Leadership Theories In Practice
University of Phoenix Material
Leadership Theories in Practice
Review the leadership theories on pages 9-11 and Gardner’s Tasks of Leading/Managing on pages 14-15 in Leading and Managing in Nursing.
Complete the table below:
Summarize the main points of the theory in your own words in the Summary Definition column.
Provide an example where you witnessed the theory in practice or suggest a situation where it could be applicable in the Practice Example column. Do not restate the Application to Practice column in the textbook; provide a unique example or suggest a possible scenario.
Correlate at least one of Gardner’s task to the theory and practice example in the last column.
The written assignment for this week is to fill out and complete the chart.
Column 1: For the Summary Definition, be sure to summarize the main points in your own words and add your in-text citation. Sources should be from at least 5 different places and then use these sources in APA-format for your references. There should be NO direct quotes. Summarize the theory in your own words.
Column 2: The Practice Example will come from your own work experience or suggest a situation where this would apply. Write the example without using 1st person so you work on that new skill set you will need for your BSN. Since this is a story from your experience, it does not need cited for this worksheet.
Column 3: The Application of Gardner's Tasks is where you will correlate at least one task to the theory and practice example. Gardner's Tasks can be found in your book starting on page 13 and going through to page 17. Identify the task and then write your example from practice. Since the example is from your practice, it does not need cited for this worksheet.
I open and look at the entire document so be sure to complete all the columns and rows. Please download and use the worksheet. Here is what one row would look like:
Application of Gardner's Tasks
Summarize in own words (Author(s), date)
Example at work or create an example
Name the task- provide real or created example
Use at least five in-text citations in the table to support your summaries, practice examples, or application of Gardner’s Tasks. In the References section below the table, create an APA-formatted list to cite each resource.
Application of Gardner’s Tasks
Trait theorists claim that leadership characteristics are inborn and certain behavioral characteristics are suitable for leadership such as confidence, social skills, assertiveness etc.
CITATION Tay09 \l 1033 (Taylor, 2009).
When selecting a nurse leader for the emergency department, the nursing manager be using trait theory to carry out an assessment, and compare and identify the traits that the selected nurse has, with one of his own. Each nurse would be evaluated based on desirable traits for the department, and the one possessing most or all of them would be selected for the task
The nurse leader will be ‘affirming values’ by examining the traits of the followers and comparing them to delegate a position of power to an individual nurse after the assessment
Style theory of leadership is focused on what leaders do rather than hat they are. It emphasizes task and relationship behaviors and the action tendencies a leader hold.
CITATION Ale16 \l 1033 (Alec Smith, Stark, & Stone, 2016)
In an emergency situation the nurse leader employing the style leadership theory would focus on getting the task done by directing staff ensuring that all emergency protocols are followed by the staff, to treat the patient-at-hand, without taking into account their personal opinions in the situation.
The nurse leader will be ‘managing’ the staff by making decisions and setting priorities to ensure that the patient in the emergency situation is able to be effectively treated.
Situational contingency theory is built on the relationship of different tasks assigned on a project and the person handling it.
CITATION Ale16 \l 1033 (Alec Smith, Stark, & Stone, 2016).
A nurse leader that uses situational leadership will adapt a different style according to the particular needs of her staff in different departments. Task behavior and authoritarian style would be used when dealing with a crisis like situation whereas relationship building and trust will be used to engage with the team and build a teamwork culture in less strenuous tasks to prepare followers in accomplishing a larger task.
In this case, the nurse leader will focus on ‘achieving workable unity’ and assist staff to achieve optimal functioning and ‘serving as symbol’ by engaging with them differently in different situations so that they are able to work as a team in tougher situations
Transformational leadership theories states that leadership is a process used to engage with others and ability to make connections. This results in high morality and motivation between leaders and followers.
CITATION Ama15 \l 1033 (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015).
To resolve the problem of nurses sleeping on night shift, the nurse leader using transformational leadership would schedule a one-on-one meeting and provide reassurance of trust and respect. The leader will listen to the nurse’s thoughts and concerns and analyze the problem. Afterwards, the leader will convey his/her expectations in a way that would influence and motivate the nurse’s behavior towards organizational commitment.
In this case, the nurse leader will be ‘motivating’ the follower to achieve organizational enhancement by sharing her vision and expectations after listening to her problems
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory shows the behavioral motivation. There is a certain pattern of needs by which human needs move and this is physiological needs, safety needs, need of love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualization. This is the order in which motivation occurs and individual satisfies himself at one level to go to other CITATION Bec03 \l 1033 (Beck, 2003).
