Critical Assignment - Analysis Of Fiji
Analysis of Fiji
12th Dec 2019
The globalization process covers all the main spheres of society: economy, politics, science, culture, if we talk about social institutions, and, more generally, labor and leisure, being and consciousness, if we talk about the main areas of society. This process is carried out at three subordinate levels - supranational, or international, state and domestic (non-governmental organizations and social movements). The globalization has not stopped in front of the places as far Fiji. Around the 844 islands that make up the 1.3 million square kilometer archipelago, the oceans were nearly empty and the coral world was seriously affected. The expansion of agriculture will introduce too many nutrients and sediments into the coastal regions. On the islands, entire forests were converted into agricultural land by means of slash-and-burn (Mohanty, Manoranjan, 2017)
The Republic of Fiji is an island state in the South Pacific consisting of about 330 islands, included in Melanesia but generally considered a "frontier zone" between this cultural area and that of Polynesia. The country, which had 884,887 inhabitants in 2017, was attached to the British Crown in 1874 and was one of the first in Oceania to achieve independence in 1970. Fiji's economic boom in cane mining in sugar, its development is largely based on tourism 1, with significant differences across the provinces and districts. In the part of our work is the education of the population, culture, environment, economy and geography use. At the end of these five themes, I recommended two policy recommendations.
The WWF is now working with Austrian donations for three years on the fifth-largest Fiji island Gau. Together with the population, which includes 3,000 people, it has been decided that fires are prohibited for clearing and are fined heavily. The remaining mangrove forest is protected and reforested in several places. The mangrove forests are not only the spawning ground of many species of fish and food sources of the Fijians but also provide a bulwark against the increasing storms as a result of climate change (Prakash, Kushneel, and Radhika Ram, 2011). Off the coast of Fiji lies the third largest barrier reef in the world, the Great Sea Reef. These waters are home to five of the world's seven sea turtle species. Spinner dolphins, gray reef sharks and all the splendor of the coral fish world can be found here. The hiking routes for many species of whales and dolphins also pass by here. The Fiji archipelago is still one of the most species-rich waters in the world. "If we do not save the natural diversity of Fiji, the islands are vulnerable to climate change in just a few years," Scattolin warns.
The culture of the islands of Fiji is rich and diverse. His past will have left him a multicultural society, and the history of Fiji is quite different from that of other neighboring islands in the South Pacific. Pacific countries like Fiji Islands are more unlike any other region in the world, marked by social change and global environmental change. Based on a participative research design conducted in selected coastal villages, this volume explores the impact of globalization and climate change on the quality of life of its inhabitants. It shows that the villagers are not passive victims of external processes but actively shape their lives. By means of neo-traditional movements, the inhabitants manage to preserve as far as possible a solid foundation of values as the basis of their cultural identity. An intact community stands at the center of spiritual, economic and social values. In the course of social transformation, the communities are no longer localized; instead, they use modern transport and communication technologies to form globalized networks - without losing any of their cultural origins. Away living family members contribute knowledge and material prosperity into the village communities and expand the action potentials and living standards of the coastal village dwellers (Harrison, David, 1997).
The economy has been particularly dynamic in recent years, with growth of 3% in 2017 and 3.2% in 2018, mainly as a result of reconstruction activities, the tourism sector, the resumption of agricultural production and the growth of the economy. ‘increase in household consumption expenditure (the largest contributor to gross domestic product). The IMF forecasts growth of 3.4% for 2019, although the country's economic performance depends on maintaining financial stability, restoring fiscal reserves, and stimulating private sector development.
The geographic distribution of resorts which primarily invest in spectacular beaches is uneven, however, and not all islanders benefit equally from the benefits of tourism. While some have the guarantee of a rent and a continuous source of local employment, others depend to a greater extent of coastal and marine resources (Firth, Stewart, 2000). This situation can also be caused by land conflicts that prevent the operation of a community resort, by management problems, by priority recruitment in mataqali whose lands host the resorts. The inhabitants will thus rely on a set of resources, monetary and non-monetary, which intervene in varying proportions according to the families: income from tourism, garden produce (tovatova , where yams grow, bananas, cassava, etc.).
