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Personal Leadership Philosophies

Personal Leadership Philosophies

My core values

The nurse is a person who supports, encourages and protects-a person. Care, though essential, is not enough to make a nurse good at her job. An effective nurse also need extensive training and plenty of experience. An essential prerequisite is studies and internships, of a total duration of one to four years or more. Nursing deals with the care of the individual in a variety of health-related situations. So I think that medicine is about treating the patient and nursing is about taking care of that patient. Therefore, the nurse is a caregiver. The human being is the focus of our nursing activities. This means perceiving, respecting and regarding people, considering their psychological, social and somatic situation. In order to achieve this, a trusting relationship between all persons involved in the care is necessary. Nursing care is therefore designed with the involvement of patients and their families. The doctor heals, but the nurse takes care of the patient. This often requires the support of patients who suffer both emotionally and physically when, for example, they learn that they are suffering from some chronic illness or that they are dying (Marshall, & Broome, 2017).

Emotional stability and readiness

All great leaders in history have the capacity for emotional stability even in an uncertain and unstable environment. That doesn't mean that one have to have all the answers and all the solutions. But one need to have the inner conviction that can find the answers and solutions. The secret here is to be on the alert. Feel ready to deal with any situation, even the most stressful , using humor, faith, positivity, creativity and inventiveness. The development and impact of technology are increasing pressures in the field of nursing. It is a challenge to reconcile technology with humanity, that is, with human behavior towards patients. No machine will ever be able to replace the affection and compassion of a nurse. According to Claire Fann , who is PHD in nursing says that “between the dream of Nursing and the reality of Nursing and the only way you get the reality of Nursing is if you are in a direct patient care position”(Claire ,2015)

Openness to growth

True leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses and through this knowledge they evolve. A true leader sees his failures and the criticisms he receives as an opportunity to improve and to challenge them. Career development is an essential element of leadership. That's why a leader is constantly improving and expanding his skills. If one systematically strive to improve oneself, and one will be able to give and become much more than he ever imagined. “A true leader and create the future you want and deserve by inspiring your co-workers to evolve as well”(Nagelkerk, 2015).

Encouraging the team

Successful leaders encourage their team members to express their opinion on how a job will evolve and grow. They are able to recognize the abilities of their team members and to support and encourage them. A true leader has no problem hearing another opinion from a member of his team. Even if he disagrees with one view, he expresses his view in a constructive way, without offending the other (McDaniel & Wolf, 2012). A leader knows that when someone is rewarded for his progress he will try to become even better.


One of the most important skills one need to have is inventiveness or inventiveness. Discover new ways to do more with less both one and his/her team. Or one have more potential than have ever imagined one has. And that can open the way for even greater success. For even more success.

My personal mission statement

My personal mission / vision statement as a nurse is , I believe it is a responsibility of a nurse to provide safe ,holistic, patient centered with cultural centered approach to every patient without any discrimination. It is my duty as a nurse ,to maintain trust and confidentiality of my patients.

An analysis of your Clifton Strengths Assessment

According to Clifton strength assessment my dominant domain are influencing and relationship building. My top 5 signature themes are activator, competition, relator, communication and significance.

Activator ; according to Clifton Strength assessment my top strength is that I am activator. CS assessment explains it in these words; “when can we start?” This is a recurring question in your life. You are impatient for action. And this is true I am always passionate to start things.

My second strength is competition. According to Clifton strength assessment result I compare my performance with others, and this will allow me to judge my work in a better way as well as to find out my weaknesses.

My third strength is realtor. This theme describes my attitude toward relationships. It tells that I take care of my old relations and after an initial connection, I encourage to make make relations better and deeper.

My next strength is communication. According to result I would like to explain, describe, host, speak in public, and to write . I can communicate well with logic and interesting points, so people like to listen to me, and this is my big strength.

The fifth most important strength is significance. This means that I want to be significant for others. I want to be known and appreciated by others no matter they are my colleagues, leaders or patients.

A description of two key behaviors that you wish to strengthen

There are many behaviors that I need to strengthen but the two most important are ; patience and team working behavior. My results shows that I am impatience and I need to be patience because eagerness is a good thing, but patience is also very important especially in te field of nursing. My second weak behavior is that I prefer to work solo and feel comfortable however in the profession of nursing , I need to work in a group and as a team, so I have to strengthen this behavior of mine.

A development plan to improve my behavior

I am planning to work and improve my habit of impatience with the help of some physical training like yoga or other programs. I have to set some time frame and daily have to check my all-day activity so I can see my progress. For working in a group or team I need to tolerate other people either I like them or not or I like their way if working or not. But team means that every one need to work as a unit and fulfill his/her responsibilities in a proper manner. Through class projects and different small team works I am learning this skill.


McDaniel, C., & Wolf, G. A. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing service. A test of

theory. The Journal of nursing administration, 22(2), 60-65.

Marshall, E., & Broome, M. (2017). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert

clinician to influential leader (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.

Nagelkerk, J. (2015). Leadership and nursing care management. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Claire, F. (2 Mar 2015). Lessons in Leadership: Retrieve from:


Strengths Finder: Gallup. (2018). Retrieved from https://walden.gallup.com

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Assignment - Week 6

Submitted by



Part 1: Work Environment Assessment

Clark Healthy Workplace Inventory is based on 20 questions or statements related to workplace environment. There is a scale that determines each answer. Each statement need to be replied from 1-5 points. Respondent need to reply each statement very honestly and 5 score means the statement is completely true in his/her situation and same as 1 donates completely disagree or totally untrue. The 3 points are for neutral reply and 2 is for somewhat true and same as 4 is somewhat untrue. The total score of this inventory are 20 statements of 100 points. Respondent can earn score from 20-100 depending on the accurate responses. If the score falls between 90-100 category it shows very health workplace environment. The second category is of 89-80 and it is for moderate healthy workplace environment ,the next range is from 79-70 and it is for mild healthy work place. As the score decreases ,it shows the unhealthy workplace. Like 59-50 is unhealthy and any score below 50 means very unhealthy workplace environment.

It is common knowledge that a healthy work environment guarantees having motivated, committed and efficient employees. After completing Clark Healthy Workplace Inventory, my result falls under healthy environment. My total score was 70 which meant it was barely healthy (Clark, 2015).When I figured out why my scores were low, I noticed the lack of some important elements in my work environment. I found that elements like communication, diversity and mentoring program for all employees were missing. Under the quality refers to the entirety of the features of the entity associated to its skill to gratify the recognized and expected needs. The quality of nursing care should be understood as a set of features approving the compliance of the expected nursing care with the existing level of nursing education is a prevailing requirement of the patient ‘s self‐management is the key approach for nurses’ workplace health and safety, though, this selection is forced by individual financial properties, family and relational support and structural strategies (Reid 2001).

The workplace of a nurse should be organized in such a way that the irrational costs of working time are minimized. Civility at any workplace has an important effect on many aspects. For example, civil rights have a big influence on the quality of life. “The American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements clearly articulates the nurse’s obligation to foster safe, ethical, civil workplaces”(Clark ,2015). The components of well-being are generally divided into three dimensions: health, material well-being and perceived well-being or quality of life. The concept of well-being is refers to both individual well-being and community-level well-being. The dimensions of community-level well-being include: living conditions, employment and working conditions and livelihoods. Components of individual well-being, on the other hand, include social relationships, self-fulfillment, happiness and social capital. It is obvious when employees have a healthy work place environment , they will feel good and relax and it will positively affect the performance.

Part 2: Reviewing the Literature

The selected article for this part is “Conversations to inspire and promote a more civil workplace.” In this article Clark tells the importance of conversation or communication at workplace for healthy work place. According to Clark (2015), the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses has recognized six values for creating and supporting healthy work environment including; skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership”(Clark ,2015).

One of the most common causes of dissatisfaction in the workplace is poor communication. Surprisingly, the problem is common to large and small work communities. The importance of open communication, active interaction, and mutual timely feedback on well-being at work is central. Not only does effective interaction improve job satisfaction, it also plays an important role in many legal issues. Typically, well-being at work is undermined by the experience of not providing sufficient or timely information about workplace events. Even the proper content of the information does not save the situation if the information is only given when it is already widely known in the work community or even outside the workplace. Being consulted for the first time outside the workplace also places the work community in a negative light and undermines the reputation and image of the employer. Refraining from disclosing confidential information to employees may give rise to a perception that they are not trusted, even though employees are already directly bound by law to protect their business secrets.

DESC model

Numerous models can be applied to structure a civility conversation. The DESC model, is an evidence-based teamwork arrangement to make better communication and skills of teams and, in order to, expand safety and excellence care. By means of the DESC model in combination with cognitive practice is a real way to discourse definite incivility incidents. Consideration should also be given to the appropriate way of communicating information. If communication is not properly addressed, the work community may feel that staff is not valued. Instead, regular internal briefings held by the organization's management, for example, show that staffing is being conducted, which contributes to employee engagement. By way of example, management information also influences the general communication culture of the work community.

Information and communication is not just about well-being at work. Information also plays a key role in complying with employer guidelines and regulations. For example, it is not sufficient for an employer to have comprehensive guidance on the use of work equipment in order to fulfill his / her occupational safety and health obligations. It is the employer's responsibility to ensure that the instructions are known at the workplace and that appropriate guidance has been provided. As another example, an employer credit card misconduct dispute may arise as to whether the employee was aware of the credit card guidelines. Clear instructions and information will prevent abuse and clarify the resolution of disputes. Effective communication and feedback at every step of the organization significantly improves well-being at work and the functioning of the work community ( Clark, Olender, Cardoni & Kenski, 2011).

In extreme situations, lack of communication and the uncertainty it generates can also be one factor contributing to the mental strain on work, which the employer must consider from the point of view of his or her labor protection obligation. The importance of a good communication culture and interaction is also emphasized in the event of disruptions in the individual employment life cycle. Creating a natural, confidential conversation connection in good times also facilitates difficult discussions.

Effective interaction allows negative feedback to be given as soon as the need arises, and problems do not swell and poison the working atmosphere. When a supervisor engages in a development, warning, or termination discussion, it is also imperative that the recipient of the feedback internalizes the feedback they receive and the reasons for it. There is no change if the person does not understand what they are accused of. Effective interaction is the key to preventing disputes if the employee is genuinely and appreciated in the decision-making process, explaining the reasons that have led the employer to decide. Providing negative feedback is demanding, but humanly and legally necessary.

Part 3: Evidence-Based Strategies to Create High-Performance Interprofessional Team

In my organization only professional competences can help to make it healthy. One incivility that occurred in my workplace was bullying of co-workers. Professional competence is a combination of knowledge and skills necessary to achieve positive results in the provision of nursing services. Professional competence requires professional skills in the implementation of preventive measures, patient care measures, and consultations on special nursing problems (Weber, 2011). Safety means minimizing the risk of traumatic and infectious complications, harmful side effects, and other undesirable manifestations associated with the process of providing nursing care. This category provides for the participation of both the nurse and the patient. The development and influence of medical technology exacerbates tension in patient care. It is difficult to compare technology with humanity with a person’s approach to the sick. Machines will never replace the care and compassion of nurses. “Effective communication, conflict negotiation, and problem-solving are more important than ever”(Clark,2015).

Effective communication

The importance of communication is emphasized in situations of change, such as organizational reforms or co-operation negotiations. Changes cause a lot of uncertainty, concern and fear - even for those who would not be directly affected by the changes. “In a situation of change, it is imperative, in addition to legal considerations, to provide a front-line and human information and to listen to the staff”(Clark ,2018). For the future, it is essential for the workplace to have a genuine understanding of what is happening in the organization, why change is needed, what the change is intended to be and what kind of change is planned. Even annoying solutions that are openly valued and respectful of the staff are easier to accept in the work community. Instead, failed communication acts as a seed for dissatisfaction.

Communication should be systematic and continuous sharing of information. In addition, communication must be interactive, proactive and multi-channel. For a long time, communication has not been a one-way communication but an interactive and open dialogue with all stakeholders. Communications need to be more open, faster, multi-channel and interactive. Discussing both positive and negative matters is important. (Weber, 2011).

The healthcare environment is in a state of flux and communication is also challenging.

Staff is the most important communication resource. Communication is not only in the hands of the communications unit, but all of us in the healthcare district are messengers. Together we create the reputation of our community. Open interaction within one's own house is part of developing a service culture. Without a functioning internal dialogue, we will not be able to fulfill our promise of the best possible care based on mutual cooperation.

Patients' ability to choose their care and expectations of our services are a challenge for communication. There is a need to communicate excellence, good care outcomes and care practices in a clearer and more transparent way - with all stakeholders in mind. Well-designed and executed communication, and the reputation, image and reputation that builds through it, contributes to our competitiveness.

