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Reflective Analysis Of Role Play

Reflective Analysis of Role Play

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Reflective Analysis of Role Play


A diverse range of professional, social, emotional, and cognitive skills are required for social work. It seems to be a simple task, but it is a complex thing to do. A social worker possesses many skills and needs to become a life-long learner, helper, and communicator. Social work is a challenging task in which the social worker is responsible for helping families, individuals, and other groups of people in different matters of their lives ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6ji0hzZD","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Karpetis, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Karpetis, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":105,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/QKFDEPPX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/QKFDEPPX"],"itemData":{"id":105,"type":"webpage","title":"(PDF) Social Work Skills: A Narrative Review of the Literature","container-title":"Research Gate","URL":"https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318796235_Social_Work_Skills_A_Narrative_Review_of_the_Literature","author":[{"family":"Karpetis","given":"George"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Karpetis, 2017).

Haseeb is acting as a social worker in the video. He has created an appropriate environment and communicated to the woman following the code of ethics and core values. He has interviewed a woman seventy-two years old. The woman is a widow who spent thirty years of her life with her husband in a farmhouse, quite away from the city. After the death of her husband, her children forced her to be settled with them in the city as she was left alone on the farm. The woman is facing difficulty in adapting to the new environment. She is feeling depressed and isolated. Haseeb tries to help her by interviewing her and discussing all her problems and difficulties making a comparison of her life at the farmhouse and in the city.

Skills used by the Social Worker

A social worker has many qualities and skills that he uses to bring peace and justice to the society. A social worker should be an active listener, a critical thinker, and an empathic person. He should be tolerant enough to listen to the other person carefully and patiently. Moreover, he should have the ability to communicate effectively in various ways. Communication is an essential skill in every field of life. It is the most important thing in helping others to cope with their problems ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zSD3qnbz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Dunk-West, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Dunk-West, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":107,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/HHFAU47K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/HHFAU47K"],"itemData":{"id":107,"type":"book","title":"HOW TO BE A SOCIAL WORKER - PRISCILLA DUNK-WEST - Google Books","publisher":"Macmillan International Higher Education","number-of-pages":"202","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9kJmDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=how+does+a+social+worker+help+people+fight+depression&ots=3Ib4Ky_cZ_&sig=S-LkByapR2MnpSJnpEnILsN2lIQ#v=onepage&q=how%20does%20a%20social%20worker%20help%20people%20fight%20depression&f=false","author":[{"family":"Dunk-West","given":"Priscilla"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Dunk-West, 2018). He should be able to gather a lot of information about the individual and his physical, mental, emotional, social, and environmental life. A healthy balance of relationship between the worker and his client should be created by setting boundaries. It proves to be helpful in establishing and maintaining professional relationships without any emotional stress ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bP5sMlE1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rothman, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Rothman, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":120,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/PTEZQVF4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/PTEZQVF4"],"itemData":{"id":120,"type":"book","title":"Social Work Practice Across Disability","publisher":"Routledge","source":"www.taylorfrancis.com","abstract":"This book will help prepare the reader to work across disabilities by providing knowledge and training grounded within the ecological framework in four","URL":"https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315178028","ISBN":"978-1-315-17802-8","note":"DOI: 10.4324/9781315178028","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Rothman","given":"Juliet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",3,13]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rothman, 2018). A social worker is the voice of his clients. Advocacy should be used which means speaking out or acting out for the benefit of clients. Social workers should advocate new programs or expand current programs for the best interest of their clients to bring positive changes in the lives of people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Grzfem1W","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Berzin, Singer, & Chan, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Berzin, Singer, & Chan, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":133,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/CDHPISL6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/CDHPISL6"],"itemData":{"id":133,"type":"article-journal","title":"Practice Innovation through Technology in the Digital Age: A Grand Challenge for Social Work","page":"24","source":"Zotero","abstract":"Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to dramatically shift and enhance social work practice in the coming decade. Integrating technology into social work and creating practice innovations through ICT will make transformative social change possible. Technology integration can create practice that includes flexible, on-demand, personal, and individuallypaced services. Potential integration of specific technologies, including gaming, gamification, mobile technology, social media, robotics, the quantified self, and wearable technologies represent tremendous potential for practice gains. Beyond specific technologies, there is the opportunity to transform the social work profession to be ready to respond to and leverage any technology that becomes available. This paper delineates these possibilities and the specific goals for achieving this challenge.","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Berzin","given":"Stephanie Cosner"},{"family":"Singer","given":"Jonathan"},{"family":"Chan","given":"Chitat"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Berzin, Singer, & Chan, n.d.). Clients with several issues and problems approach the social workers. It is one of the major qualities of a social worker that he can understand and solve conflict solutions. He should show a high level of responsibility while dealing with such cases. His courage and passion for work prove to be helpful in handling such conflict and complex situations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4CIwB0Xf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Howe, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Howe, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":111,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/HIBASPZI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/HIBASPZI"],"itemData":{"id":111,"type":"book","title":"An Introduction to Social Work Theory","publisher":"Routledge","source":"www.taylorfrancis.com","abstract":"Social workers need to recognize the critical role that theory plays both in the way they make sense of what is going on and in the way they order their work.","URL":"https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315262659","ISBN":"978-1-315-26265-9","note":"DOI: 10.4324/9781315262659","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Howe","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",3,2]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Howe, 2017).