Applying the hierarchy of needs, nurses would be taught how to prioritize between care decisions to help patients achieve personal goals and self-actualization. They would be taught to address problems that are to do with safety and physiologic needs and move on to removing barriers that impede their self-esteem and sense of belonging.
In this case, nursing staff will be motivating the patient to achieve their goals by addressing their hierarchy of needs such as their self-esteem, and sense of belonging.
The two factor theory describes that job satisfaction depends on two types of factors that are factors for satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The motivators include recognition, responsibility and growth opportunities. The dissatisfiers are related to relationship with colleagues, salary, working conditions and the relationship with supervisor.
CITATION Bec03 \l 1033 (Beck, 2003).
Nurse leaders would apply the theory to blend different factors to address the special needs of nurses. He will take up issues of improper work conditions, poor material or human resources, etc with higher management that lead to lower job satisfaction and result in overload.
In this case, the nurse leader will be ‘representing the group’ in board meetings and councils to present the concerns or conditions of nurses that are resulting in lower jo satisfaction and negotiate for bonuses and policy change on their behalf to help his followers achieve work motivation
Expectancy theory emphasizes that the individual select certain behavior because he expects some results out of it. To sum up, the motivation to choose a behavior is determined by the attractiveness of its consequence.
CITATION Bec03 \l 1033 (Beck, 2003).
The nursing leader following the expectancy theory will motivate their followers intrinsically
Through appealing to their sense of self-importance and contribution, through public praise. Moreover, he will negotiate financial bonuses and promotions for them with the upper management. They will be given external rewards such as time off and a flexible work schedule based on performance.
In this case, the nurse leader will be ‘motivating’ followers by inspiring them to enhance and improve their practices by encouraging them and providing them rewards for good performance.
Organizational Behavior Modification
Organizational behavior modification is the technique employed to change or modify behavior of employees. It is used to motivate and enhance their organizational effectiveness. It uses various reinforcements and interventions strategies to strengthen desired behavior CITATION Joh07 \l 1033 (Miner, 2007).
To prevent hospital acquired infections, nurse leaders applying BM would push for better practices in infection control such as ensuring proper hand-hygiene among nurses, by explaining to them the consequences to improve their behavior. They will also be directed to the preferred behavior and be notified of consequences for noncompliance. However, positive consequences will be stressed on more.
In this case, the nurse leader will be ‘explaining’ the consequences of poor behavior and the benefits of proper procedures to influence change in practices, and provide information that can help reduce medical mistakes
BIBLIOGRAPHY Alec Smith, N. H., Stark, Z., & Stone, I. (2016). Style Theory of Leadership. In L. Oakleaf (Ed.), Organization and Administration in Recreation, Sport and Leisure Management. Open Educational Resource.
Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A Review of Leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational Management. Management, 5(1), 6-14. doi:10.5923/j.mm.20150501.02
Beck, R. C. (2003). Motivation : Theories and Principles (4th ed.). Delhi: Pearson Education.
Miner, J. B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Taylor, R. (2009). Leadership theories and the development of nurses in primary health care. Primary Health Care, 19(9), 40-46. doi:10.7748/phc2009.11.19.9.40.c7368
Theory Box: Leadership Theories Theory/Contributor Key Idea Application to Practice
Trait Theories Trait theories were first studied from 1900 to 1950. These theories are sometimes referred to as the Great Man theory, from Aristotle’s philosophy extolling the virtue of being “born” with leadership traits. Stogdill (1948) is usually credited as the pioneer in this school of thought. Leaders have a certain set of physical and emotional characteristics that are crucial for inspiring others toward a common goal. Some theorists believe that traits are innate and cannot be learned; others believe that leadership traits can be developed in each individual. Self-awareness of traits is useful in self-development (e.g., developing assertiveness) and in seeking employment that matches traits (drive, motivation, integrity, confidence, cognitive ability, and task knowledge). Style Theories Sometimes referred to as group and exchange theories of leadership, style theories were derived in the mid-1950s because of the limitations of trait theory. The key contributors to this renowned research were Shartle (1956), Stogdill (1963), and Likert (1987).
Style theories focus on what leaders do in relational and contextual terms. The achievement of satisfactory performance measures requires supervisors to pursue effective relationships with their subordinates while comprehending the factors in the work environment that influence outcomes. To understand “style,” leaders need to obtain feedback from followers, superiors, and peers, such as through the Managerial Grid Instrument developed by Blake and Mouton (1985). Employee-centered leaders tend to be the leaders most able to achieve effective work environments and productivity.