Good customer service is also an important image builder. Alongside good care, customer service experience will be a very important factor in the future as patient mobility increases and competition for clients increases. On the other hand, it is also a great opportunity because we can all influence the customer service experience - it comes from small and big deeds. Our employees are our most important brand ambassadors.

The transformation of electronic media and social media is changing the way we communicate. The media revolution is reflected in both content and channels. In particular, the media's interest in different patient stories and new treatment approaches is growing, while at the same time providing a potential opportunity to bring out excellence. At the same time, the information needs of patients are increasing and reliable information is sought from various electronic media, websites and social media. Imagery is also increasingly being built on audiovisual and electronic media. Therefore, emotion has become a more prominent part of communication, especially in health care.

The biggest change in the communication environment is the growing role of social media. We also need to make bold use of the potential of social media in customer service and communication. The requirement for clarity is increasing. It is easier for patients to be guided in treatment if they truly understand the instructions they receive. Clear and understandable communication in the patient's own mother tongue is important especially in healthcare. We all benefit from it. On the other hand, the image of goals strongly underpins reality and, on the other hand, expresses our common goals. That is why we want our image to build on our existing strengths and highlight our most distinctive competitive advantages.


Clark, C. M., Olender, L., Cardoni, C., & Kenski, D. (2011). Fostering civility in nursing

education and practice: Nurse leader perspectives. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(7/8), 324–330. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e31822509c4

Clark, C. M. (2018). Combining cognitive rehearsal, simulation, and evidence-based scripting to

address incivility. Nurse Educator. doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000563

Clark, C. M. (2015). Conversations to inspire and promote a more civil workplace. American

Nurse Today, 10(11), 18–23. Retrieved from https://www.americannursetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/ant11-CE-Civility-1023.pdf

Reid S. (2001). Occupational health nursing: the bridge to healthy workplaces. Nursing in Focus,

2(1), 17. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=107023149&site=eds-live&scope=site

Weber, B. B. (2011). The role of professional nursing organizations in maintaining a healthy

workplace. Plastic Surgical Nursing: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Plastic And Reconstructive Surgical Nurses, 31(3), 92–94. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/PSN.0b013e318227253c

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 6 Words: 1800



Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Safe working Environment in skilled nursing Facility. Impact it can have on patient and facility (500)

Nursing care homes and residential care is a huge industry that provides different services to its residents, that involves the basic healthcare facilities to the basic facilities that include food, residence, cleaning services and basic toiletries services. Staff at nursing homes provide daily care to the patients, individually or in the form of teams. At this time around 2.8 million workers are employees at the nursing homes. Patients with different levels of dependability require different standards of care from the nursing staff. It is essential that all the services provided t the patients are unto standard so that they can be treated better. Thus Safety of the environment is really important in the nursing facilities that are not up to a high level for the patients but also for the nursing staff and employees.

It has been observed that rate of the injuries in the nursing staff and employees has been increased in the past few years at a rapid rate, these numbers are double in the workers at the nursing facilities then the workers working the other similar occupations. According to research, the number of fatal and non-fatal injuries has risen up to 8,559,000 per year that costs up to $186 billion. For the injuries and disease combines the cost has risen up to $67 billion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ts9A0C5b","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Leigh, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Leigh, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1694,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TU4MR3Q6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/TU4MR3Q6"],"itemData":{"id":1694,"type":"article-journal","title":"Economic burden of occupational injury and illness in the United States","container-title":"The Milbank Quarterly","page":"728-772","volume":"89","issue":"4","source":"PubMed","abstract":"CONTEXT: The allocation of scarce health care resources requires a knowledge of disease costs. Whereas many studies of a variety of diseases are available, few focus on job-related injuries and illnesses. This article provides estimates of the national costs of occupational injury and illness among civilians in the United States for 2007.\nMETHODS: This study provides estimates of both the incidence of fatal and nonfatal injuries and nonfatal illnesses and the prevalence of fatal diseases as well as both medical and indirect (productivity) costs. To generate the estimates, I combined primary and secondary data sources with parameters from the literature and model assumptions. My primary sources were injury, disease, employment, and inflation data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as costs data from the National Council on Compensation Insurance and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. My secondary sources were the National Academy of Social Insurance, literature estimates of Attributable Fractions (AF) of diseases with occupational components, and national estimates for all health care costs. Critical model assumptions were applied to the underreporting of injuries, wage-replacement rates, and AFs. Total costs were calculated by multiplying the number of cases by the average cost per case. A sensitivity analysis tested for the effects of the most consequential assumptions. Numerous improvements over earlier studies included reliance on BLS data for government workers and ten specific cancer sites rather than only one broad cancer category.\nFINDINGS: The number of fatal and nonfatal injuries in 2007 was estimated to be more than 5,600 and almost 8,559,000, respectively, at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion. The number of fatal and nonfatal illnesses was estimated at more than 53,000 and nearly 427,000, respectively, with cost estimates of $46 billion and $12 billion. For injuries and diseases combined, medical cost estimates were $67 billion (27% of the total), and indirect costs were almost $183 billion (73%). Injuries comprised 77 percent of the total, and diseases accounted for 23 percent. The total estimated costs were approximately $250 billion, compared with the inflation-adjusted cost of $217 billion for 1992.\nCONCLUSIONS: The medical and indirect costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are sizable, at least as large as the cost of cancer. Workers' compensation covers less than 25 percent of these costs, so all members of society share the burden. The contributions of job-related injuries and illnesses to the overall cost of medical care and ill health are greater than generally assumed.","DOI":"10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00648.x","ISSN":"1468-0009","note":"PMID: 22188353\nPMCID: PMC3250639","journalAbbreviation":"Milbank Q","language":"eng","author":[{"family":"Leigh","given":"J. Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Leigh, 2011). The medical costs and the indirect injuries cost have become as larger as the cost of cancer disease in patients. This is not just affecting the economy but also the performance of the health facilities. Worker's compensation covers less than 25% of the cost, so all the members of the society share these burdens. Thus it is really important to implement the safety standards in the nursing facilities to enhance and improve the level of care in the nursing homes.

Injured employees and nursing staff decrease the rate of availability of the nursing staff thus affects the level of care for the patients, which results in horrible health outcomes for the patients. Thus we can say the safety standards not only the effects of the cost of facilities in the nursing homes but also impacts the performance of the care facilities.

Research proves that high-performance teams are usually based on empowered employees that have updated job level knowledge relevant to their roles. Screening of the employees and the on the job training is an important investment that pays in the long term. It not only results in a high level of an efficient team of workers but also reduces the accident and injury level in the nursing facilities. Providing training to the employees and availability of the aiding equipment adds to the safety standards. Often while lifting the patients, nurses suffer through injuries, as lifting the patient is not an easy task, thus providing the nurses with the lifting devices will help reduce the injury rate.

Providing effective training, assistive devices is not enough to enhance safety standards. Often accidents happen due to lack of time available to the nursing staff to care for the patients. Accident rates become higher in facilities with a lower number of employees to deal with the work. Thus providing sufficient time to the staff for patient care duties can result in reducing the frequency of the injuries among the employees. For example, one nurse in short period of time won't be able to lift the patient easily with care but if the nurse has sufficient time or support from another nurse, they can manage the lifting the patient easily ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TKqUhz5l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(D\\uc0\\u8217{}Arcy, Sasai, & Stearns, 2012)","plainCitation":"(D’Arcy, Sasai, & Stearns, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1697,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/UBIKCKNK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/UBIKCKNK"],"itemData":{"id":1697,"type":"article-journal","title":"Do assistive devices, training, and workload affect injury incidence? Prevention efforts by nursing homes and back injuries among nursing assistants","container-title":"Journal of Advanced Nursing","page":"836-845","volume":"68","issue":"4","source":"PubMed","abstract":"AIMS: This paper is a report of a study of association between workplace injuries experienced by nursing assistants in nursing homes in the United States and four factors that may affect injury rates: initial nursing assistant training, training at the current facility, lifting devices, and time to execute daily duties.\nBACKGROUND: High injury rates among nursing personnel have been reported in multiple settings across countries. The existing literature is divided on the effectiveness of training and assistive devices in reducing injury rates among nursing assistants.\nMETHODS: We examined associations between whether or not the nursing assistant has experienced an injury and four key factors: quality of initial injury prevention training, injury prevention training at current facility, lift availability and whether or not the nursing assistant has sufficient time to complete resident activities of daily living. We estimated a survey-weighted logit model using 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey data.\nRESULTS/FINDINGS: The odds of an injury in the past year were lower among nursing assistants who reported always having a lift available when needed (41% lower odds), available facility training to reduce workplace injuries (39%), and sufficient time to complete resident activities of daily living (35%). Quality of initial training to prevent work injuries was not significantly associated with injury status.\nCONCLUSION: Regions without widespread access to lifting devices may be able to reduce injury rates by increasing the availability of lifting devices. The potential for reductions in injury rates in the United States is greatest from improving training and ensuring adequate time for resident care, as most facilities currently have lifts available.","DOI":"10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05785.x","ISSN":"1365-2648","note":"PMID: 21787370\nPMCID: PMC3203326","shortTitle":"Do assistive devices, training, and workload affect injury incidence?","journalAbbreviation":"J Adv Nurs","language":"eng","author":[{"family":"D'Arcy","given":"Laura P."},{"family":"Sasai","given":"Yasuko"},{"family":"Stearns","given":"Sally C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",4]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (D’Arcy, Sasai, & Stearns, 2012).

Thus improving safety is immensely dependent on the training, employee numbers, adequate timings and the facilitating equipment, provided to the nursing homes and their staffs.

Value of teamwork, and innovative practices using higher performance teams. (250)

Research proves that working in teams result in better patient outcomes, thus nursing teams should be considered as an important strategy, which leads to better quality care and lowers costs. Following are the main reasons due to which nursing care facilities and homes should pay attention to top teamwork, to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patients.

Increases quality in meeting the patient’s need

Often nursing staff need to deal with difficult tasks require help from more employees. For example, for turning the patients over more than one nurse is required. Turning the patient after some time is really important as it avoids the risk of pressure ulcers in the patients. Depending upon the patient's condition and weight, it becomes difficult for one nurse to turn the patient. Thus by working in a team, this task can be made easy, and the patient's quality for care will also increase. Teamwork enhances the productivity of the facilities and reduces the time of delivery of services.

Improves responsiveness

More people in the team result in increased response rate. Thus in case of an emergency or any change, more eyes and ears can interpret the situation and deal with it better than one individual. Teams are crucial in situations when the patient's condition changes quickly and requires an increased response rate from the members of the care facility.

Reduces the risk of accidents

Working team increases the sharing of knowledge and information among the health service providers regarding the needs of the patient, which helps in the treatment and care of the patient. This also reduces the possibility of medical errors during treatment and patient care. By reducing the risk of errors, teamwork results in a decreased cost of care in the healthcare facilities due to reduces error rate ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sZXmIzCa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mukamel, Cai, & Temkin-Greener, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Mukamel, Cai, & Temkin-Greener, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1691,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/BF3TSVRG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/BF3TSVRG"],"itemData":{"id":1691,"type":"article-journal","title":"Cost Implications of Organizing Nursing Home Workforce in Teams","container-title":"Health Services Research","page":"1309-1325","volume":"44","issue":"4","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Objective\nTo estimate the costs associated with formal and self-managed daily practice teams in nursing homes.\n\nData Sources/Study Setting\nMedicaid cost reports for 135 nursing homes in New York State in 2006 and survey data for 6,137 direct care workers.\n\nStudy Design\nA retrospective statistical analysis: We estimated hybrid cost functions that include team penetration variables. Inference was based on robust standard errors.\n\nData Collection\nFormal and self-managed team penetration (i.e., percent of staff working in a team) were calculated from survey responses. Annual variable costs, beds, case mix-adjusted days, admissions, home care visits, outpatient clinic visits, day care days, wages, and ownership were calculated from the cost reports.\n\nPrincipal Findings\nFormal team penetration was significantly associated with costs, while self-managed teams penetration was not. Costs declined with increasing penetration up to 13 percent of formal teams, and increased above this level. Formal teams in nursing homes in the upward sloping range of the curve were more diverse, with a larger number of participating disciplines and more likely to include physicians.\n\nConclusions\nOrganization of workforce in formal teams may offer nursing homes a cost-saving strategy. More research is required to understand the relationship between team composition and costs.","DOI":"10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.00980.x","ISSN":"0017-9124","note":"PMID: 19486181\nPMCID: PMC2739030","journalAbbreviation":"Health Serv Res","author":[{"family":"Mukamel","given":"Dana B"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shubing"},{"family":"Temkin-Greener","given":"Helena"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009",8]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mukamel, Cai, & Temkin-Greener, 2009).