Haseeb acted as a social worker and tried to use all the skills effectively. Haseeb is an active listener as he gave full attention to everything that the woman in the video said. He developed an effective communication with the woman by making her feel comfortable in the environment. He had prepared questions that were related to the past experiences of the woman in her farmhouse and her present experiences in the city. While the woman answered, he carefully noted down every necessary detail so that it could be analyzed further, and it even gave the woman an impression that her life events and problems are important to her social worker. Haseeb also showed empathy towards the woman and tried to tell her ways to cope up with the issues she had faced and is facing in her life. In the beginning of the video when Haseeb introduced himself and asked the woman’s name, on her answer he praised her name in a sweet and friendly way, “Oh Kath, that’s beautiful name.” This shows that he was trying to make the woman feel comfortable during the discussion. It is very important to make the subject feel relaxed in front of the social worker, as he needs to have a proper communication regarding the person’s issues ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PqWG2JXn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(G. Reamer, 2015)","plainCitation":"(G. Reamer, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":130,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NY88J4Y4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NY88J4Y4"],"itemData":{"id":130,"type":"article-journal","title":"Clinical Social Work in a Digital Environment: Ethical and Risk-Management Challenges | SpringerLink","container-title":"Springer Link","page":"120-132","volume":"43","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"G. Reamer","given":"Frederic"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (G. Reamer, 2015). It can be seen in the video that this sentence said by Haseeb made the woman feel more confident and comfortable. Social workers use such attitudes to build confidence in the clients so that they interact comfortably during the session.

An interactive session can only take place when the subject gives appropriate and honest answers to the social worker. This can only be possible when the person trusts the social worker, only then he would give honest answers to the questions asked. Haseeb was able to build trust in the woman as the video shows that he assured that the information told by the woman would be confidential and it would be used just to analyze her problems so that some solutions can be suggested. As Haseeb says, "Before we proceed, I am going to inform you that the information you are going to share with me that is... that will be totally confidential because I am social worker and you are my client so ethically that's my responsibility and that you don't need to worry about that one. That will be totally confidential and I am also making some notes that will be helpful for me and later on I will discuss with you." The social worker is newly introduced to the client which makes it difficult for the client to trust the stranger easily. People hesitate to tell their personal experiences to the social workers but if the worker builds a relationship of trust in his client, things become very smooth and the discussion becomes easygoing. In this interview, Haseeb builds his trust with the woman and she tells him all the required details about her past and present life. He asks the woman about her life at the farm, her life in the city, her husband, her kids, her issues with the environmental changes, and the woman without any hesitation answers all. This trust-building is very important and useful in every problem-solving case. Since the social worker would not know about the details of the client and his life, he would not be able to analyze the case and look for appropriate solutions.

