builds up my interest in this field even more.

The course also helped to boost up my communication skills and also provided the technique to improve my performance. It helped to build collaboration among each other which will guide us to work in teams when we will be in professional fields. The course also taught me to socialize in a professional way and it is very helpful to deal with the teams and the patient that we are going to handle a professional nurse. It taught me to identify opportunities as a professional and to work on those opportunities.

It helped me to generate motivational strategies so that I will have enough strategies when I am on a filed working and I have to balance my professional and personal life.

In nutshell, this course taught me professionalism and build up my leadership qualities. I can use leadership skills like good decision making, problem-solving skills, handling stressful situations and providing good care to handle patients who are going through the ugliest times of their life. I can guide them through those timings with the help of my knowledge and proficiency as a graduate nurse. Leade4ship qualities need to be focused because nursing is a tough career which needs more dedication and team work and that will not be possible without having good leadership qualities. This course works deal with all sort of management skills and leadership skills that a nurse will need to be a professional.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Now Open in Jacksonville, Florida. Baptistjax.com. (2019).

Brotto, L. A., Heiman, J. R, Goff, B., & Lentz, G. (2008). A psychoeducational intervention for sexual dysfunction in women with gynecologic cancer. Archives of Sexual behavior . 317-329.

Carper, E., & Haas, M. (203AD). Advanced practice nursing in radiation oncology. In Seminars in oncology nursing. 22, No. 4.

Coleman, E. A., Coon, S. K., Lockhart, K., Montgomery, R, & Stewart, C. (2009). .Effect of certification in oncology nursing on nursing-sensitive outcomes. Clinical journal of oncology nursing.

How to Become an Oncology Nurse. (2014).

Jacobson, J. O., Polovich, M., McNiff, K., LeFebvre, K. B, K. B., Cummings, & & McCorkle. (2009). American society of clinical oncology/oncology nursing society chemotherapy administration safety standards. Journal of Clinical Oncology, . 27(32), 5469.

Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2015). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application. (Eighth ed).

Molina, J. R., Quevedo, J. F., , Furth, A. F., Richardson, R. L, ., Zincke, H., & & Burch, P. A. (2007). Predictors of survival from urachal cancer: a Mayo Clinic study of 49 cases. Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society. 2434-2440.

Surgical Oncology Nursing | ONS. (2019).

Wiley, Kathleen;, Kristine B, & LeFebvre. (2017). Immunotherapy Administration. Vol. 21.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

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