Thus working in teams ensure that all the tasks are performed up to the mark and results in better patient outcomes.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY D’Arcy, L. P., Sasai, Y., & Stearns, S. C. (2012). Do assistive devices, training, and workload affect injury incidence? Prevention efforts by nursing homes and back injuries among nursing assistants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(4), 836–845. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05785.x

Leigh, J. P. (2011). Economic burden of occupational injury and illness in the United States. The Milbank Quarterly, 89(4), 728–772. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00648.x

Mukamel, D. B., Cai, S., & Temkin-Greener, H. (2009). Cost Implications of Organizing Nursing Home Workforce in Teams. Health Services Research, 44(4), 1309–1325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.00980.x

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Key Terms


The act of including new people to the workforce


The act of carefully choosing the right individual or candidate who is best suited for a specific job or task.

Types of Recruitment

Recruitment consists mainly of two types:

External Recruitment

The process in which a pool of job candidates is analyzed or assessed, other than existing staff, to see if there are any adequately skilled or qualified people to take up and perform the existing job requirements.

Internal Recruitment

The process in which a company or organization looks to fulfill a current or newly created vacancy from within its already existing workforce.

Employee Screening

Employee Screening Test

The test or assessment which is conducted to assess the skills and capabilities of a potential candidate.


The recruitment, selection, training, development and the compensation of the workforce especially the managerial positions is known as staffing.

Internet Recruiting

The process of scouring the internet to find out and trace the active job seekers and experienced persons for the newly vacant position.

Recruitment and Selection Essay


Employees are the assets of an organization. It would not be wrong if said that a good and hardworking employee is the best asset of a company. A company pays much attention to the details through which it hires its employees for any specific job or task inside the organization. This care adds up to multiple times in case of a healthcare organization, like a hospital, medical center, medical unit, clinic or laboratory, as the risk factor is also very high in such organizations. So the HR specialists take special heed while recruiting and selecting a workforce for this kind of organizations.


Some of the important functions of a Human Resource department in any organization are hiring and firing, in general. A human resource department is responsible for laying out the patterns for the newly created or recently vacated job, called job description or JDs. Moreover, it is responsible for recruiting and selecting the right talent for the organization according to its nature and business type.


The process, through which an organization, adds new employees into its workforce is known as recruitment.


The action or process through which a candidate is carefully chosen to fit perfectly in the vacant role or position, newly opened or vacated in the company (Gatewood, Feild, & Barrick, 2015).

Types of Recruitment

Majorly, there are two types of recruitment:

External Recruitment

The process in which a pool of job candidates is analyzed or assessed, other than existing staff, to see if there are any adequately skilled or qualified people to take up and perform the existing job requirements (Treweek, et, al., 2018). External recruitment is especially beneficial because the organization gets a choice of a variety of candidates and choose the best among them for the role.

Internal Recruitment

The process in which a company or organization looks to fulfill a current or newly created vacancy from within its already existing workforce. No new candidates are tested for this from outside the organization. The biggest benefit of this procedure is that it is extremely time-saving, as there are only limited candidates to be considered for evaluation.

Employee Screening

Employee screening are the methods or techniques that are used to select and hire the best candidate for the required job. Many techniques are used for the assessment of candidates but the best ones are a test or a demo.

Employee Screening Test

The procedure conducted to evaluate and analyze the capabilities, skills, and qualification of a potential candidate is known as an employee screening test. The most common techniques for the test and assessment of a potential employee are

Standardized Resume

Personalized Interview

Background Check


The term staffing refers to the recruiting, selecting, training, developing and compensating the workforce so that they can fit the job requirements in a perfect manner. This technique is applied to almost all the employees of the organization but mostly it applies to the workforce at the managerial level. If the HR department of any organization or company does not hire the right staff for the organization it can deeply hurt its performance and goodwill at an external and internal level. Proper staffing is required for the proper functioning of the organization.

Internet Recruiting

With the advancements in the current technology, many organizations have already moved to the application of the latest technology for the running and maintenance of functions. It is not only the operations but also the other departments that are taking complete advantage of the perks of this modern technology, especially the internet. Human resource department is also making use of the internet to find and locate potential candidates for their respective organizations. It is greatly benefitting the organizations working all over the world, especially the firms working in the healthcare sector (Hamilton, & Bowers, 2006). The first and foremost advantage of recruiting through the internet is that it is time-saving. Also, the organizations get to find a large number of candidates in the form of a bigger pool of applicants but there is a downside to this amazing technology as well. A candidate may show their wrong personality over the internet which they really are not.


In short, it can be seen how important the procedures of recruitment, selection, and employment screening are for an organization. Both types of recruitment are extremely beneficial for the organization. Moreover, internet recruitment also helps in finding the right talent for the organization especially a health care unit.


Gatewood, R., Feild, H. S., & Barrick, M. (2015). Human resource selection. Nelson Education.

Hamilton, R. J., & Bowers, B. J. (2006). Internet recruitment and e-mail interviews in qualitative studies. Qualitative Health Research, 16(6), 821-835.

Treweek, S., Pitkethly, M., Cook, J., Fraser, C., Mitchell, E., Sullivan, F., ... & Gardner, H. (2018). Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (2).

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year


Mental illness is one of the most prevalent health issues in America. And the number of crimes that are committed by the mentally ill patients is increasing. After the mass high school shootings at Parkland Florida, President Donald Trump suggested that such incidents could have been avoided if America has more mental health care institutions. After his statement, many suggest that America needs to bring back the mental health Asylums from the past that were home of torture to the mentally ill patients(The Editorial Board).

I think we need not need to bring back those asylums or increase the inpatient mental health facilities but we need to increase the numbers of beds available for the mentally ill patients in the regular hospitals in each community(“Inpatient Mental Health Treatment Facilities: Who Needs One? | HealthyPlace”). The number of beds in America has been reduced to 95% since 1950, this has created a shortage of hospital facilities for mentally ill patients. For 100,000 population only 14 beds are available in one community. By increasing the number of wards for the mentally ill patients in hospitals can help them recover from their illness. Isolating the patients into separate care and health facilities is not the solution to the problem.

Deinstitutionalization and its aims were not fully implemented to help mentally sick patients. Also, according to Mental health parity and Addiction Equity parity Act, requires mental health insurers to provide benefits to mentally ill patients as they are provided to the other patients with medical and surgical issues, but this has not been implemented fully. Thus the number of mentally ill patients don’t receive treatment and when they usually get diagnosed with severe mental illness after committing certain degree of crime and end up in jails, with the minimum contact with the outside world, that further intensifies the issues. I personally think increasing the community base facilities and increasing the number of beds in the local hospitals for the mentally ill patients can solve these issues instead of creating the asylums for the mentally ill patients that need long time support

Also practically providing insurances to patients with metal sickness help them get the required support in seeking treatment. This can reduce the crime rate and the number of mentally ill patients that end up in Jails(“Opinion | How to Treat the Severely Mentally Ill”).

Work Cited

The Editorial Board. “Opinion | The Crazy Talk About Bringing Back Asylums.” The New York Times, 2 June 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/06/02/opinion/trump-asylum-mental-health-guns.html.

‌“Opinion | How to Treat the Severely Mentally Ill.” The New York Times, 8 June 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/06/08/opinion/asylums.html.

‌“Inpatient Mental Health Treatment Facilities: Who Needs One? | HealthyPlace.” Healthyplace.Com, 2018, www.healthyplace.com/other-info/mental-illness-overview/inpatient-mental-health-treatment-facilities-who-needs-one.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300





Main body

Q. 1: Training and development are two essential components in the development of organizations. Training enables employees to learn the rules, regulations, obligations, specific tasks and duties related to the job position and acts as a basis for future career development of the employees. Development of employee is in fact the development of organization. It makes the employees conductive to the organizational environment through enabling them to learn specific skills and knowledge regarding their organizational roles (Surbhi, 2015).

Strategic human resource management is highly important in current scenario because it regards employees not just as an extension of their machines but as distinctive human beings having their own unique thinking patterns, feelings, emotions, perceptions, attitudes, outlooks, orientations, preferences, behaviors, decision- making, coping, problem solving, intellectual and management abilities; which need to be addressed and synchronized with the organizational demands systematically. Strategic human resource management is a research oriented field in which psychological, emotional and social attributes of human beings are assessed and their particular abilities and qualification is estimated regarding specific job or task in the organization (Surbhi, 2015). This field emphasizes much on the development and enhancement of human motivation and productivity.

Q. 2: Realizing the significance of training, organizations spend a great deal of fiscal resources to train their employees. Training methods, specific to the healthcare human resources include (Ramachandran, 2010):

On the job training: on the job training starts soon after the employee joins the organization. He is not introduced to a separate training program rather starts executing daily clinical practice with the other senior nurses. This method is the most effective method of training encapsulating observation, modeling, explanation and practice. However, this method might be stressful for some nurses particularly those who are newer to the field.

Coaching and mentoring: in this type of training, a trained professional provides one- on- one training to the trainees. For example, a senior registered nurse with the substantial nursing experience and exposure acts as a mentor to the new comers. Less formal coaching and mentoring provide environment to the trainees conductive to field learning.

Lectures: lectures are another effective form of training in which a classroom- like environment is created in the organization where an instructor introduces the employees with the daily- practices and issues faced by nurses during their clinical exposure. This method is best for debriefing trainees prior to taking them to particular field setting i.e., palliative care or acute care setting where pain management is the focus of attention.

Group discussions: group discussion allows participants to share their ideas regarding a problem issue. They are assigned a problem and allowed to present their intellectual suggestions based on the logic and their previous theoretical knowledge. Hence, they learn team work that is quite essential for carrying future clinical practices i.e., in palliative care setting where general practitioners, nutritionists, psychologists, counselors and physiotherapists work collaboratively to mitigate multifaceted aspects of patient problem.

Audio- visual aids: audio visual aid in form of pictures, x- ray photographs, radio- graphs and video is the most compelling and attractive method of training in which nurses are gathered and introduced to set of problems that they might encounter during clinical practice, for example, pain management during limb fracture; keeping in view the clinical background of patient that may document allergies to previously used medications.

Q. 3: Three methods can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training. These methods include (Al-Ajlouni et. al., 2010):

Visual cues: visual cues include the confidence level of trainee in carrying daily practices. Confidence can be estimated through verbal and non- verbal cues of trainee. For example, when he is assigned a particular task, his readiness to perform the task, his eye contact, voice tone, body movement, and extent to which the task is completed can be analyzed to get a glimpse about training effectiveness.

Social ownership: after training, nurses gain enough knowledge to carry their daily nursing practices and competencies. Their knowledge can be tested through their ability to train other new comers. In simple words, it is analyzed to what extent they can mentor the upcoming and less- knowledgeable trainees.

Skill assessment: problem solving skills, decision- making abilities, knowledge, competencies and attitudes of trainees can be assessed occasionally through specific questionnaires or experimentation. This type of assessment is the most objective one in nature and compares the pre- test and post- test scores for analyzing the improvements in performance.

Q. 4: Human resource professional typically follows industrial/ organizational psychology principles. He gains a thorough comprehension about the thinking patterns and behaviors of employees along with the psychological, biological, neurological, emotional and social roots behind executing particular behaviors and possessing certain thinking patterns (Eades, 2014). He focuses more on the human factor of employee. He knows what factors energize and empower employee behaviors and how to have a full- fledge desired control over them. Hence, he integrates the principles or workplace and human rationality for the career development of employee.

Q. 5: Performance management, selection, training and compensation—all the programs are centered on the enhancement of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee motivation. This is due to the Hawthorne Effect, the most interesting and groundbreaking series of experimentation that provided basis to the development of human resource department in early 1900s. According to this effect, employees demonstrate increase productivity not only because they find physical relief, good salary or compensation for it but also due to the fact that organization has attempted something that is centered on the wellbeing of their employees (Jones, 1992). In simple words, employees recognize the efforts at their unconscious levels that organizations makes for their relief which then motivate them to work harder and manifest increased productivity. Hence, these programs may lead to both economical and personal gains.


Al-Ajlouni, M. M., Athamneh, M. H., Jaradat, A. A. (2010). Methods of evaluation: Training techniques international research. Journal of Finance and Economics, 37, 56-65.

Eades, J. (2014). 3 ways organizations can improve the way they measure training effectiveness. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/3-ways-measure-training-effectiveness

Ramachandran, R. (2010). Effectiveness of training programs of NLC—An Analysis. Kegees Journal of Social Science, 2(1), 119-129.

Surbhi, S. (2015). Difference between training and development. Retrieved from http://keydifferences.com/difference-between-training-and development.html#ixzz4LLZJBIcP

Jones S.R.G. (1992). Was there a Hawthorne effect? Am J Sociol., 98:451–468.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Case study: African child suffering from the Major Depression

In this case study I have worked on studying and providing the best possible therapy to the African child suffering from the depression I-e pediatric mood disorder and extreme anxiety. Patient came with his mom and was exhibiting the signs of sadness, decrease in taking appetite, frequently gets irritated and hot flashes etc. the present state and the examination of mental state helped me in forming my treatment plan.