Empathy refers to the emotions and feelings of the social worker towards the problems of the client. When the social worker thinks emotionally by imagining himself at the place of his client to analyze his issues and problems carefully. This helps in problem solving, as the worker gets involved in the client's situation through imagination and feel how the client might be feeling ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zWSnOqRQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stanley, Mettilda Buvaneswari, & Meenakshi, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Stanley, Mettilda Buvaneswari, & Meenakshi, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":114,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/27URALKF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/27URALKF"],"itemData":{"id":114,"type":"article-journal","title":"Predictors of empathy in women social workers","container-title":"Journal of Social Work","page":"1468017318794280","source":"SAGE Journals","DOI":"10.1177/1468017318794280","ISSN":"1468-0173","journalAbbreviation":"Journal of Social Work","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Stanley","given":"Selwyn"},{"family":"Mettilda Buvaneswari","given":"G"},{"family":"Meenakshi","given":"A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",8,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stanley, Mettilda Buvaneswari, & Meenakshi, 2018). Haseeb shows the feelings of empathy towards the woman in this video. He maintains eye contact with the woman throughout the video listening to her carefully and paying attention to the information told by her. When the woman tells that, she spent a good time at the farm because it was a hilly area and she likes hilly areas Haseeb says, "Oh! Yeah, yeah! I also like hilly areas." The woman's reaction after hearing this can be seen in the video, as it is clear that she felt happy upon hearing that the social worker interviewing her also has the same interest as she has.

Haseeb has used an effective communication with the woman. Throughout the conversation, he kept showing interest in the woman’s information, which encouraged the woman to engage in the discussion more confidently. A good eye contact was maintained by the social worker, the questions that he had prepared were also appropriate and it let the speaker express her views, opinions, and feelings confidently and easily. At every answer given by the woman, Haseeb gave related expressions, sometimes through smiles, sometimes through giggling, and at other times through short phrases like “Yeah” “Good” “Very good” “Oh” “Ok” “Alright.” These expressions give an impression to the speaker that the social worker is listening to him/her carefully and he has an interest in helping the individual solve his/her problems.

Identification of complex problems and finding appropriate and helpful suggestions for them is an important skill of a social worker. He should be a complex problem solver as he works for the benefit and improvement of the society. In this video, Haseeb has proposed effective problem-solving techniques to help the woman cope up with her isolation and depression. The woman expresses her problem that her body conditions are not adapting to the new environment due to which she suffered from fever twice in the previous two months. Haseeb listened to this issue very attentively and communicated through expression during the whole discussion. At the end, he gave a card to the woman saying, "If you don't mind I give you a card and this is the detail card so you can contact them regarding your health issues and if you face some problem so you can contact me I will help you also." This is how he helped her regarding her health issues. The woman also tells that she does not know any of the places or clubs where she can interact with new people and try to make new friends. Haseeb solves this problem as well by saying, "Yeah there's a lot of communities- social communities and social community clubs which help the people, especially old peoples and don't worry about that one. I will check all of that then I will discuss with you…" Here he solves the mental or psychological problems that the woman is dealing with. The problem-solving technique of Haseeb solved the physical, mental, emotional, and social problems that the woman was facing in her life.

