Human Resource Management
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Human Resource Management
Organizations are having Human Resource Managaemnt department that recruits, selects, induct employees, provid orientation and train them for developing effective skills in them for increasing their performance. In human resource management there comes a number of functions such as careful planning, organization of tasks, directing and controlling others for producing positive change. A close link could be witnessed between strategies of HRM, cooperative behavior of employees and their productivity. HRM also have to align practices, with employees so that they could deliver better performance. HR department addresses multidimensional characters and various outcomes are linked with HR practices. This paper reviews various perspectives of experts who in their studies claimed that HR is directly influencing how well the management would performance if recruitment and training of the employees would be done properly. HR helps in the transformation of personal characteristics into performance by inculcating a sense in employees how they could be a productive part of any organization.
With time and awareness, there has been witnessed a significant increase in the institutions and organizations that are gathering, keeping, storing and analyzing data of the Human Resource Information System. A radical change in the working of organizations has been observed with the emergence of HR that design strategic approaches that define clear dimensions for the employees and organizational operations. Impact of HR practices on organizational performance has been a widely researched area for years now which points towards the role played by HR. A human mind exists behind the production of every product or service. Without the help of human beings and proper planning of execution designed plan no product or service could become successful. Fundamental resources for constructing anything is the human mind, selection of competent individuals and organization of the former two elements. Having skilled and competent employees is the desire of every organization and institute. In the five M’s of management (men, money, machines, materials, and methods) HRM deals with the first M that is men. Among all the five M’s, the first one (men) is not easy to handle. Men are not alike and have different thinking approach with which they behave differently under different situations showing their capability of working. Every individual is different from others and it becomes difficult for the management to design such diversity. Making a plan that would serve as the guiding light for all the individuals in difficult to make. HR could be looked upon as the only department that manages men and has the power to influence performance and working of the employees (Collings et al, pp. 1-23). One main role played by HR is, it directs the employees about their strengths and weakness after analyzing them and guide them how they could make the best use of their powers and how they could overcome their weaknesses. Employees lack the power of critical thinking and ability to decide what is good for them so HR is the department that defines ways for them keeping their capabilities into consideration.
Human Resource Management is not a new concept but it's mounting popularity has drawn attention of various experts, specialists and researchers who have different perceptions about it. According to Jolanta, practices promoted and discouraged by HR are the determiners of the performance of an organization. She also claims that importance of HR could be understood by realizing the fact that institutes differ in their aims and objectives along with the difference in their style of managing human resources which are based on the desired employees' characteristics, behavior, and attitudes (Jaskiene et al, 775-780). Behavior of the employees is controlled by HRM organizational goals and strategies. According to another expert, Kepes and Delery, HR practices are looked upon as broad techniques of HR which make sure the implementation of the HRM policies. Wright in his research, claimed that the goals of organizations are achieved in the presence of HR guidance. HRM practices could be considered as the mean that increases skillfulness of employees and provide them an incentive as per their performance. HR skills, abilities, and knowledge are the key determinants that influence the performance of individuals. HRM practices and generic processes that influence behavior and performance of employees by understanding their abilities, provide them opportunities as per their competence and offer them incentives and compensation in accordance with their performance. Employees are also complied with by management for coming up to the expectations of the organization and authorities. Though various factors influence performance of an organization as per the research of Boselie and colleagues, selection of the effective and particular HRM practices could enhance the performance of the organizations as a whole.
David G Collings, sheds light on another important aspect of HRM that is talent with a particular focus on the polishing of the innate talents of employees that is naturally constructed. Connie Zheng believe that importance of Human Resource Management becomes evident in China as it is focusing on the formulation of the strategies that would help business is growing at a rapid rate. He also emphasizes on the responsibilities and roles that HR plays in making a business successful in any field. HR members are responsible for recruiting, screening, interviewing and placing workers at right positions in the company. Another major responsibility that come upon the shoulders of HR is maintaining a good relationship with employees and providing positive environment at the workplace. HR is also responsible for making payrolls of the employees and policies regarding their compensation and benefits. Administrative functions of an organization are planning, directing and coordinating strategies of Human resource management. HRM not only manages business and employee but also, assists employees for enchaning their productivity. Leaders of human resources evaluate performance of the employees and guide them about ways, they could adopt for enhancing their capabilities. HR also help employees in advancing their careers. Modern HRM rather than grading the performance of the employees on the checklist, helps them in defining areas that the employee could work upon for giving their best to the organizations.
They also define certain techniques and ways that employees could use for improving their performance. HRM not also just post ads and conduct the interviews for filling the job posts in their organization but also design the brands so that they could attract the right job candidates. They also try to make their workplace favorable for employees by winning their confidence (Scarbrough et al, 501-516). HR executive also keeps in consideration the culture of the organization and makes possible required changed so that employees could be provided with the best working environment. It also provide benefits to the employee so that more candidates could be attracted and out of them the best ones could be selected. HRM is responsible for legal pursuits. It is responsible for interpreting and enforcing labor and empowerment laws such as employment, opportunity, benefits, wages, work hour requirements and fair labor standards. It is the department that is also responsible for keeping a check on the changing of the laws and modification of the policies accordingly. It also keeps an eye on the harassment and discrimination complaints and makes sure that officials are going to obey all the laws and would not violate any labor regulation.
