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Psychosocial development means patterns of changes occur in the personality, emotions and social relationship. It has been seen that childhood is the time when a child goes through many changes, though changes occur afterwards as well. There are three basic human development changes i.e. psychological, cognitive and physical changes. During the time of pre-school, children start learning psychological skills. In the early childhood, a child begins to think and start absorbing surrounding things i.e. children learn letter, colours and counting etc. There are five stages of development in childhood and these stages include newborn, infant, toddler, preschool and school-age (Barbuscia,et,al,2019). According to Erikson, 2-3 years is the time of psychological development as a sense of personal control, sense of independence and physical skills develops. Each of the developmental stages is important as it involves the psychosocial needs of individuals that sometimes may conflict with the societal needs. Development stages are tied together and any error in any of the stage would affect the next developmental stage.
Taking a look at the work of Erikson, it could be said, a child passes through many psychosocial changes during the age 2-5 years. Taking a look at the given study, it could be said that dancing and lacking toilet training are the two common normative psychosocial examples. During 1.5-3 years, autonomy versus shame and initiative versus guilt are the two main psychosocial crises that children went through. In the case of Andrew, it could be said, if he dances but is overly controlled or criticized, he would doubt his dancing skills (Cherry,et,al,2018). Criticism would lead towards lack of self-esteem. In the second example, it could be seen that when he could not communicate about daytime continence and if he is being criticized, he would feel a sense of shame and would doubt his communication skills as well. Erikson believes that it is the stage that leads the child towards the virtue of will (Huynh,et,al,2019). During this stage, if Andrew could be supported by the family for increased independence, he would become more confident. Erikson claimed that the third development stage during the age 3-5 years is about initiative versus guilt and if Andrew would be criticized for not being toilet trained, he would feel guilt that would lower his self-confidence. Erikson also claims that too much guilt would make the child limit his interaction with others and it may inhibit his creativity.
This fact cannot be denied that various factors affect the psychosocial development of children during the 2-5 years. There are both internal and external factors that affect psychosocial development of children during 2-5 years and it has been seen that some of these factors could be controlled and some cannot be i.e. genetic, social and cultural etc. according to Bandura’s social cognitive theory normative factors that affect development from 2 to 5 years include personal, environmental and behavioural factors. He claimed that positive and negative reinforcement leads towards change in a person's behaviour. Observation shows that children are surrounded by various influential models such as parent, friends and characters on TV. Taking a look at the development model of Bronfenbrenner, it could be seen that certain factors affect the psychosocial development of children. Bronfenbrenner believed that there are four ecological systems that a child interacts with and also these ecological factors influence his/her growth and development. Ecological systems that act as factors are microsystem (involves interpersonal interaction as well as immediate surrounding), mesosystem (relation between individual’s family and their teachers), exosystem (external incidents affecting the behaviour of parents and increase their stress) and macrosystem (includes societal and cultural beliefs).
Considering work of Bandura and taking into account the given case study, it could be said that environmental factors restrict Andrew to acquire toilet training as it could be seen that his mother could not spend much time with him. Andrew does not have many people in his surrounding as both of his parents work so they could not give much time to him. The central element that must be noticed is, all the three activities that Andrew enjoys (listening music, singing and dancing) does not involve any other participants as his parents cannot actively participate with him because of the lack of time.
Taking a look at the social-cultural theory of Vygotsky, it could be said that internal personal and linguistic factors are one of the main factors that influence the psychosocial development of a child. Research of Vygotsky shows that those children who acquire language in a shorter period than others are believed to learn other activities in lesser time as well (Nelson,et,al,2019). So, considering this case study, it could be said that Andrew was having no exposure to any age fellow and was not seemingly involved in any linguistic activity that could have improved his psychosocial development. Linguistic and interpersonal interaction factors were other factors that affected the psychosocial development of Andrew.
Taking into account the given case study, it could be said that The Child and Family Nurse understand well, the concerns of Maria and observed the case thoroughly. She suggested some activities and also the nurse educated her how she could improve the eating and playing activities of Andrew, that would help him for efficient acquiring of toilet training. Considering psychosocial development of Andrew, nurse also assured Maria that her son is acquiring all the necessary development milestone that he should (Fawole,et,al,2019). Nurse also assures her that Andrew would soon be able to gain daytime continence when he would be three years old. It has been witnessed that discussion with a nurse also provides her with the practice that would prove effective for her son. The nurse also suggested Maria seek help from other mothers, how they teach their children toilet training in different environments.
Development is a continuous process that never stops but may get slow at some stages of life. Early childhood is one of their most important stages when a child not only grow in size rather, he/she acquire many changes in attitude, behaviour and understanding as well. This development is of great importance as it indicates how well a child is learning and how well a child is adjusting with his surroundings (Franko,et,al,2018). A child needs to pass through different stages and each stage teaches the child how to handle different situations in life. A child during the first 3 to 5 years starts learning about the world and he/she has to respond according to the situation. Psychosocial development is one of the most change that has been observed in children. Psychosocial development is affected by numbers of factors i.e. social, cultural, personal, genetic and environmental etc. So, as a whole, it could be promulgated that skills development takes time and children may differ in their capacity of learning. Environmental factors were the main reason why the child was not toilet trained while the rest of the children were toilet trained but with the completion of three years Andrew would gain daytime continence. Child and Family Nurse suggested useful techniques that would have positive future outcomes. It could be concluded that some different scholars and theorists proposed various theories that focus on how child grow psychosocially.
Barbuscia, A., Staff, J., Ploubidis, G. B., Fitzsimons, E., & Maggs, J. (2019). Light drinking during pregnancy: Social advantages explain positive correlates with child and early adolescent adjustment. Addictive Behaviors.
Cherry, K. (2018). Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved Juny, 5, 2018.
Fawole, A. A. (2019). Generational verbal construction of identity by females: metaphors of identity in Carol Campbell's My children have faces. Gender and Behaviour, 17(2), 12936-12943.
Franko, D. L., & Striegel-Moore, R. H. (2018). Psychosocial risk for eating disorders: what’s new?. In Annual Review of Eating Disorders (pp. 51-62). CRC Press.
Huynh, H. V., Limber, S. P., Gray, C. L., Thompson, M. P., Wasonga, A. I., Vann, V., ... & Whetten, K. (2019). Factors affecting the psychosocial well-being of orphan and separated children in five low-and middle-income countries: Which is more important, quality of care or care setting?. PloS one, 14(6), e0218100.
Nelson, C. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Fox, N. A. (2019). How early experience shapes human development: The case of psychosocial deprivation. Neural plasticity, 2019.
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