Areas where improvement is required

Haseeb has tried to communicate and solve the problems of the woman effectively. He possesses skills and qualities of a social worker such as empathy, flexibility, respect, trust and confidence building, effective communication, etc., but some of the things need to be improved to make him a more skilled social worker. He followed all the core values and principles required for the problem solving and help of his client. There was an appropriate atmosphere; he made the client comfortable, built his trust to make her feel confident and showed empathy towards her issues. All these led to a healthy discussion between the two and the worker was able to give good suggestions for her problem solving after she answered everything that was asked. However, there was a lack of organization in the discussion. Haseeb had prepared very good questions to ask, but the interview was not organized. One question was asked from the past and the very next moment a question related to the future was asked. Though this sometimes proves to be effective as the person goes into a stream of consciousness and easily relates past experiences to the present ones, but for the people like Kath who are already going through depression and isolation, this technique creates confusion and the person is not able to discuss further. Another major improvement that is required in the skills of Haseeb is the use of language. His speech was not organized; there were a lot of mistakes in his use of language which the woman might not be able to understand properly. The use of tenses and appropriate verbs is very important so that the listener understands the discussion or questions and is able to answer properly. Haseeb asked many questions that were incorrect such as, "When did you partner passed away?" "How you manage your farm after demised of your husband?" "What are the your main interest and hobbies?" "What was the main thing that push you to move in town and left your farm and move here?" "Have you facing any health issue?" "Did you found any social place in the town?" This inappropriate use of language make the other person unable to understand the conveyed message or the asked question. Haseeb needs to improve his communication skills as communication holds great importance while interviewing the client and solving his or her problems. If the client of Haseeb would not have been able to understand his questions, there interview would have been wasted and he would have been unable to suggest any solutions for her problem solving. The data also needs to be organized as it is mentioned above that Haseeb’s information and questions were appropriate and helpful, but they were not organized properly. If his client had been confused, she would not have been able to give all the answers or remain engaged in the conversation with him. A social worker’s job is very important in the lives of other people to live and progress in the society, therefore, the skills of the social worker should be used affectively and helpfully.

Critical Self-reflection

Critical self-reflection is very important in every task as it helps the individual develop his skills and question his progress positively so that it can be decided how it could be made better in future. My role-play as a social worker was a mixture of good and bad. I performed very well, while a few of the things need a lot of improvement in order to become a good social worker in few things. Social work requires many skills and qualities such as empathy, patience, trust, organization, objectivity, persistence, flexibility, and effective communication skills ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qqvRwYwh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kapoulitsas & Corcoran, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Kapoulitsas & Corcoran, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":125,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/JC78W4ML"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/JC78W4ML"],"itemData":{"id":125,"type":"article-journal","title":"Compassion fatigue and resilience: A qualitative analysis of social work practice","container-title":"Qualitative Social Work","page":"86-101","volume":"14","issue":"1","source":"SAGE Journals","abstract":"Compassion fatigue is a term used to describe behaviour and emotions experienced by those who help people who have experienced trauma. It is viewed as a potential consequence of stress related to such exposure and is understood to be influenced by the practitioner’s empathic response. The aims of this study were to obtain greater understanding of social workers experience of working with distressed clients; examine what develops personal, professional and organisational resilience; and explore ways in which workers can be better protected from compassion fatigue. The research design was qualitative using semi-structured interviews involving six social workers presently working with distressed clients or clients known to have experienced distress. Four major themes were identified using thematic analysis: (i) the complexities of social work, (ii) supportive and unsupportive contexts, (iii) promoting personal well-being/self-protection and (iv) resilience as a changing systemic and complex process. The findings provide important insights into the participants’ experiences of working with distressed clients and, more specifically, their experience of compassion fatigue and stories of resilience. The research provides clear direction for future research at organisational, educational and interpersonal levels.","DOI":"10.1177/1473325014528526","ISSN":"1473-3250","shortTitle":"Compassion fatigue and resilience","journalAbbreviation":"Qualitative Social Work","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Kapoulitsas","given":"Maryanne"},{"family":"Corcoran","given":"Tim"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",1,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kapoulitsas & Corcoran, 2015). I developed a good communication with my client from the beginning of the video. After she told me her name, I praised her name that made her feel confident during the session. I also asked if she had any difficulty reaching my place, which showed my concern and made her feel that she could rely on me. Throughout the conversation, I listened to her attentively and carefully, which I showed by maintaining eye contact with her and giving expressions on every information she gave. A social worker should show feelings of respect towards the dignity of the client ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rFHc5usU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Oxhandler, Parrish, Torres, & Achenbaum, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Oxhandler, Parrish, Torres, & Achenbaum, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":123,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/P7JTX7ZK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/P7JTX7ZK"],"itemData":{"id":123,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Integration of Clients' Religion and Spirituality in Social Work Practice: A National Survey","container-title":"Social Work","page":"228-237","volume":"60","issue":"3","source":"academic.oup.com","abstract":"Abstract. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional study of licensed clinical social workers’ (LCSWs’) views and behaviors related to integratin","DOI":"10.1093/sw/swv018","ISSN":"0037-8046","shortTitle":"The Integration of Clients' Religion and Spirituality in Social Work Practice","journalAbbreviation":"Soc Work","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Oxhandler","given":"Holly K."},{"family":"Parrish","given":"Danielle E."},{"family":"Torres","given":"Luis R."},{"family":"Achenbaum","given":"W. Andrew"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",7,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Oxhandler, Parrish, Torres, & Achenbaum, 2015). I was successful in this area as I showed full respect and dedication towards her dignity. Trust is the major thing that needs to be built while such discussions as the client should be able to answer every question and deliver all information without any doubt of having the information leaked by the worker. I built my trust in the woman by assuring her that whatever she tells me would remain between us and it is being written only because of further discussions on solving her problems. I showed empathy to my client, which created a feeling of confidence and trust in her. I expressed that I can understand her pain and issues. I was patient and flexible throughout the discussion, and I let her speak and listened to her calmly. While discussing about her social inactiveness she showed me a feeling of fear and lack of confidence by asking if the people in the social club would have the same interests as she has. I felt a feeling of nervousness in her, which I controlled by saying that I would look for clubs and would introduce her to people who have the same interests and hobbies like her. It made her much relaxed and all the nervousness that I saw on her face was gone. This was an effective thing to do because she was showing lack of confidence and hesitation in interacting with some new fellows.

