Q. 1: Training and development are two essential components in the development of organizations. Training enables employees to learn the rules, regulations, obligations, specific tasks and duties related to the job position and acts as a basis for future career development of the employees. Development of employee is in fact the development of organization. It makes the employees conductive to the organizational environment through enabling them to learn specific skills and knowledge regarding their organizational roles (Surbhi, 2015).
Strategic human resource management is highly important in current scenario because it regards employees not just as an extension of their machines but as distinctive human beings having their own unique thinking patterns, feelings, emotions, perceptions, attitudes, outlooks, orientations, preferences, behaviors, decision- making, coping, problem solving, intellectual and management abilities; which need to be addressed and synchronized with the organizational demands systematically. Strategic human resource management is a research oriented field in which psychological, emotional and social attributes of human beings are assessed and their particular abilities and qualification is estimated regarding specific job or task in the organization (Surbhi, 2015). This field emphasizes much on the development and enhancement of human motivation and productivity.
Q. 2: Realizing the significance of training, organizations spend a great deal of fiscal resources to train their employees. Training methods, specific to the healthcare human resources include (Ramachandran, 2010):
On the job training: on the job training starts soon after the employee joins the organization. He is not introduced to a separate training program rather starts executing daily clinical practice with the other senior nurses. This method is the most effective method of training encapsulating observation, modeling, explanation and practice. However, this method might be stressful for some nurses particularly those who are newer to the field.
Coaching and mentoring: in this type of training, a trained professional provides one- on- one training to the trainees. For example, a senior registered nurse with the substantial nursing experience and exposure acts as a mentor to the new comers. Less formal coaching and mentoring provide environment to the trainees conductive to field learning.
Lectures: lectures are another effective form of training in which a classroom- like environment is created in the organization where an instructor introduces the employees with the daily- practices and issues faced by nurses during their clinical exposure. This method is best for debriefing trainees prior to taking them to particular field setting i.e., palliative care or acute care setting where pain management is the focus of attention.
Group discussions: group discussion allows participants to share their ideas regarding a problem issue. They are assigned a problem and allowed to present their intellectual suggestions based on the logic and their previous theoretical knowledge. Hence, they learn team work that is quite essential for carrying future clinical practices i.e., in palliative care setting where general practitioners, nutritionists, psychologists, counselors and physiotherapists work collaboratively to mitigate multifaceted aspects of patient problem.
Audio- visual aids: audio visual aid in form of pictures, x- ray photographs, radio- graphs and video is the most compelling and attractive method of training in which nurses are gathered and introduced to set of problems that they might encounter during clinical practice, for example, pain management during limb fracture; keeping in view the clinical background of patient that may document allergies to previously used medications.
Q. 3: Three methods can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training. These methods include (Al-Ajlouni et. al., 2010):
Visual cues: visual cues include the confidence level of trainee in carrying daily practices. Confidence can be estimated through verbal and non- verbal cues of trainee. For example, when he is assigned a particular task, his readiness to perform the task, his eye contact, voice tone, body movement, and extent to which the task is completed can be analyzed to get a glimpse about training effectiveness.
Social ownership: after training, nurses gain enough knowledge to carry their daily nursing practices and competencies. Their knowledge can be tested through their ability to train other new comers. In simple words, it is analyzed to what extent they can mentor the upcoming and less- knowledgeable trainees.
Skill assessment: problem solving skills, decision- making abilities, knowledge, competencies and attitudes of trainees can be assessed occasionally through specific questionnaires or experimentation. This type of assessment is the most objective one in nature and compares the pre- test and post- test scores for analyzing the improvements in performance.
Q. 4: Human resource professional typically follows industrial/ organizational psychology principles. He gains a thorough comprehension about the thinking patterns and behaviors of employees along with the psychological, biological, neurological, emotional and social roots behind executing particular behaviors and possessing certain thinking patterns (Eades, 2014). He focuses more on the human factor of employee. He knows what factors energize and empower employee behaviors and how to have a full- fledge desired control over them. Hence, he integrates the principles or workplace and human rationality for the career development of employee.
Q. 5: Performance management, selection, training and compensation—all the programs are centered on the enhancement of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee motivation. This is due to the Hawthorne Effect, the most interesting and groundbreaking series of experimentation that provided basis to the development of human resource department in early 1900s. According to this effect, employees demonstrate increase productivity not only because they find physical relief, good salary or compensation for it but also due to the fact that organization has attempted something that is centered on the wellbeing of their employees (Jones, 1992). In simple words, employees recognize the efforts at their unconscious levels that organizations makes for their relief which then motivate them to work harder and manifest increased productivity. Hence, these programs may lead to both economical and personal gains.
Al-Ajlouni, M. M., Athamneh, M. H., Jaradat, A. A. (2010). Methods of evaluation: Training techniques international research. Journal of Finance and Economics, 37, 56-65.
Eades, J. (2014). 3 ways organizations can improve the way they measure training effectiveness. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/3-ways-measure-training-effectiveness
Ramachandran, R. (2010). Effectiveness of training programs of NLC—An Analysis. Kegees Journal of Social Science, 2(1), 119-129.
Surbhi, S. (2015). Difference between training and development. Retrieved from http://keydifferences.com/difference-between-training-and development.html#ixzz4LLZJBIcP
Jones S.R.G. (1992). Was there a Hawthorne effect? Am J Sociol., 98:451–468.
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