Summary of key elements of framework
PICO (T) question, as defined in the literature review, revolves around the effectiveness of communication skills of nurses for the overall wellbeing of patients. This question has all the four components of PICO (T) such as problem population/ patient/ problem, intervention, comparison and outcome. Population was identified as hospitalized patients suffering from any form of illness, Intervention encapsulates the effective communication skills of nurses, Comparison included no specific alternate intervention, whereas Outcome refers to the development of increased patient wellbeing. There was no specific timeframe identified to study the outcome of condition however it can be analyzed between 6 months, one or two year interval.
Relationship between theoretical framework and problem
After deliberate analysis, there can be inspected a logical relationship between the components of “Interpersonal Theory of Peplau” and problem of interest. This theory suggests that besides physical problems, nurses are responsible for the detailed understanding of patient’s beliefs, values, outlooks, orientations, attitudes, feelings, emotions, behaviors, cultural values and religious customs and must always respect their individuality. Peplau considered “interpersonal relationship” as the crux of nursing and healthcare relationship; she made a true distinction between medicine and nursing—the absence and presence of emotional attachment between nurses and patients.
This theory suggests that attending patients and listening to their suffering makes them feel dignified and valued which influences their self-esteem in the utmost positive way (Samuels et. al., 2017). They realize their worth and feel an urge to become cured; for that matter, they take active participation in setting healthcare goals and accomplishing action plans till the very end. They tend to indulge in self care and make it easy for the nurses to implement desired treatment plans.
This theory emphasizes the Aristotle’s notion about humans as social animals. As patients too want to be the part of helping environment if their emotional and social needs are being nurtured. They reciprocate and make the healthcare practices easy to go. In this way, effective communication skills increase the overall wellbeing of hospitalized patients. This is how theoretical framework is interlinked to the problem of interest.
Impact on positive health outcomes
The groundbreaking views of Peplau grabbed much of the researcher’s attention that is why it is one of the highly well-researched topics in nursing. This theory is not only used by the research scholars to support their arguments but is also widely acknowledged by nursing practitioners in the field because significance of communication is the fact that no one can deny.
In the past, it was widely believed that psychological techniques must only be applied to psychiatric patients and that physically ill patients just require their physical sufferings to be reduced. A fraction of attention was paid to the implementation of psychological principles in the nursing but Peplau emphasized the importance of emotional wellbeing along with the physical sufferings of patients that attempted to counter the prevalent trend.
Integration of theory to literature review and problem
Peplau suggested that physical pain and emotional sufferings run parallel to each other and physically ill patients require nurses to understand their abstractness in the best possible manner (André et. al., 2016). Hence, organizational management must pay special attention to develop effective interpersonal skills on the part of nurses so that they could understand and dissolve the physical and non-physical concerns of patients.
Application of theory in clinical setting
This theory can be applied in the clinical setting for reforming nurses’ beliefs and attitudes towards patients, training nurses to comprehend the significance of “attentive listening” and rapport building, and letting the nurses make important decisions in collaboration with the patients. In this way, the process of healing will become two-way and even convalescent than before.
Samuels, W., Hagerty, A. H., Pala, N. A. & Giglioti, E. (2017). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations: An Alternate Factor Structure for Patient Experience Data? Nurs Sci Q. 30(2), 160–167. doi: 10.1177/0894318417693286
André, M., Franzoi1, H. K., Cardoso, L. et. al. (2016). Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Theory: An Evaluation Based on Fawcett’s Criteria. Journal of Nursing, 10(4), 3653-61.
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