Alert & focused X 3, transparent, consistent, vigorous, goal-oriented. It is "unfortunate" self-reported attitude. Affect somewhat weakened, but at multiple stages throughout the clinical session the kid properly smiled. He rejects hallucinations verbal or auditory. No narcissistic or paranoid procedures of thoughts were observed. Judgment and knowledge seem to be appropriate in terms of age. My client showed no causal medical conditions, no co-morbidity nor inherited abnormality that could result in adverse effects of the pharmacokinetics so it was safe to prescribe the genetic analysis for the CYP 450 enzymes at this instant while if observed further warranted treatment can be altered at that time.

Decision number 1

On the basis of my observation and research findings cited in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology Prozac-Fluoxetine is the best antidepressant for the children above 8 years (Stahl, 2019). It is also approved by the FDA (Tracy, N, 2012, January 4). Some assemblies challenge the treatment of Children by antidepressants, with the feasible exemption of children and fluoxetine (Prozac), which appears to have been considered beneficial in several medical circles. In December 2003, the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) approved a directive that most SSRIs are not optimal for children under the age of 18 to treat depression. After the detailed conversation about benefits and the side effects of the Prozac with the parents they agreed to a treatment According to the strong recommendation from the MHRA and FDA there reside a strong effectiveness between the medication Prozac and major depressive order.

On the basis of the hope for achieving positive improvements in depressive symptoms of sporadic periods of anxiety and impatience within four weeks child was given the decided treatment of 10mg once a day.

Decision number 2

After four weeks child was again presented for diagnosis but contrary to my expectations there was not much change in the symptoms and no major side effects were seen. Again a thorough assessment was conducted which resulted in the conclusion of increasing the medicine dosage to 25mg per once a day. The prescribed treatment was again discussed with the parents and upon their agreement it was documented. The goals of the treatment remained the same with the increase of the dosage.

Improvement of symptoms is the key benchmark by which clinicians titrate dosage demands and continue to be one of the guiding principles in the treatment strategy of this client.

Decision number 3

After another four weeks there was a visible difference in the symptoms of the child. But unfortunately some of the side effects like continuous mild headaches were reported but there was a decrease of 70 percent in getting suddenly exasperated and anxiety, also the appetite was improved. So considering above rationale Prozac dosage was reduced to 15mg orally for the maintenance phase foe additional four weeks.

The long-term plan includes gathering and formulating data from multiple clinical and educational sources in order to assess healing or establish maintenance therapy. The client's mom is dedicated to sessions for monthly follow-ups.

Ethical considerations

My first most priority to undergo this treatment was a thorough psychiatric assessment and careful assessment of the background of the child (including previous signs and therapy reaction) are crucial before a child is given a psychotropic medication. It is essential to learn what the child's and their parent hopes, concerns and motivations are to develop a suitable therapeutic strategy that may include the use of psychopharmacological agents. Other than that it was the ethical consideration to warn the parents about all the side effects of the medicine and start the treatment with their permission and maintain a proper check on the child progress after prescribing such the treatment.

Cited sources

Tracy, N. (2012, January 4). Antidepressants for Children: Important Information for Parents, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 28 from https://www.healthyplace.com/depression/children/antidepressants-for-children-important-information-for-parents

Stahl, S. (2019). Stahl Online. Retrieved 29 September 2019, from https://stahlonline.cambridge.org/prescribers_drug.jsf?page=9781316618134c47.html.therapeutics&name=Fluoxetine&title=Therapeutics

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Population Health Management

Existing proposals for improving the financing system of long-term care emerges in the time-frame of the increasing awareness regarding the fiscal risks public is facing in consuming long-term care. This paper will explore the role of population health management concerning the following variables:

Re-hospitalization Costs

The readmission rates at a high level are trouble for hospitals and patient's outcomes. This threatens the financial health of a hospital, especially in an environment of reimbursement based on value or economy. The highest hospital expenditure in healthcare industries is spent on readmissions. However, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, it drastically increases, i.e., $42 billion for the patients who are readmitted just after 30 days. Rendering to the survey of the Center for Health Information and Analysis, it approximately costs about $26 billion per anum for the medical beneficiaries. The cost contributed to avoidable hospital visits after discharge is around $17 billion (Papanicolas, Woskie & Jha, 2018).

Standard Hospitalization Costs

Healthcare costs in the United States in 2017 arouse up to 3.9 percent, reaching till $10,739 per individual or $3.5 trillion in all.  Rendering to Gross Domestic Product of the nation, health expenditure is reported to be 17.9 percent (Papanicolas, Woskie & Jha, 2018). According to the data extracted from Healthcare Cost and Utilization project, it costs more than $10,700 for a standardized hospital stay in the United States. The healthcare cost has increased by 21.6 % since 2007, which is more than the standard increase in inflation rate. This cost covers all phases of hospitalization, from the admission till discharge of the patient from the hospital. It also highly increased for private insurance patients than the public one.

Government Constraints

Medicaid and Medicare are government programs through which the health is regulated for the common man of the United States. Likewise, the Affordable Care Act was passed in 2010 under Obama rule, and it was made in order to increase the access to health insurance for the Americans (CMS. 2018). This reduced the cost for the public's healthcare and influx the ways of improving health insurance for the people. The federal government is significantly regulating the financial system of healthcare by Mandatory Health Insurance and also through social protection, which ensures the safety and security of medical devices and pharmaceuticals. This also oversees the initiatives for public health and promotes the research for evidence-based practice.


The technological advances have been made in the field of healthcare, and it is revolutionizing the way healthcare is implemented in the hospitals through advanced equipment and tools for the medical purpose. The paper records are being replaced by much advance Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is not only helpful in providing the whole file for the patient, but it is also useful for the enhanced care of the patient as it is capable of alerting the physician for the past and future health and medicinal issues. EHR is also helpful in lowering the cost of in-patient and out-patient hospitalization, and it is estimated to be saving $5.14 per month (CMS. 2018). Technology has made life more comfortable in the sense of easy access and lower patient costs.

End of Life Care

In the final days of a patient's life, the issue of healthcare is very crucial, but it has been improved since 2000, in the United States. Policies and programs related to improvement at the end of life care have promoted more advanced care in this regard. Due to these policies, hospitals now provide a complete range for the choices of treatment, tests and other healthcare interventions. Likewise, the hospitals have their own palliative care teams which manage and assist in the decision-making and treatment choices.


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. (2018). Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Reform of Requirements for Long-Term Care Facilities. Final rule. Federal Register, 81(192), 68688.

Papanicolas, I., Woskie, L. R., & Jha, A. K. (2018). Health care spending in the United States and other high-income countries. Jama, 319(10), 1024-1039.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600



Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Should healthcare be operated as a business?

According to Yates, pediatricians deal with providing medical care to infants, children, and adolescents and mostly they deal with patients up 21 years old. There comes a great responsibility on pediatricians ethically as well as fiducially that they have to take care of the pediatric patients and their families as well who are going to bear all the expenses of treatment while providing appropriate medical care, Pediatricians must think about the available resources of the patients. In the present scenario, it has been seen that the pediatricians try to save patients when it comes to the cost and care. Many measures such as bulk ordering has been used many a time by using piggy-back that assists pediatricians when they order any equipment or vaccine. One of the most important things that has been seen is that pediatricians try to save money by using direct shipping from the manufacturers as it would help in saving the cost that would go to the supplier otherwise (Yates, et,al,2012). In today's world, as everyone is concerned with their benefits; likewise most of the pediatricians are concerned with vaccine cost margin that they are going to put in their pockets. Another problem that most of the pediatricians face is that vaccination seems expensive to most of the parents and they refuse to vaccinate their children when they are born. Vaccination starts before the baby and mother leave hospital and process of vaccination continue for many years. So the pediatricians have to make such policies that would make the parents understand, the importance of vaccine when parents first visit the hospital and pediatrician patients should be vaccinated so that not only patients but the whole community could be protected. We live in a community where at different stages different patients are being recommended with different vaccinations.

Best thing that the pediatricians could do for keeping a balance between cost and care is that they have to ignore their personal benefit for some time. For providing healthcare services to the patients, pediatricians should voluntarily promote making of certain health care insurance organizations, and for doing so, mostly pediatricians agree to follow the recommendations of the organizations that try to facilitate both patients and pediatricians. This bounds the pediatricians to give proper care to the community. Every new vaccine should be used for the patients by keeping in view its effectiveness. Cost becomes the real issue when it comes to the effectiveness of a medical product, as each product would have some specific uses and applications. When there is a clear indication of usefulness and medical benefit of a product, economic discrimination becomes inappropriate ethically. Pediatricians are not allowed to have any personal gain when they have to decide about the fiduciary care of their patients. So without being concerned about the cost of the care, every pediatrician should give best and appropriate care by keeping in consideration the interests of patients, families, and community.

According to Kessels, policy makers of healthcare field are mainly concerned with ways how payments in this field would be made and what new ways should be devised for making payments for the healthcare services. By taking a look at the issue of cost and care, many countries have shifted their attention for reforming the ways and making reforms in the system of healthcare payments so that they could limit costs and could incorporate positive changes in the clinical outcomes. While doing so, there is mainly one issue and that is, very limited knowledge about how the professional stakeholders trade, off the merits and cast effects on the healthcare payment system (Kessels,et,al,2015). For finding the best possible solution for this issue, physicians, policymakers, healthcare executives and researchers gathered at a conference.

Many proposals and suggestions were given for making positive reforms in the payment system of healthcare. In most of the countries, the policymakers are trying their best to strengthen long term sustainability of the care, given by medical professionals by making reforms in systems of payment. Things like pay for performance, shared savings, and bundled payments, are included in the new incentive structure that is looked upon for replacing the payment system.

According to Donnelly, one should always learn some lesson from the failures of others and should learn from their mistakes. In this article, the author is spotting a light on the failure of the health policy that was made in the period of Clinton and the new administration led by Obama, is trying to learn from the mistakes that Clinton and his administration made for making better healthcare plan for the general public (Donnelly,et,al,2012). Many flaws and mistakes have been observed in Clinton's health policy, but one of the most important things that made this policy to collapse was that Clinton’s administration was more focused on the fashioning of ideal policy and it underestimated an effective strategy for selling the products. When Obama entered the White House, he aimed to prove that he won't repeat history and would give a better health policy. For avoiding the costly defeat, outcomes of Clinton’s policy were mixed up with the best suggestions of the experts while making the new health policy for the general public.

According to Kennedy, most of the subgroups of people are at the risk of cost-related nonadherence and this fact cannot be denied that because of the cost of the treatment people are unable to afford a treatment. It has been seen that the healthcare cost from 1991 to 2009 has greatly increased. By taking a look at the hustle of the patients, this fact cannot be denied that authorities have given the permission to the many centers like Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that they have to decide cost for the treatment of patients in hospitals. Physicians and nurses would be accountable to these two centers for any issues (Kennedy,et,al,2016). Not the independent providers or a single entity should be made responsible for costs and outcomes. According to many experts, it has been claimed that when any service is provided, it becomes a business as the provider is also a human who has to eat and have to buy types of equipment for treatment. This thing is a matter of great concern that patients should even think about the service providers and must think about them that no service can come at zero expense. As claimed, healthcare is a basic right and service providers must be regarded as humans also who are sacrificing a lot for earning a living through their profession.

There are various conceptions about this question, whether healthcare should be operated as a business or not. It has been seen that people who are mostly linked with this profession believes that it should be accepted as a business. Many people are of the view that healing is art while medicine is a profession, but healthcare is purely a business. Changes that took place from top to bottom, for the last few years, in the field of healthcare have proved painful many times. It has been witnessed that not only the patients but also hospitals, medical groups and individual provider of healthcare are dealing with severe business issues. Kennedy has spotted a light on the issue that most of the people failed for taking medication because they cannot afford it. Patients are unable to follow the recommendations that have been prescribed by the doctors because of the prohibited costs of medicine. It has been seen that most of the people are uninsured and the ones who are insured struggles to pay for the healthcare services that they needed.

Healthcare is of great importance in any society and there is an ongoing debate in the U.S about the reforms that have been done in the healthcare field that has worked as a fuel on the fire on the topic of increasing cost of medical facilities with poor quality of this medical assistance and facilities. This issue is spurring the interest of patients for medical traveling. According to Karuppan, one of the most important topics that grabbed the attention of healthcare providers and seekers is the medical traveling. Despite being a popular topic very little research has been done for understanding the hustle and concerns of the medical travelers. There is a question that comes to every individual's mind that is health care is the basic right of all humans, or it is a privilege that should be given only to the ones who could afford it? Nowadays the issue of healthcare cost is like hot button so the Affordable Care Act took the stance that healthcare is a basic human right and everyone should be provided with the health insurance.

