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A physical or psychological inability to stop consuming a chemical, drug or any other substance is called addiction generally. Addiction is not related only to consuming any substance rather many activities become addiction eventually when a person does it in routine. For instance, many people have an addiction to using the internet or gadgets, watching or uploading porn, playing games, and even eating or gambling as well. Addiction seizes a person's ability to avoid that thing or activity which he/she is addicted to. Addiction molds a person's behavior in such a way that he/she behaves insanely when not provided the opportunity to consume the item or do the activity he/she is addicted to. The following sources are useful articles to understand this phenomenon.
Koob, G. F., & Volkow, N. D. (2010). Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(1), 217.
George Koob and Nora Volkow have done comprehensive research while writing this article. The article was originally published in 2009, and erratum to this article published in 2010. A former Chair of the Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders at The Scripps Research Institute George Koob is an Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of California and he had applied all his skills to design his research on this topic. The director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Nora Volkow is also a known psychiatric. Her contribution to this research is also of remarkable status. The authors define Addiction and discuss it using various techniques like reviewing credible literature on this subject and applying their expertise. Psychological impacts of addiction on a human mind have been discussed. The tendencies that lead to addiction have also been noted. More importantly, the authors use diagrams and prosaic explanations to find the biological impacts of addiction on the human mind and body. This article is general research on almost all types of addiction like drugs, the internet, etc. The article proposes some more areas for future research. Every student of this subject should read this article for it is credible research that can guide us in doing more research on the subject. This article enhanced my knowledge about the phenomenon.
Pearson, C., & Hussain, Z. (2017). Smartphone use, addiction, narcissism, and personality: A mixed-methods investigation. In Gaming and Technology Addiction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 212-229). IGI Global.
Narcissism is defined as excessive love for one’s own self. It appears in a new form in the contemporary century. One might feel surprised, but the smartphone has increased the number of narcissists. Rosen, Cheever, and Carrier (2012) have defined "iDisroder" as a negative relationship between psychological health and technology. Claire Pearson and Zaheer Hussain and are two scholars from the University of Derby, UK. They have researched the effects of social websites of interpersonal communication on the human psyche and have examined it with reference to narcissism. They find that narcissism has caused millions of people addicted to these social websites. The researchers have collected qualitative data to analyze the phenomenon. They apply psychological theories and explore the negative effects of social websites on the performance of youth. They conclude that smartphone has become an addiction for the majority of people and it has made them more narcissists. People have become too conscious about their appearance. They take pictures and upload them to get "Likes". The crave of "Likes" is another interesting addition. People breach the security of many sensitive places to take pictures there. This article is specifically on smartphone-addiction and it is a worth reading article on this subject.
Koob, G. F., & Le Moal, M. (2001). Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(2), 97.
Everyone warns about the effects of cigarettes on the throat, lungs, or teeth, but the smokers do not care. It is because they do not consider the effects of smoking on these body parts rather they consider its effects upon their minds. But this could be a nonsense argument for a non-smoker. We perhaps deal with all types of addicts in the same way. This could be the reason that no addict cares about what terrible consequences of addiction we talk about. Professor Koob has examined addiction from a different angle. He has co-authored this article with a known American neuroscientist Le Moal, M. This article attempts to explore the stages of addiction. Everything that becomes addiction at a stage is easy to be getting rid of in start. Every addiction is directly concerned with our minds more than anything else. This article is specifically about drug addiction and the authors attempt to learn when and how a drug becomes addiction. They find that mostly a drug is taken voluntarily, but then it becomes an addiction. A method of Allostasis has been proposed to cure the addicts. The article highlights some difficulties in applying this method and then suggests some methods that can be used to apply it successfully. The article is typical of Prof. Koob who uses biological diagrams and tables to elaborate his argument. Le Moal’s neurological research study enhances the reader’s knowledge about the topic. Medical students also learn much from this comprehensive research, especially the students of neurology. The language has been ornamented with medical and psychological terms, but an average literate person can also read and learn much from this article. Many researchers of this topic cite this article and review it for their research purposes. I gave this article a thorough reading and it enhanced my knowledge and understanding about addiction as well as human brain structure.
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