TERM: The term “Puritan refers to the English protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries. These people disliked the Roman Catholic beliefs and practices and sought to purify the Church of England of any such individuals or practices.
TEXT: Sydney E. Ahlstrom. A Religious History of the American People (2nd ed.)
EXPLANATION: Ahlstrom explains the phenomenon or belief of puritanism. According to him, Puritanism is a diverse form of a religious movement that started in Great Britain committed to the continental Reformed tradition.
TERM: The term pilgrim refers to a traveler or a person who has come from a long distance to visit a holy place. Usually, it includes a journey to a place of significance for some particular religion.
TEXT: "The Celtic Saints." Heart O' Glory. 2007
EXPLANATION: The Celtic Saints in their publication, "Heart O' Glory," mention a group of pilgrims in Celtic Christianity, who were “Peregrinari Pro Christ, (Pilgrims for Christ)” and did a lot for the religion. They were also known as “white martyrs” and left their homes to wander the world.
TERM: The literal meaning of “Captivity Narrative” is the tales or stories told by the people who are usually held captive or captured by the enemies. Usually, in such cases, the kidnapped person has contrasting views with that of the kidnappers, and he or she considers them uncivilized.
TEXT: Lonnie J. White "White Women Captives of Southern Plains Indians”
EXPLANATION: In the book "White Women Captives of Southern Plains Indians," Lonnie White presents the idea of the captive women and children of India in mind 19th Century. She exhibits these captivated prisoners in a very oppressed and cruelly-treated state.
James the Farmer
TERM: James Leonard Farmer was a Black civil rights activist in the United States of America. He is famous for his services in organizing the 1960s “freedom rides” that further led to the desegregation of interstate buses and bus terminals.
TEXT: Jill Ogline Titus, “James Farmer (1920-1999)”
EXPLANATION: Jill Ogline, in his information about James farmer, describes his characteristics as "who pushed for a nonviolent protest to dismantle segregation, and served alongside Martin Luther King Jr." He glorifies the services of and sacrifices of James farmers and describes hi importance in the history of Black Africans in America.
TERM: Slave narrative refers to a genre of literature that involves the autobiographical writings of the individuals who were enslaved in Great Britain and its colonies. Most of these slaves were brought and traded in the United States of America, Canada, and Caribbean nations.
TEXT: Ernest, John. "The Oxford Handbook of the African American Slave Narrative."
EXPLANATION: John Earnest, in his publication "The Oxford Handbook of the African American Slave Narrative," elaborates that what exactly is a slave narrative and how it is read. It is a complete guide for a beginner that what exactly to look for in a slave narrative. According to John, the freed slaved are also historians as "memory and history come together."
TERM: Naturalism is defined in two ways in the English language. One is in the prospect of art and literature, and the other one is in the aspect of Philosophy. The former refers to a style or theory of representation accompanying the complete and accurate details. The latter refers to the philosophical belief that everything has been created out of natural properties and causes, and only nature controls the universe and every phenomenon in it.
TEXT: J.A., Stone. Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative
EXPLANATION: J.A. Stone, in his book, explains the concept of naturalism in detail and rules out the possibility that any spiritual being or any supernatural entity can control the universe.
TERM: The term feminism refers to the advocacy for equal rights for women on the basis of equality of genders.
TEXT: Virginia Blain, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy. The feminist companion to literature in English: women writers from the Middle Ages to the present.
EXPLANATION: In their combined effort, “The Feminist Companion To Literature In English: Women Writers From The Middle Ages To The Present”, Virginia Blain, Patricia Clements and Isobel Grundy glorify the efforts of the female writers from the Middle ages till present, They have mentioned various writers who have made immense contribution in the English literature and are known for the power of their pen.
TERM: Harlem Renaissance refers to an intellectual, social, and artistic revolution that started in the center of Harlem, New York, during the years of 1920.
TEXT: Cary D. Wintz, Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance
EXPLANATION: Cary D. Wintz in his book, “Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance” explains the complete history of Harlem Renaissance and enlightens the readers bout the number of eventful details that happened during
"The Celtic Saints". Heart O' Glory. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-14.
Ahlstrom, Sydney E. (2004) . A Religious History of the American People (2nd ed.). Yale University Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-385-11164-9.
Blain, Virginia; Clements, Patricia; Grundy, Isobel (1990). The feminist companion to literature in English: women writers from the Middle Ages to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. vii–x. ISBN 978-0-300-04854-4.
John, Ernest (January 1, 2014). The Oxford Handbook of the African American Slave Narrative. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 9780199731480. OCLC 881290138
Ogline Titus, Jill. "James Farmer (1920–1999)". Encyclopedia Virginia/Dictionary of Virginia Biography. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
Stone, J.A. (2008). Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. State University of New York Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7914-7537-9. LCCN 2007048682.
White, Lonnie J. "White Women Captives of Southern Plains Indians, 1866–1875", Journal of the West 8 (1969): 327–54
Wintz, Cary D. Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2007
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