There are always two sides or aspects of everything, and it is necessary to take into account both. First this thing should be taken into consideration that every human being deserves basic right of healthcare, but on the other hand, this thing should also be considered that doctors and nurses are the intelligent and hard-working professionals who provide their valuable services after long years of painstaking education and training (Karuppan,et,al,2011). It is justified that the medical staff should be rewarded for, but the conversion of the healthcare service in business is something that is causing a disturbance in the world.

It is quite understandable that fundamentally there is nothing wrong with the medical staff’s earning, it is also their right to get a reward for which they are putting all their efforts. It has been seen that not only doctors and nurses but the pharmacists are also the iconic figures of America who wants to earn from healthcare profession. Many practical implications have been provided by many researchers and analysts that how cost and care could go in harmony as it is the right of everyone human to get healthcare, but healthcare providers also need something in return. From a few last years, the private providers of healthcare and other businesses responded towards the actual need of the patient along with the intention of earning optimize percentage. It has generally been seen that when a certain medical care service is provided by an independent provider, it becomes quite costly. In the case of large and public healthcare providers mostly services are provided at low costs and these institutions are driven with the intention that they have to minimize patient's suffering and tensions as community needs comes at the top priority.


First of all, it is important to know who is a medical traveler. A medical traveler is a person who flies to a foreign country for seeking medical help at the lowest rates than being provided by his local providers. It is rightly said that health is wealth, and no one can guaranty that he/she is going to be fit and fine all the time, so in any case when there would be a need for me to seek medical help of any foreign provider who would be giving me the same quality of treatment at significantly low cost than my local care providers I would surely try to get the foreign treatment. In the U.S there are three types of medical travelers such as uninsured or underinsured individuals, individuals who need any transplantation and individuals who need cosmetic surgery. Being a patient, I would first search which countries are providing treatment for the medical issues that I may have and then I would compare the expense how much I would be charged. After comparing the cost of treatment, I would be more interested in becoming a medical tourist who would like to fly to the outbound location if quality provided by my local providers would not significantly differ from the treatment that a foreigner medical provider would offer me. I have seen that medical tourism has become popular for the last few years and still medical traveling is getting immense popularity. There has been seen many insurance companies as well that are providing health coverage for traveling to various countries, thinking of medical service as a goodwill gesture and a kind act of welfare, many insurance companies and countries are focusing more on the topic of medical tourism.

I want to grab this opportunity of medical traveling if I would be getting the same kind of treatment without compromising the quality and effectiveness of the treatment at low cost than what is being offered in my country at comparatively expensive rates. I would be considering this thing that many other countries and insurance organizations are trying to help those who are in extreme need of a particular treatment, but because of their financial issues, they are unable to get that treatment done in their own country. For the sake of my health, I would love to take advantage of the opportunity that is coming into the limelight for the past few years. I am living in America and it is notorious for providing expensive medical care. Everyone nowadays is getting more attracted towards foreign medical services; likewise I would love to save myself from any debt as I may take any loan for getting an appropriate treatment in my country so for saving myself from psychological pressure and saving some money that I may save by traveling to any country I would prefer to be a medical traveler. Another major reason why I would choose to fly to another country would be for promoting medical traveling as people are not quite sure whether they should go for it or not, so for having experience and letting others know whether they should be the medical traveler or not, one must be the medical traveler so why not I.


Yates, Jr, F. D. (2012). How Does the Doctor Decide between Cost and Care?. Ethics & Medicine, 28(1), 7.

Kessels, R., Van Herck, P., Dancet, E., Annemans, L., & Sermeus, W. (2015). How to reform western care payment systems according to physicians, policy makers, healthcare executives and researchers: a discrete choice experiment. BMC health services research, 15(1), 191.

Donnelly, K. P., & Rochefort, D. A. (2012). The lessons of “lesson drawing”: How the Obama administration attempted to learn from failure of the Clinton health plan. Journal of Policy History, 24(2), 184-223.

Kennedy, J., & Wood, E. G. (2016). Medication costs and adherence of treatment before and after the Affordable Care Act: 1999–2015. American journal of public health, 106(10), 1804-1807.

Karuppan, C. M., & Karuppan, M. (2011). Who are the medical travelers and what do they want?: a qualitative study. Health marketing quarterly, 28(2), 116-132.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 7 Words: 2100



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Private Information about the patient's health and security both protected by many of the federal and state laws, but this security is not consistent and uniform always so patients show little insecurity when they had to share their data with the healthcare providers. It has been observed that there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding the demands of these laws. As a whole, it could be said that stakeholders, as well as policymakers, did not succeed in addressing this critical issue of privacy of the patients. The consequence of this failure of satisfying the patients about their privacy are that the exchange of the patient's health information is being limited that causes many issues for the service provider. Another major problem that the patients face is that there is a difference in the level of security that is being provided by the state law and federal law for keeping the privacy of patient's data.

It has been seen that state laws have specific rules that protect a particular type of information of the patient and stricter security is being imposed on patient's data by the state laws as compared to the federal laws that patients view as less useful for keeping the privacy of their personal information (Thorpe,et,al,2016). As a whole it could be concluded that it is the right time to devise out some more effective ways of securing the data of the patients about which they are really concerned, and as technology is advancing each day and is achieving a milestone with each passing minute, working bodies that are controlling the data privacy on both state and federal level should collaborate and work together for finding best ways of winning the trust of the patients. In the medical journey, though there are financial issues and a few others as well, concerns about the data have a more significant impact on patients than any other issue.

Impact of technology on the cost of healthcare and provision of care

Data is one of the confidential things, and it has brought a revolution in almost all the fields particularly in healthcare. Technology is getting advanced day by day, and in all walks of life technology is facilitating people, but in many cases, this advancement of technology is causing severe impacts. It has been witnessed that technology is reaching into the houses of those patients who needed it. Health information technology is the leading form or example of innovation that is having multiple effects on productivity. Spending in healthcare has been seen increased since 1970, and this is the only industry where such a rapid increase has been witnessed. As far as the provision of healthcare is considered, there are various benefits, and from the paper to electronic health records, it has been seen that cost per patients reduced to 3%. It has been recognized that when people feel a little need to see the doctor, they search for regarding an issue by making effective use of technology that reduces the healthcare cost. There is another aspect of the topic that if we talked about technology in the sense of equipment that physicians use in healthcare, it could be said that there is an increase in the cost. It is quite understandable that when the latest technology is going to be used in some cases where modern and updated tools and equipment are going to be used, expenses will increase.

People used to complain about the cost of the latest healthcare services that they want to have. In the past, there were numbers of diseases and medical issues that were non-diagnosable and difficult to treat, but in the present time, there is a cure and solution for almost every medical issue and this is just because of the latest technology. There are two aspects when it comes to the cost of healthcare and its provision because of one hand use of advanced technology has increased the cost of care, but on the other hand, technology advancement is working best in favor of patients when it comes to the cost. First, by taking a look at the telehealth, it could be said that the cost of the healthcare services has been reduced. Migration of the telehealth from hospitals and clinics to homes and mobile devices is one of the best and practical example and evidence that technology has greatly reduced the cost of healthcare services. The very first application of telehealth has been observed in acute conditions such as trauma and stroke (Dorsey,et,al,2016). There is a positive impact of technology on the cost of healthcare as telehealth also assist academic health centers in expanding for accomplishing their missions.

There are many issues such as misdistribution of physicians and the growing burden of global chronic conditions, so by using telehealth patients can easily reach any physician of their choice. Telehealth also helps in expanding the reach of medicine. It has been seen that historically healthcare that is being given to a person defines who a person is. Traditional services in the field of healthcare used to be provided in the past were not as safe as these services used to reveal all the information about the person who seeks medical help. All the social and demographic information was accessible, but with the introduction of the telehealth, privacy of the patient has been secured to some extent that also reduces the cost that providers used to spend on securing the privacy of the patients, i.e., any service provider who knows all about patient could use patient’s data in any way. Telehealth helps more people in receiving care. Telehealth helps in creating a positive image about an academic health center that would also save money of the owners of the centers and would also build trust in patients about the academic health center as telehealth would establish the reputation of these centers.


Dorsey, E. R., & Topol, E. J. (2016). State of telehealth. New England journal of medicine, 375(2), 154-161.

Thorpe, J. H., Gray, E. A., & Cartwright-Smith, L. (2016). Show us the data: the critical role health information plays in health system transformation. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 44(4), 592-597.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Title page


Rating team management program is important that involve evaluation of the activities and outcomes. To examine the performance of program it is crucial to consider how it impacted the employees. It reveals the practical role of program by directly engaging its beneficiaries. As leaders and managers are investigated in the survey for determining the significance of teamwork it is appropriate to record their responses based on their experiences. The program will be rated on two criteria; examining personal experiences of employees who had been part of the program and reviewing feedback of the managers.

Conducting surveys from employees is important for rating the program. This will help in understanding how the program actually helped them in improving their team skills. Employee feedback is critical for determining the areas of program’s weaknesses and strengths. This will also be used for identifying the practical implications of thee program. Employees are asked different questions such as; are you satisfied with the program? Their responses will be used for evaluating the practical role of program. It is important to present these responses on numeric formal. A five-point Likert scale is developed with the options of strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree. Responses to these options will be used for studying how program affected the level of employees engagement and helped them in building essential team skills.

It is critical to suggest another program if the current one fails. The purpose of the program is to help employees in building team spirit and developing competencies that will lead to enhanced productivity. Feedback is taken on the basis of specific objectives such as the effectiveness of the program and level of confidence developed by employees after attending it. Employees are asked if the programs were interactive and they had adequate opportunities of communicating with the trainer CITATION Duy14 \l 1033 (Çelik, 2014). These factors reveals the program’s scope in terms of addressing the needs of the trainees. The question from employee also aims at determining did they felt better after attending the program. Their responses are rated according to the Likert scale.

Managers feedback is acquired for evaluating the performance of the programs. This will offer a practical method for rating the program and also help in identifying the areas of improvement. They are asked direct questions such as; did employees managed to overcome resistance against co-workers from different cultures? This is important for understanding how useful the plan was in removing cultural issues. Managers will respond to thee question by considering direct experiences. They will examine behavior of employees and record improvements. Change in behavior is used for determining the effectiveness of program CITATION Duy14 \l 1033 (Çelik, 2014). Managers observations are recorded by determining how employees improved their team performance. Positive change is used for rating program as satisfactory. While no change indicates ineffectiveness of the program CITATION Des172 \l 1033 (McEwan, Ruissen, Eys, Zumbo, & Beauchamp, 2017). The rating thus relies on the feedbacks of managers because they have directly monitored the employees throughout the programs. Managers are also asked if they are satisfied with the program or not. This will reveal the actual role played by the program in building team skills among employees. The program will be rated by choosing a scale that will rank it as; highlight satisfactory, satisfactory, unsatisfactory. In case of unsatisfactory the program will be changed. While in satisfactory it will be reassessed for making changes. In case of highly satisfactory no changes are needed.

If program don’t work then appropriate strategy is to address the weaknesses of the program. Such as if the program is lacking 360 degrees feedback for evaluating performance of employees it will bee added in the next program. The factors that can make it difficult to attain program goals are; lack of coordination between trainer and trainees, failure of integrating effective communication strategies or tools, lack of motivation of trainees and inadequate involvement. These factors are most likely to make a program ineffective. In designing the next program it will be appropriate to address these issues CITATION Des172 \l 1033 (McEwan, Ruissen, Eys, Zumbo, & Beauchamp, 2017).

A new program will be designed that will focus on targeting employees individually. By integrating 360-degrees feedbacks the trained will engage employees in the program by understanding their responses. This is an efficient method of evaluating employees after considering their thoughts and problems that might undermine their participation CITATION Ham11 \l 1033 (Tohidi, 2011). Another strategy adopted for enhancing the practicality of the program is by motivating employees. This can be done by giving rewards such as bonuses for the best performers. This would also require explaining employees the benefits of the program and helping them in understanding that it is linked to their career growth and professional development. Another method of motivating employees is by dividing teams and giving goals that are to be attained within deadlines.

The program will focus on improving coordination between trainer and trainees. The trainer will focus on the employees individually by addressing everyone. During instructions he will ask questions and respond to queries for removing uncertainties. He will assure from his end that every instruction is clear and employees are ready to work on the objectives. The trainer will encourage questioning without showing any negative emotion. Effective communication will be maintained throughout the program that will persuade the trainees. This is also a useful technique for involving employees in different activities.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Çelik, D. A. (2014). Enabling More Objective Performance Appraisals: A Training Program Model of Pinpointing☆. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 150 (15), 794-802.