It has been witnessed that innovation and creativity are becoming more important in the success of many companies. HRM is famous for bringing innovation in organizations. According to Richard T. Rees innovation being brought by the HR is the change in culture of organizations with time as role of HR changed over time. Years back, HR was only performing few functions such as hiring of employees and making of their pay slips but at present a revolution could be seen in the role of HRM (Rees et al, 29-35). Innovation in any company could be brought only when it is supported by the HR practices and policies (McKeown et al, 173-174). There are different policies and practices that would bring innovation in the organization such as work autonomy, task composition, job demands, seeking feedback from the employees, management and the authorities, job security, job rotation, training and development and rewarding those who deliver best services and help in making organization the number one among all. A reward has been the best of the elements that bring innovation in the companies (Lamond et al, 6-16). Reward only works when an employee's behavior is impacted positively and in the right presence right conditions. HRM believes in bringing a radical change in the existing processes so that things could be turned in favor of the organization. Overall switching of the human resource data system could be looked upon as a new way of introducing innovation. Innovation and creativity could be looked upon as the key differentiator that makes companies stand out.
Engagement of employees is another major factor that shapes up the reputation of an organization. HRM plays a vital role in engaging employees and various elements help the HRM in engaging employees such as promoting the cultural values and mitigating the cultural differences so that employees could be provided social and cultural security. According to Alima Akthar, employee engagement though given much importance in the past few years still there is a need to promote the practices and policies that would increase employee engagement as it encourages the linkage between HR and employees. Employee engagement is the factor that could be used for measuring loyalty of employee with his job and organization. For retaining the top employees HRM has to engage the employee so that they would not leave the job. Employee engagement is considered one of the most important factors towards which the HRM pays attention as one's loyalty affects the productivity of the employees and wellness of the organization. Human resources staff wants the best employees to be engaged in such a way so that best benefits the company could get. HRM needs to promote positive employee engagement which means employees would be connected to their job and will willingly put extra effort for accomplishing company’s goals. HR is the main facilitator of employee engagement due to its equal approach to all the departments i.e. workers, managers and the executives. Planning and formulation of policies that would be effective for employee engagement is of great importance for HR. HRM could promote positive engagement by hiring employees on the cultural fit so that they would not be having any clash with that of the culture followed in the organization.
HRM also needs to promote communication among the employees and must remove the cultural and communication barriers. Safeguarding of the culture is another important factor that must be taken into consideration by HR for increasing employee engagement. HR has the duty of ensuring continuous communication by following values of the organization (Kepes et al, 385). By keeping the values of organization on the top of the agenda, HR being the mediator could promote communication as it would give the employees a feeling of belonging. This fact cannot be denied that HRM impact the organization as in the global competitive markets, successful organizations are likely to be staffed with good managers who could positively influence the working of the company. According to David Biggs and colleagues, organization is impacted by the policies and strategies of the HR as it has been seen that all the major and minor operations and responsibilities are performed by the HR so it could be looked upon as the only department of any organization that impact the organization the most. HR influence and impact the organization mainly by making the policies that would directly affect the workforce that is it’s backbone (Chimhanzi et al, pp. 73-98). It depends on HR whether it is going to plan strategies and policies that would work in favor of the employees or would go against them. If the HR policies would cast positive effects on the employees only than the delivery of the best services could be expected. On the other hand, if HR policies would be against employees their would be unable to deliver their best at the organization and would look for the organization where they would be having policies that would suit them.
According to Jacqueline Chimhanzi, there must exist a good relationship between the employees and authorities so that policies could be made by keeping in the considering the goals of the organization. For positive impacts, the HR would be making strategies that would in coordination with the aims of the organization. It could be seen that starting from the selection and appointment of employees in organization, all the major tasks are performed by HR so it won’t be wrong to say that HR is the main department that impacts every individual linked with the organization directly (Masum et al, 382-397). HR impact the organization by formulating and implementing policies that would influence all the departments of the organization. HR could impact the organization in two ways i.e. negatively and positively. If the organization is going to take out its time for guiding the employees of the bottom line organization, it would help them in improving their working. Effective HR strategies and policies are the key elements that attract, develop and maintain the talented and energetic workers, so that organizations could be put on the right track. HRM impact the business and the performance of the employees that work for accomplishing the company's goals.
Study and analysis of any subject have many benefits likewise it could be seen that there are multiple benefits of studying human resource management. The knowledge that one gets from the study of HRM as subject could use in practical life that would help in increasing the productivity as well as revenue of the company. Study of HRM is important for achieving business success by engaging a team. Study of the HRM helps in improving the turnover. It is important to hire the right person for the right job and for retaining employees, company would do anything as it would be difficult to train the new employee. Study of HRM is important for training and developing skills in employees so that they could be made an effective part of the organization (Burgess & John). Study of human resource management is important for improving the performance of the employees. It would teach how to motivate and push employees so that they could perform exceptionally well. HRM study would also help in controlling the budget of the organization. It would also teach how to control budgeting of the company and saving money so that in the end, the financial condition of the company would stand out. Employee satisfaction is an important factor so that they would behold in the company for longer. For having loyal employees, it is important to study HRM so that tactics could be learned for improving the performance of employees and organizations.
Taking a look at the above discussion, it could be said that with industrial development and growing competition, the role of human resource management in organizations is becoming more important. HRM is important for hiring, maintaining and enhancing the performance of the employees. Over time, there has been witnessed a change in HRM as the growth of companies are depending upon the effectiveness of the HRM personnel. The evolution in HRM could be observed by taking into account roles that HRM is performing nowadays. There are several benefits of having competent HRM personnel that would help in shaping up the reputation of the organization. HR also helps in positively engaging the employees and providing them guidance so that they could secure a good position in the organization. So, as a whole, it could be promulgated that human resource management is playing a key role in appointing talented and skillful employees so that set targets of an organization could be achieved.
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Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad, Md Abul Kalam Azad, and Loo-See Beh. "The role of human resource management practices in bank performance." Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 27.3-4 (2016): 382-397.
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