Situational-Contingency Theories The situational-contingency theorists emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s to mid-1970s. These theorists believed that leadership effectiveness depends on the relationship among (1) the leader’s task at hand, (2) his or her interpersonal skills, and (3) the favorableness of the work situation. Examples of theory development with this expanded perspective include Fiedler’s (1967) Contingency Model, Vroom and Yetton’s (1973) Normative Decision-Making Model, and House and Mitchell’s (1974) Path-Goal theory. Three factors are critical: (1) the degree of trust and respect between leaders and followers, (2) the task structure denoting the clarity of goals and the complexity of problems faced, and (3) the position power in terms of where the leader was able to reward followers and exert influence. Consequently, leaders were viewed as able to adapt their style according to the presenting situation. The Vroom-Yetton model was a problem-solving approach to leadership. Path-Goal theory recognized two contingent variables: (1) the personal characteristics of followers and (2) environmental demands. On the basis of these factors, the leader sets forth clear expectations, eliminates obstacles to goal achievements, motivates and rewards staff, and increases opportunities for follower satisfaction based on effective job performance. The most important implications for leaders are that these theories consider the challenge of a situation and encourage an adaptive leadership style to complement the issue being faced. In other words, nurses must assess each situation and determine appropriate action based on the people involved. Transformational Theories Transformational theories arose late in the past millennium when globalization and other factors caused organizations to fundamentally re-establish themselves. Many of these attempts were failures, but great attention was given to those leaders who effectively transformed structures, human resources, and profitability balanced with quality. Bass (1990), Bennis and Nanus (2007), and Tichy and Devanna (1997) are commonly associated with the study of transformational theory. Transformational leadership refers to a process whereby the leader attends to the needs and motives of followers so that the interaction raises each to high levels of motivation and morality. The leader is a role model who inspires followers through displayed optimism, provides intellectual stimulation, and encourages follower creativity. Transformed organizations are responsive to customer needs, are morally and ethically intact, promote employee development, and encourage self-management. Nurse leaders with transformational characteristics experiment with systems redesign, empower staff, create enthusiasm for practice, and promote scholarship of practice at the patient-side.
Hierarchy of Needs Maslow is credited with developing a theory of motivation, first published in 1943. People are motivated by a hierarchy of human needs, beginning with physiologic needs and then progressing to safety, social, esteem, and self-actualizing needs. In this theory, when the need for food, water, air, and other life-sustaining elements is met, the human spirit reaches out to achieve affiliation with others, which promotes the development of self-esteem, competence, achievement, and creativity. Lower-level needs will always drive behavior before higher-level needs will be addressed. When this theory is applied to staff, leaders must be aware that the need for safety and security will override the opportunity to be creative and inventive, such as in promoting job change.
Two-Factor Theory Herzberg (1991) is credited with developing a two-factor theory of motivation, first published in 1968. Hygiene factors, such as working conditions, salary, status, and security, motivate workers by meeting safety and security needs and avoiding job dissatisfaction. Motivator factors, such as achievement, recognition, and the satisfaction of the work itself, promote job enrichment by creating job satisfaction. Organizations need both hygiene and motivator factors to recruit and retain staff. Hygiene factors do not create job satisfaction; they simply must be in place for work to be accomplished. If not, these factors will only serve to dissatisfy staff. Transformational leaders use motivator factors liberally to inspire work performance.
Expectancy Theory Vroom (1994) is credited with developing the expectancy theory of motivation. Individuals’ perceived needs influence their behavior. In the work setting, this motivated behavior is increased if a person perceives a positive relationship between effort and performance. Motivated behavior is further increased if a positive relationship exists between good performance and outcomes or rewards, particularly when these are valued. Expectancy is the perceived probability of satisfying a particular need based on experience. Therefore nurses in leadership roles need to provide specific feedback about positive performance.
OB Modification Luthans (2011) is credited with establishing the foundation for Organizational Behavior Modification (OB Mod), based on Skinner’s work on operant conditioning. OB Mod is an operant approach to organizational behavior. OB Mod Performance Analysis follows a three-step ABC Model: A, antecedent analysis of clear expectations and baseline data collection; B, behavioral analysis and determination; and C, consequence analysis, including reinforcement strategies. The leader uses positive reinforcement to motivate followers to repeat constructive behaviors in the workplace. Negative events that de-motivate staff are negatively reinforced, and the staff is motivated to avoid certain situations that cause discomfort. Extinction is the purposeful non-reinforcement (ignoring) of negative behaviors. Punishment is used sparingly because the results are unpredictable in supporting the desired behavioral outcome.
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