McEwan, D., Ruissen, G. R., Eys, M. A., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2017). The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions . PLoS One , 12 (1).

Tohidi, H. (2011). Teamwork productivity & effectiveness in an organization base on rewards, leadership, training, goals, wage, size, motivation, measurement and information technology . Procedia Computer Science , 3, 1137-1146 .

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 3 Words: 900


APRS Nursing Practice

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

APRS Nursing Practice

Niche for the APRN Practice

At the moment, there are wide variety of services or “niches” in which the nurses are trying to provide their services. The idea is to make sure that the acute and primary healthcare services are needed to be provided and the area and the scope of the such services is so huge that there are wide variety of subjects that might be falling into it. Keeping this aspect in mind, one particular area where APRN practices can really make their presence felt is the one where the healthcare communication of the older populace is supposed to be carried out. The idea behind the service of this niche is to make sure that some sort of help is being provided in terms of the diagnosis, treatment and the ongoing management of the patients as well as making sure that the better expertise are there when it comes to the treatment to the patients.

Issues of Employment to be Addressed

One of the biggest challenges that is being faced at the moment is that how it is going to be made sure that the insight is going to be developed with respect to the career opportunities. As the marketplace is still not aware about the APRN practices, there is a need to make sure that the prospective employers need to understand what some of the value additions are that are brought by these nurses during the course of the healthcare delivery process. The other aspect that that has to be kept in mind is that how there is lack of adequate knowledge. One of the better ways to make sure that this challenge can be coped up with is to ensure that the value preposition and insight is being provided to the interviewers and healthcare stakeholders.

Possible Barriers Faced During Practice

One of the biggest barriers that is being faced at the moment is that there is not much awareness available in this regard when it comes to making sure that the adequate treatment and care is needed to be provided to these people. What is needed to be done and effort is needed to be made is to make sure that the awareness level of the people is needed to be catered. The other area where lot of work is needed to be done is how it is going to be made sure that the appropriate rationales are going to be provided with respect to making sure that the acute issues of the patients are going to be taken care off at the given point of time. The effort is there in terms of the providing better results but until and unless much greater awareness is there, the results are going to stay the same.

To Do List for Preparation of the MS Program

One of the first thing that is needed to be done is to make sure that the understanding of the acute, primary and specialty healthcare constraints are being developed. What they tend to do is that they make sure that the lifespan of the patient increase. Other than that, following are some of the things that can be done that would integrate well with the medical program.

Enrolling and obtaining the Certified Midwives Nursing Program. This program is going to be especially powerful when it comes to ensuring understanding of industry best practices.

Understanding the Clinical Nurse Specialist provision.

Having better insight about the Registered Nurse Anaesthetists

Development of the insight about the functionality of the regulatory bodies that are currently working in the given area.

Have insight about the scope of the practice and how it would integrate with the MS Program.


Auerbach, D. I., Martsolf, G. R., Pearson, M. L., Taylor, E. A., Zaydman, M., Muchow, A. N., ... & Lee, Y. (2015). The DNP by 2015: A study of the institutional, political, and professional issues that facilitate or impede establishing a post-baccalaureate doctor of nursing practice program. Rand health quarterly, 5(1).

Brown, M. A., & Crabtree, K. (2013). The development of practice scholarship in DNP programs: A paradigm shift. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(6), 330-337.

Cronenwett, L., Dracup, K., Grey, M., McCauley, L., Meleis, A., & Salmon, M. (2016). The doctor of nursing practice: A national workforce perspective. Nursing Outlook, 59(1), 9-17.

Hain, D., & Fleck, L. (2014). Barriers to nurse practitioner practice that impact healthcare redesign. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 19(2).

Stanley, J. M., Werner, K. E., & Apple, K. (2018). Positioning advanced practice registered nurses for health care reform: Consensus on APRN regulation. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25(6), 340-348.


Appendix 1

Job Description

Identifies patient care requirements by establishing personal rapport with potential and actual patients and other persons in a position to understand care requirements.

Establishes a compassionate environment by providing emotional, psychological, and spiritual support to patients, friends, and families.

Promotes patient's independence by establishing patient care goals; teaching patient, friends, and family to understand condition, medications, and self-care skills; answering questions.

Assures quality of care by adhering to therapeutic standards; measuring health outcomes against patient care goals and standards; making or recommending necessary adjustments; following hospital and nursing division's philosophies and standards of care set by state board of nursing, state nurse practice act, and other governing agency regulations.

Resolves patient problems and needs by utilizing multidisciplinary team strategies.

Maintains safe and clean working environment by complying with procedures, rules, and regulations; calling for assistance from health care support personnel.

Appendix 2

Practice Agreement

Appendix 3

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600


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Your Name (First and Last)

Institution or School name


The Camden Initiative

When we talk about the Camden Environmental Justice Working Group is basically an extension of the Camden Green Team concentrated on promoting cumulative influence. Talking about the City of Camden is actually a new notion of sustainability. The involvement of the public in renewable energy and various advanced sustainability instruments is quite low. The City Government has been portraying commitment when it comes to increasing sustainable steps throughout the city. Camden has to address and acknowledge the possible influence of climate change, as the world is facing temperature rise, intense storms and rising sea levels can pose a critical risk to the city. By the year 2030, the temperature in Camden could increase up to 3 to 7 degrees hotter and the waterways surrounding the city could rise up to 5 to 10 inches higher. Warmer temperature will bring about a rise in public health risks and end up placing more stern on the infrastructure. As the sea levels are rising the risk of floods and stronger storms have increased (Obropta, 2017). The climate change struggle of Camden is two-tiered we have to reduce the contributions we have in global warming, and we must prepare ourselves for the inevitable impact it is bringing.

The primary goals of the initiative are to develop instruments for Environmental benefit and influence analysis. Create the environment reserve inventory the promotion of clean yet green energy application and policy. Promoting the flexibility of our natural systems, neighborhoods, and the substructure to the risk pertained by climate change. The focus of the initiative is on planning, policy, energy, the changing sea level and the impact of Urban Heat Island. The Camden Initiative has achieved the Sustainability Ordinance. Back in October 2013, the City of Camden landed a place in one of the only twenty municipalities statewide to have received Sustainable Jersey silver level certification. To attain the certification, the City of Camden had to complete 29 sustainable actions varying from the adaption of complete streets program to executing an energy conservation education and outreach initiative and the progressing a buy local campaign. The members of the Camden team, inclusive of Camden SMART partners, took a tour to the Atlantic City in November to accept an award at the yearly Sustainable Jersey Awards Luncheon. When in Luncheon, the City Camden was also awarded 2000 Sustainable Jersey Small Grant for activities regarding capacity-building. The Sustainable Jersey Silver of Camdens also highpoints the Citys current labors to progress the class of life in Camden residential area via environmental change. Before Camden achieved the Sustainable Jersey Silver level certification, they also were rewarded the bronze level of certification.

Can Congress Make You Buy Broccoli

The continued unpredictability over the lawfulness of Affordable Care Act, portrayed by a contradictory trial court ruling and scholarly annotations, makes a rise in the question of why the constitution is said to be so hard to answer down Professionals of health law usually say we dont know. They have come to the decision that they will sit on the edge until others who are in the shape of the Supreme Court make a decision for them. The Affordable Care Act is joined by millions of civilians to purchase private health insurance. It is claimed that it is hard to come to a decision whether to purchase full coverage counts as an activity that carries on federal commerce. The administration is in the claim that it does. After all, the failure to purchase insurance has similar economic consequences as buying it, in fact, even more, penalties for the third party (Taylor, 2018). The problem in this argument is that it is authoritarian in its consequence. Every decision made to buy or not in buying something is bound to have economic consequences. Farsightedness is not living as per an individuals means. For instance, less collective demand for the time being. So, can an individual be forced to take a loan to make a purchase that they do not need in order for the economy to resuscitate This will give a humongous strength to the legislators, even though it is impossible that they can be trusted to use it astutely.

I this really true So far there is no choice given in this matter when it comes to the vaccination of children. For example, it is due to the law removing that choice. There is no apparent reason other than their own choice to do it as to why people pursue medical attention. It is safe to say that it is a fundamental principle of medical ethics that no individual of a sane mind and with the mental potential to make a decision for him or herself may be forced into medical treatment, even if they die without it. All the doctors are familiar with and have been flustered by patients who have denied life-saving treatments. Also, other products are more essential in sustaining human life than the healthcare. One can live for decades with the help of a good physical constitution without the help of a doctor. However, an individual cannot survive more than a few days without the intake of water. Food also carries more importance than medicine. However, if the disaster to purchase health insurance stands on federal commerce, so does consuming pizza instead of broccoli. This is so even if it later is discovered that eating broccoli is bad for the health.

The question that arises is that whether the Commerce Section in the Constitution sanctions Congress to attain individuals to purchase products that Congress thinks they should purchase to further general wellbeing. To explore for a piercing line of separation between that legislators might and might not legally do has astonished the thoughts of political philosophers for eras. However, there is no doubt in the fact that if the decision was left on them, most of the politicians will want all individuals of the community to eat their greens.

Should there be Population Health Management

When the term Population Health is discussed, it is said that the term has swapped the patient engagement as the latest catchword in the world of healthcare. There are a few reasons behind it. It is an essential revolutionary strategy that is grown out of the deteriorating widespread of chronic diseases. Population health is basically the health consequences of a group of people, inclusive the distribution of such results within the group. The turf of population health is inclusive of health outcomes, outlines of a group of people, and the policies and intervention which mediate the two. It should be kept in mind that Population health is in regards to the people. It is all about them. It creates a novel yet questionable way to pay for healthcare services. It is a possible equalizer for patients and the providers. It gives a novel focus on novelty and investment. It is in the requirement of a multi-disciplined team and portfolio technology.

When it comes to novelty, no innovation in regards to health policy of the Obama Administration has attracted as minor attention from Republican and Democratic Officeholders, reporters and researchers as its labors to develop the population health. Substantial research has been made over the years which has provided the result that the most impactful policies and professional practices for enhancing and progressing the health of the population and people who establish them address making accessibility to healthcare and various social services more reasonable (Kassler, 2017). Increasing the quality of the education being provided, housing, diet and increase of everyones physical activity. Increase in the availability of jobs that offer enough wages to get by, reduction of drug abuse, eliminating domestic abuse and toxins from our environment. The impact of the Obama Administrations putting population health on priority has not yet been appraised dynamically, making its political future still uncertain.


Obropta, C. C. (2017). Community-Based Green Infrastructure, A Rutgers Cooperative Extension Urban Extension Initiative.Journal of Human Sciences and Extension,5(2), 91-102.

Taylor, R. B. (2018). Case Reports, Editorials, Letters to the Editor, Book Reviews, and Other Publication Models. InMedical Writing(pp. 173-205). Springer, Cham.

Kassler, W. J., Howerton, M., Thompson, A., Cope, E., Alley, D. E., Sanghavi, D. (2017). Population health measurement at Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services Bridging the gap between public health and clinical quality.Population health management,20(3), 173-180.





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Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


According to WHO, the gender refers to social concepts of roles, behaviors, activities and attributes that society considers appropriate for each men and women (Klingner & Vaughn, 2018).The role of everyone from women to mother or from husband to father changed over past few decades. or many centuries, the woman was the keeper of the hearth, while all that was related to the outside world was taken over by the man.

For over 15 years we have been living in the 21st century. In a century in which everything is changing rapidly. And the matter is not only in technological progress and the volatility of the international situation (Chun & Mooney, 2009). Relations between people , and men and women themselves change with time. Modern women are more likely to give birth to their first child at age 30 or later. Childbirth after 40 has become the most common occurrence . Seeing a woman over 40 with a small child, even a preschooler does not come to mind to call her grandmother( Le Cornu, 2015).

If we compare modern men and women with men and women, say, the "era of stagnation", it seems that we all have become much more "mature" and more independent. Some 50 years ago, a rare man knew how to cook something more complicated than fried eggs. Moreover, not everyone could even warm up his wife’s dinner. In modern society, men not only maintain culinary blogs and television programs, but also enjoy cooking at home for friends or their families. Increasingly, the slogan is that cooking meat is not a female affair at all. Public opinion , even in the person of grandmothers on benches , calmly refers to a woman who has given birth to a child without a husband . The absence of her husband is not hidden from distant relatives or from home neighbors.


Chun, M., & Mooney, J. (2009). CIO roles and responsibilities: Twenty-five years of evolution

and change. Information & management, 46(6), 323-334.

Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (2018). The changing roles and responsibilities of an LD

specialist. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(1), 19-31.