The denunciation of ecological risks and damage goes hand in hand with a growing scientific and political attention to climate change, which was reinforced in 2012 following a serious series of floods, and again in 2016 with Cyclone Winston - responsible for dozens of deaths and heavy property damage in Fiji. The presence of the resorts encourages, in particular, the development of a commercial fishery which represents an alternative means of economic and social ascent, while helping to develop and vitalize strong traditional relations between individuals and family units. We will see in a second time that the villagers of Quake and Yalobi denounce at their scale ecological disturbances, but that the chains of responsibilities envisaged (impact of tourism, overfishing, climate change, etc.) and especially the recommended solutions are not necessarily the same as those put forward by the Fijian government, the scientific world, NGOs. It will appear that a series of parameters, like the conditions of access to the land or the presence of an ethos of village equality influence the modes of interaction with the marine world and the perception of socially acceptable forms of action on this environment (Mohanty, Manoranjan, 2008).
Like much other South Sea Islands, the Fiji archipelago is also severely threatened by climate change. The sensitive ecosystem of the islands is threatened by rising sea levels, changes in precipitation and storm surges. In addition, illegal and unregulated fishing for tuna with trawls and long lines threatens life in the water. One ton of shark fins is exported monthly from Fiji to Asia. Many mangrove forests, the nurseries of fish, were cut down. With marine protected areas, sustainable fishery methods and reforestation of mangrove forests, the WWF wants to protect the biodiversity and thus the livelihood of the population against climate change.
The first policy has resulted in the development of relations with new partners, chosen primarily from the southern countries, starting with China, but also the Middle East (Gulf countries) with which Fiji, which contributes to Peacekeeping missions in the region since 1978, has a history. Suva has also developed strong relations with New Delhi (visit of Prime Minister MODI in November 2014, a few days before that of Chinese President XI, an organization in Suva of the Forum for cooperation between India and the Pacific countries in May 2017 agreement on cooperation in the field of space, military agreement). The relationship with Australia and New Zealand, two major neighbors and historic partners, is now normalized, as evidenced by the recent visit in January 2019 by Australian Prime Minister Morrison to Suva.
Fiji is very active in multilateral fora, including the United Nations. They have been designated to chair the Group of 77 in 2013, the UNFPA Executive Committee of UNDP and UNOPS in 2014, the General Assembly in 2016, the Oceans Summit (co-chair) and COP23 in 2012. 2017. The country currently holds the vice-presidency of the Human Rights Council. Fiji's foreign policy - which is a member of major regional organizations as well as the Melanesian Spearhead Group - is also reflected in strong leadership in the region, particularly in small island developing States, and strong engagement in the negotiations. since 2010, the first the country in the world to ratify the Paris Agreement in February 2016, the first Small Island Developing State (SIDS) to chair a Conference of the Parties - COP23, during which Suva launched the "Talanoa Dialogue"
Relations with the European Union
With regard to relations with the European Union, Fiji is the 4th largest beneficiary country in the 11th EDF with EUR 28 million over the 2014-2020 period, of which 18% is French. The EU has also concluded a free trade agreement with Fiji.
The Second policy is to avoid incalculable negative effects of climate change on ecosystems and society, it is necessary to drastically reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Here politicians are required to create and implement climate protection strategies. Politicians need scientific expertise for their decisions. The Thünen Institute fulfills its advisory mission in this field in many ways. For example, in 2012 it prepared the study for the preparation of an efficient and well-coordinated climate protection policy for the agricultural sector for the state of Lower Saxony. Using the example of Lower Saxony, measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector were analyzed, quantified and assessed on a regionally differentiated basis. Correspondingly, the cost-effectiveness of the climate protection measures was determined and policy measures derived. The study was published as a special issue 361 of the journal Landbauforschung. Fiji should also follow these recommendations it has always been the small island states that most insist on real climate protection - and for damages, should he not be enough.
Mohanty, Manoranjan. "Globalization and Cities." Springer Nature, 2019. NA.
Prakash, Kushneel, and Radhika Ram. "Does Globalization Affect Visitor Arrivals in Pacific Island Developing States? The Case of Fiji." Journal of Applied Business and Economics 19.9 (2017): 112-124.
Harrison, David. "Globalization and tourism: some themes from Fiji." Globalization and tourism: some themes from Fiji. (1997): 167-183.
Mohanty, Manoranjan. "Globalization, new labour migration and development in Fiji Islands." ICFAI University Press, 2008. 206-222.
Firth, Stewart. "The Pacific Islands and the globalization agenda." The Contemporary Pacific 12.1 (2000): 177-192.
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