Le Cornu, R. (2015). Changing roles, relationships and responsibilities in changing times. Asia-

Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 195-206.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Healthcare Ethics

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Healthcare Ethics

Summary-For and Against the 4 Principles (Huxtable)

In this Article Robert Huxtable (2013) highlights the four problems along with the four principles. He claims that the approach of four ethical principles is imperialist, inappropriate, unreliable and insufficient. The four principles approach to biomedical ethics discusses the points related to independence, benevolence, non-maleficence, and impartiality as the ethical rules which can direct the professionals at healthcare sector. Likewise, Huxtable analyses all these existing four principles and its application at the health sector. However, there are four problems related to these four principles. The researcher further argues that there is imperialism in the framework of four principles. The framework has failed to explain the multiple aspects of practices and its perspectives in the society. For instance, there are pluralistic communities in the current western world. These principals do not applicable to other schools of thoughts because they have different thoughts regarding ethics. Therefore, the diversity in culture suggests to adopt the Gillon's framework which proposes that there is flexible pluralism. At the same time, Gillon's claim reflects on the course between relativism and universalism. Likewise, Huxtable further complains that people might disagree about framework being considered imperialist, but they will not disagree that in many situations these principles are inapplicable. For example, if a patient is a young child, then the autonomy principle cannot be applied here. Although there are the supporters, who assert that the principals are employed in various fields of medicine and life sciences. The researcher continues with the arguments that there are also some chances of inconsistency in the framework. These principles do not applicable to identify and reflect on the moral issues acknowledged by the different authors who even support this framework. Different are cases highlighted by Huxtable, which imitate the inconsistency of the four principles. In Tony Nicklinson’s case, all the different principles of Ethics are pushing in different directions. There are times when all these principles cannot go in one direction at a time. Therefore, this framework can be inconsistent in many situations. Furthermore, according to the author, these principles are not enough to deal with all type of dilemmas. There are cases where these principles seem impotent to give some solid solutions. In such cases, these principles fail to assist legitimately, for example in case of assisted dying or application of genetic screening, the ethical principles are not applied. Therefore, some of the critics debate that these principles lack clear decision rules. Hence, the principlism is insufficient in many cases. Finally, the article articulates the claims over the legitimacy of the four ethical principles' approach. Critiques are criticizing the mechanistic applications of the principlism approach. At the same time, defenders come forward to support the beliefs as these are in between the universalism and relativism. However, studying both sides, it is easy now to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these principles. Although, this framework is applicable to a diverse range of situations, but they are not very thorough in an application. However, it is not very attractive to the Clinicians, the trainee and clinical ethics committee members, whose work requires compulsorily ethical evaluation. It is because there are many roles performed by the health providers where the framework is insufficient to indicate the problems and resolved satisfactorily. More precisely, there are always chance for a judgment in cases where the principles of ethics are applied or complemented. The author is focusing the health professionals and health students who are more concerned about health care ethics. The primary goal of this article is to reflect on the debate between the supporters and critiques of the four principles of ethics. These principles are helpful, but not for these health professionals because there is the only opening point, not an endpoint.

Summary-Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

This article is written by Michele Goodwin, in which he comments on the human experiments as ethical or non-ethical. Most of the literature discusses the incidents from Japan. He further suggests that there is a need to distinguish all the medical experimentation through a more exceptional degree whether these are ethical or unethical. The moral dilemmas of bioethical principles speak of the concerns like ethical experimentation on helpless individuals, euthanasia, human trials to develop drugs, abortion, cloning and much more are very controversial to categorize as ethical or non-ethical. In this regard, the researcher opens up so many questions in the essay that what does this informed consents convey? However, governments and human rights activists consider these medical experiments as a violation or breach of human rights. By taking the example of the exploitation of the Chinese prisoners in the hands of Japanese Researchers. All the principles of bioethics are violated by medical researchers. Therefore, it is essential for the lawmakers, policymakers and healthcare professionals to learn from these past experiences when they are informing about the ethics in research and medical practices. Likewise, there three contributions made by this article in this regard. Firstly, it provides historical analysis and explains the medical experiments conducted in the past on vulnerable people without informing them. In these cases, examples are taken from Japan and Germany, where the prisoners of war were the subjects of the medical researchers in their lab. Secondly, it highlights through the case studies that how race, class, and status of a person influences the decision-making with respect to unethical research. It depends on the status of the research subject that how a scientist or researcher treats him or her during the experiment in case of informed consent. Thirdly, the essay asks the law informers and policymakers to use ethics to bring a change regarding the human researches and experiments.

Summary-Death’s Broke

The article written by David Schenck discusses the role played by ethics and the ethics consultants in intensive care units (ICUs) in the healthcare organizations mainly focusing those patients who are dying or died. It also includes the acceptance of the death of a patient by his or her family. At the same time, it also overviews the ethics in the medical field by accounting on the principles set by religion and secular pluralism. Further, the essay sheds some lights on the Modern Western medicine practices which are putting efforts to take the medical practices away from the religious communities. At the same time, the author offers three to four clusters to discuss "ethics consultation." The writer emphasizes on the first point that the role of ethics consultant at the hospital is referred as brokering the progress of death caused by technical error and natural death during the challenging cases, where different negotiations are held to communicate the causes of patient's death in ICU. Secondly, the ethicist is looking into the matter, and he or she has to decide regarding the secularization and religious influences in the hospital. Both religious and secular concepts are very important for the ethics consultant to inform about the "death of the patient" in a medical care facility. Moreover, Secular pluralism is also practiced in hospitals. In the case of "respiratory therapy" and "technical body talk," are considered as the discourses of secular language in the hospitals. However, the concept of religious pluralism and its beliefs enter in the medical facilities through the physical body. Therefore, both of the concepts play a significant role for an ethicist to express his or her view regarding the deaths occurred in the ICU. Borrowing the concepts from both of the pluralism views will help to ensure the ethical principles more briefly.


Goodwin, M. (2016). Vulnerable subjects: why does informed consent matter?. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 44(3), 371-380.

Huxtable, R. (2013). For and against the four principles of biomedical ethics. Clinical Ethics, 8(2-3), 39-43.

Schenck, D. (2015). Death’s Broker: the Ethics Consultant in the ICU. Society, 52(5), 448-461.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 4 Words: 1200


Role of Public Health and Government




Role of Public Health and Government

Question 1:

Thomas R. Frieden authored an article about “The Future of Public Health,” which was published in the year 2015. The author has shed light on the situation of the Infectious diseases in the United States of America and the world in a great deal. The author has highlighted that the health care system, as well as the medicinal research, has improved greatly over the course of the last decade. Still, the United States of America is facing substantial changes in terms of infectious diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, drug-resistant bacteria, hepatitis C virus infection, preventable influenza, healthcare-associated infections, and pneumonia are among the most common infectious diseases, which are resulting in the death of more than hundred thousand people every year (Frieden, 2015).

The situation of the infectious diseases around the world is quite progressive because of the fact that the number of deaths due to the diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have decreased globally, over the course of years. Diseases like guinea worm and polio are almost eradicated, while filariasis is also completely controlled. Moreover, the Ebola epidemic is also now in control. The vaccination programs around the world have contributed to saving the lives of more than two million children who are less than five years old. The world health organization is performing greatly due to which this progress has become possible, however, more changes an improvements are needed in a number of other aspects (Frieden, 2015).

Question 2:

The situation of chronic diseases in the United States of America highlights the fact that tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the country. Although smoking cessation treatments and counseling are in practice, but the process is quite slow. The government, as well as the health care sector, are collaborating in order to minimize the use of tobacco in the United States of America by imposing higher taxes, managing anti-tobacco campaigns, promoting smoke-free areas, and raising the age limit for the purchase of the tobacco products. Other common chronic diseases prevalent in the United States of America include cardiovascular issues and hypertension (Frieden, 2015).

On the other hand, the situation of the chronic diseases across the globe highlights the fact that tobacco smoking is the second most important source of death, while hypertension is the leading cause of a greater number of deaths. The number of death due to hypertension across the globe have reached the highest number of more than nine million deaths annually. Sodium intake is the leading cause of impacting the issues related to blood pressure, which eventually contribute to chronic diseases. Traffic accidents are also adding to the number of deaths on an annual basis (Frieden, 2015).

Question 3:

Dr. Frieden is of the view that the public is now efficient and literate enough to ensure its health and betterment. However, the government still needs to play its role by ensuring three factors of progress in society. The very first is promoting open and free information. The second one is saving the general public from the harms of specific groups like tobacco smokers. The third and the last one is implementing social interventions, in case the society does not comply with the prescribed changes. I agree with the point of view, as well as suggestions of Dr. Frieden because the government, as well as the general society, need to contribute on an equal level in order to ensure the better health care facilities and condition of the society. The government cannot implement any change without the support of the public, moreover, the public can also not lead any change without the support of the government so the cooperation is much needed to make the society a better living place.


Frieden, T. R. (2015). The future of public health. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(18), 1748-1754.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Author’s Name]


Owing to a tremendous increase in the use of technology, it has become an indispensable part of our lives. People, regardless of their age, rely upon technology to perform the daily task. In recent years it has been observed that technology has been integrated into the field of healthcare as well. Although there are numerous benefits of using technology in healthcare facilities, several pieces of evidence claimed the importance of technology (Parente & McCullough, 2009). However, technology must have a limit on healthcare. To further support my argument, I decided to find evidence by locating multiple authentic resources.

The main problem I faced while locating resources was that most of the research is conducted on the benefits of technology and its positive impact on healthcare facilities. However, in terms of patient security and privacy, I was able to find a number of research articles and sources. In my search, google scholar and semantic scholar helped me a lot.

The first article that I intend to use in my presentation is research conducted by the author Marci and her fellow researchers (Meingast & Sastry, 2006). According to the author, the health care system has plagued by multiple problems such as doctors not being able to access the information of patients, lack of monitoring patients admitted in hospitals, and an increase in the patient fall incidents. To combat these issues technology is integrated. However, many cases are there in which the important data of patients, such as fertility information, disease information, and family background, are leaked, and in many cases, due to virus or malware, the information of patients is often lost that can cause severe consequences. The wording of the research paper was easy to comprehend, and the author provided a literature review as well that helped me a lot in locating other sources.

The second article that I intend to use in my presentation is a research conducted by the author George in which he discussed the importance of setting limits and explained laws that may facilitate in setting limits in medical technology (Smith, 2001). Although the article was informative, yet the wording was not easy to comprehend. However, after searching several terms used in the paper, I was able to understand the law terms that were used in the research paper.


Meingast, M., Roosta, T., & Sastry, S. (2006, August). Security and privacy issues with health care information technology. In 2006 International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (pp. 5453-5458). IEEE.

Parente, S. T., & McCullough, J. S. (2009). Health information technology and patient safety: evidence from panel data. Health Affairs, 28(2), 357-360.

Smith, G. P. (2001). Setting limits: medical technology and the law. Sydney L. Rev., 23, 283.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Social Media and the Modern Impact of Informatics


Social Media and the Modern Impact of Informatics

Social media has emerged in various fields as a potential aid for innovations. Use of social media provides affordability as well as accessibility. Though, implementation of apt laws to combat privacy and threat challenges have become essential too.

Section I



The use of social media involves a major risk of posting unprofessional and inappropriate content on social media.it can reflect poorly on the health care professionals, students and associated institutions ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KBHSuUNe","properties":{"unsorted":true,"formattedCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"itemData":{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Journal of Nursing Education | The astonishing popularity of social media and its emergence into the academic arena has shown tremendous potential for innovations in teaching. The appeal of using social media in the learning environment is enhanced by accessibility and affordability. However, it has also broadened the scope of consideration for protecting student privacy. This article explores the legal impact of privacy","container-title":"Journal of Nursing Education","DOI":"10.3928/01484834-20140219-03","ISSN":"0148-4834, 1938-2421","issue":"3","journalAbbreviation":"J Nurs Educ","language":"en","page":"164-169","source":"www.healio.com","title":"Social Media in Nursing Education: Responsible Integration for Meaningful Use","title-short":"Social Media in Nursing Education","volume":"53","author":[{"family":"Peck","given":"Jessica L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",2,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Peck, 2014). To avoid undesirable situations, policies are developed. These policies should cover issues including disclosure of confidential data, discrimination, wrongful termination, harassment, harm to reputation of an organization, and efficiency.

Firstly, a ban or limit should be placed on the employee’s access to social networking site, if any issue is anticipated. Secondly, the policies should incorporate guidelines regarding patients’ privacy and ensure that all the employees are acquainted with it. The policy regarding use of organization’s official communication means and logos, should be clearly mentioned to employees. Moreover, the responsibility of an employee when witnessing inapt social media practice, should be adequately defined. It is important to ensure that all employees are aware of the fact that any information they cannot post any information on personal social media on behalf of the organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ic1QYypu","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lambert, Barry, & Stokes, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Lambert, Barry, & Stokes, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":472,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/C8X77H4I"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/C8X77H4I"],"itemData":{"id":472,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Social media have infiltrated all of our lives, both personally and professionally. Most of us could never have envisioned the impact that social media have had on us, particularly in the healthcare arena. Who would have thought even five years ago that a discussion on the ASHRM exchange would involve the use of Twitter in the operating room or that a physician would be reprimanded by a state medical board and have her privileges revoked due to posting information online about a trauma patient? In the coming years, social media use will only increase, causing concern for risk managers across the continuum. Furthermore, although case law and statutory regulations addressing the use of social media are minimal today, it is anticipated that we will see legal challenges to this evolving medium in the future.","container-title":"Journal of Healthcare Risk Management","DOI":"10.1002/jhrm.20103","ISSN":"2040-0861","issue":"4","language":"en","page":"41-47","source":"Wiley Online Library","title":"Risk management and legal issues with the use of social media in the healthcare setting","volume":"31","author":[{"family":"Lambert","given":"Kristen M."},{"family":"Barry","given":"Pauline"},{"family":"Stokes","given":"Gwen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lambert, Barry, & Stokes, 2012).


It is the prime duty of healthcare workers to look after their patients. It is their moral and lawful obligation to guard the people they have to take care of.  The patients have to face many difficulties when healthcare workers overlook their responsibilities. The health workers are accountable for their behavior with the patients. The performance and responsibility can be described as the right action that needed to be performed for their patient. In such health care professions, codes of ethics are set which have to be followed by the practitioners in order to carry out their duty. Code of ethics is a lengthy document describing the moral prospects in a comprehensive way. Many unethical behaviors are noticed regarding negligence and fraud. Let’s shed some light on the court cases which demonstrate the negative effect of unethical and immoral practices. 

According to Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability, any personal information can be traced back to the patient must not be made public. However, in above case the pictures were public and went viral. The inappropriate behavior of the corpsman was against the legal rules. They even called the baby “mini Satan”. Nowadays, cyberbullying is one the main concerns of social media. This could result in a serious ethics problem if people started hate posting or comment hurtful ideas. Media tools are used to enhance professional education and networking, promotions, patient care and education, and public health programs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B93Yu30j","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ventola, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Ventola, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":482,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/IXLX2E4I"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/IXLX2E4I"],"itemData":{"id":482,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Health care professionals can use a variety of social media tools to improve or enhance networking, education, and other activities. However, these tools also present some potential risks, such as unreliable information and violations of patients’ privacy rights.","container-title":"Pharmacy and Therapeutics","ISSN":"1052-1372","issue":"7","journalAbbreviation":"P T","note":"PMID: 25083128\nPMCID: PMC4103576","page":"491-520","source":"PubMed Central","title":"Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices","title-short":"Social Media and Health Care Professionals","volume":"39","author":[{"family":"Ventola","given":"C. Lee"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ventola, 2014).



Social media posts of students and employees which also includes social justice movements, contentious videos or pictures face some strong reactions. Social media provides an opportunity to students to express their opinions dissimilar to the offline and on campus but still blurs speeches to secure the speech of the students.

Actions taken by the students or employees on the premises of campus or office building are dealt with these decisions. Currently, students deliver most of the speeches outside the premises of school. In such cases, the statements could mess up the school routine.

According to numerous medical schools in U.S., unprofessional posts are published by the students on social media sites like Facebook, MySpace and twitter. According to a new study, only a few schools have established acceptable policies which deal with such behavior of students. The school district is obliged to inform students and their parents about the social media monitoring program they commenced. Students are allowed to see the data and information collected from their social media accounts and delete the data when they turn 18 or move away from the district. If the school has not established a monitoring program for the social media of students, students does not have the right to be familiar with the information the officials and teachers have collected from their seeking on social media. Anything that is posted publicly can be seen by teachers, officials, police officers and other students.

In January 2018, a nineteen-year-old was expelled from the University of Alabama after she posted videos related to racist ranting on her Instagram account. The video was recorded and posted on twitter by another user which immediately went viral and made people furious on the campus of University of Alabama as well as all over the country. The expulsion of the students raised many questions on the constitution of terminating students for the usage of offensive speech as it is a public university.

The effect of posting unacceptable material on social media on the institutions they are affiliated with was also noticed. Many industries are still coping with such issues.

Most of the people raise question regarding freedom of speech everyone has. According to the First Amendment rights, freedom of speech provides security from the restrictions on speech implemented by the government. This does not imply that these actions do not have any consequences and does not relate to the private workers. Employers have the right to execute penalties which does not overstep the First Amendment rights of the employees.

Numerous legal complexities are introduced due to the vast use of social media. The freedom of speech, privacy rights, freedom from search and seizures are now protected by the constitutional rights applied on them. Though the rights can be defied ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YterLAOQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"itemData":{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Journal of Nursing Education | The astonishing popularity of social media and its emergence into the academic arena has shown tremendous potential for innovations in teaching. The appeal of using social media in the learning environment is enhanced by accessibility and affordability. However, it has also broadened the scope of consideration for protecting student privacy. This article explores the legal impact of privacy","container-title":"Journal of Nursing Education","DOI":"10.3928/01484834-20140219-03","ISSN":"0148-4834, 1938-2421","issue":"3","journalAbbreviation":"J Nurs Educ","language":"en","page":"164-169","source":"www.healio.com","title":"Social Media in Nursing Education: Responsible Integration for Meaningful Use","title-short":"Social Media in Nursing Education","volume":"53","author":[{"family":"Peck","given":"Jessica L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",2,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Peck, 2014).


The inherent features of conduct of a health care organization include accreditation, quality and constant improvement. Through accreditation, a health institute is evaluated according to a set of established criteria ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B1am4udW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Klazinga N., 2000)","plainCitation":"(Klazinga N., 2000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":474,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/ZJZBU4RK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/ZJZBU4RK"],"itemData":{"id":474,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Accreditation, ISO, EFQLM and visitatie are, in essence, control mechanisms in health care systems. An analysis is provided of the way the four models have been adopted and adapted in European health care systems over the past decade. After a short discussion of the major reforms in the European health care systems in the direction of regulated markets, deregulation and decentralization, the features of the four models are highlighted and it is explained how each of them can help to fill the 'accountability gap' between health care providers on the one hand and patients, financiers and governments on the other. The quality system perspective of ISO, the quality management development perspective of EFQM, the health care organization perspective of accreditation and the professional perspective of visitatie can each be appropriate given the balance of power between parties in the health care system and the focus and scope of accountability. Although a general convergence between the four models can be observed, actual convergence will depend on their adoption in specific health system contexts. Potential pitfalls for further convergence are the differences in distribution of responsibilities for quality of care among the various European countries, the drift away from clinical decision making, bureaucratic tendencies and too much focus on efficiency and patient empowerment compared with attention to medical effectiveness.","container-title":"Int J Qual Health Care.","title":"Re-engineering trust: the adoption and adaption of four models for external quality assurance of health care services in western European health care systems.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10894189","author":[{"literal":"Klazinga N."}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,4]]},"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000",6,12]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Klazinga N., 2000). It is granted to an organization in health care field that follows relevant standards during a location survey. Either it has effectively adopted Requirements for Improvement (RFIs) for an Evidence of Standards Compliance (ESC) submission in sixty days after publishing the Accreditation Survey Findings Report and also does not fulfil other guidelines of any other rulings. In healthcare, Accreditation, EFQLM ISO, and visitatie are considered control methods. Large number of studies agreed that quality indicators play vital role to enhance the quality of health care services when applying for accreditation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Di3EL6BC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Almoajel & Arabia, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Almoajel & Arabia, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":476,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/AZN2G3MD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/AZN2G3MD"],"itemData":{"id":476,"type":"paper-conference","abstract":"There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification system and quality benchmarking. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between accreditation and quality indicators used in hospital care services. A systematic review of literature was carried out. The search used the data base of MEDLINE in the duration from January 2005 to January 2011. Hospital-based full article English language studies which examined the relationship of quality indicators and accreditation were included. Discussion or commentary pieces were excluded. Results revealed that Out of the 222 initially allocated studies, 23 studies that matched the search inclusion criteria were selected. In many of the included studies using of quality indicators resulted in improvement of the hospital health services. 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In Healthcare sector, the reimbursement is described as the expense health care Centre, diagnostic facility, doctor, or other healthcare providers obtain for providing health facilities to a patient. The cost is paid usually by the government payer or the health insurer. The patient may be held responsible of half or some of the total cost, according to the health plan. Without health care plan, the patient has to reimburse the total cost to the health care providers.

The foundation of healthcare is to provide their patients safety and security. Most of the work that defines safety of the patients and the practices that avoid maltreatment has deeply focused on the undesirable consequences of care like impermanence and sickness. Coordination and observation that lessen adversarial outcomes are more critical for the nurses. The impact of nursing care on optimistic quality signs like self-care and supplementary procedures of improved health grade is to be evaluated to a further extent ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wh4hL22v","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mitchell, 2008)","plainCitation":"(Mitchell, 2008)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":479,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/UAC7F6IA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/UAC7F6IA"],"itemData":{"id":479,"type":"chapter","abstract":"Patient safety is the cornerstone of high-quality health care. Much of the work defining patient safety and practices that prevent harm have focused on negative outcomes of care, such as mortality and morbidity. Nurses are critical to the surveillance and coordination that reduce such adverse outcomes. Much work remains to be done in evaluating the impact of nursing care on positive quality indicators, such as appropriate self-care and other measures of improved health status.","call-number":"NBK2681","collection-title":"Advances in Patient Safety","container-title":"Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses","event-place":"Rockville (MD)","language":"eng","note":"PMID: 21328780","publisher":"Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US)","publisher-place":"Rockville (MD)","source":"PubMed","title":"Defining Patient Safety and Quality Care","URL":"http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2681/","author":[{"family":"Mitchell","given":"Pamela H."}],"editor":[{"family":"Hughes","given":"Ronda G."}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,4]]},"issued":{"date-parts":[["2008"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mitchell, 2008).

For achieving the best outcomes, health informatics implements informatics theories and concepts. It also includes practices in real life circumstances for better consequences. These measures are taken by gathering, storing, examining and displaying statistics in the digital design. The improved outcomes are one of the significant ways of informatics to bring a change in health care. The coordinated teams deliver improved diagnosis and lessen the chances of mistakes and errors through which electronic media records provide better outcome in advanced quality care and safer upkeep. 

The relation between these terms is that, when an organization is granted accreditation, it is eligible for reimbursements. With increased reimbursements, care quality in a health care center increases and motivates the organization to adopt procedures to improve it. Informatics play a significant role in provision of improvement of all these three features.


No doubt social media has proven to be a powerful tool to improves our lives. However, with technological advancement, proper legislation and execution of laws is has become important. The employee of healthcare and every other organization must follow the regulations provided by the organization. Also, the students should be taught about the ethics and privacy concerns related to social media by faculty and administration  ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6KY5SCUt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Peck, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/YgsdZK9k/items/D5FV8E6E"],"itemData":{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","abstract":"Journal of Nursing Education | The astonishing popularity of social media and its emergence into the academic arena has shown tremendous potential for innovations in teaching. The appeal of using social media in the learning environment is enhanced by accessibility and affordability. However, it has also broadened the scope of consideration for protecting student privacy. This article explores the legal impact of privacy","container-title":"Journal of Nursing Education","DOI":"10.3928/01484834-20140219-03","ISSN":"0148-4834, 1938-2421","issue":"3","journalAbbreviation":"J Nurs Educ","language":"en","page":"164-169","source":"www.healio.com","title":"Social Media in Nursing Education: Responsible Integration for Meaningful Use","title-short":"Social Media in Nursing Education","volume":"53","author":[{"family":"Peck","given":"Jessica L."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",2,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Peck, 2014). In this way, the negative effects of social media can eb avoided.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Almoajel, A., & Arabia, S. (2012). Relationship Between Accreditation and Quality Indicators in Hospital Care: A Review of the Literature.

Klazinga N. (2000). Re-engineering trust: The adoption and adaption of four models for external quality assurance of health care services in western European health care systems. Int J Qual Health Care. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10894189

Lambert, K. M., Barry, P., & Stokes, G. (2012). Risk management and legal issues with the use of social media in the healthcare setting. Journal of Healthcare Risk Management, 31(4), 41–47. https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrm.20103

Mitchell, P. H. (2008). Defining Patient Safety and Quality Care. In R. G. Hughes (Ed.), Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2681/

Peck, J. L. (2014). Social Media in Nursing Education: Responsible Integration for Meaningful Use. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(3), 164–169. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20140219-03

Ventola, C. L. (2014). Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491–520.

Subject: Healthcare and Nursing

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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