My organization of data was not up to the mark as I was unable to organize data and ask questions related to the past first, then related to the present. My client could have got confused because of this but thankfully, she was able to answer the questions carefully. However, this needs to be avoided in future so that my clients do not get confused while discussion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"guhSnl0f","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":118,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NUDYBZ4Y"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NUDYBZ4Y"],"itemData":{"id":118,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review","container-title":"Journal of Management Development","source":"www.emerald.com","archive_location":"world","abstract":"– The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bass’s (1985) leadership dimensions (transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire) and several outcome variables (employee extra effort, employee satisfaction with leader, leadership effectiveness) and organizational commitment. , – This is a systematic literature review. , – This review briefly discusses the conceptual framework and the Full Range Leadership Model (Bass, 1985) which include transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. Also discussed in this section were the abilities and the characteristics of transformational leaders. The leadership section was concluded with discussion on previous researches on transformational leadership. This review also provides a literature review on organizational commitment. , – Described in this paper are the various definitions of organizational commitment and the three-component model of commitment. This paper also described the antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment obtained from previous researches. This paper concluded with a discussion on the impact of transformational leadership on employee organizational commitment.","URL":"https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JMD-01-2015-0004/full/html","DOI":"10.1108/JMD-01-2015-0004","ISSN":"0262-1711","shortTitle":"Leadership styles and organizational commitment","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Yahaya","given":"Rusliza"},{"family":"Ebrahim","given":"Fawzy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",3,7]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). Another area for improvement is my inappropriate use of language structures. There were many structural and grammatical mistakes in my speech that should be avoided as it makes the client unable to understand the exact meaning of what the worker is trying to ask. Maximum self-determination should be fostered in the clients, as it is the main aim of social work and the major responsibility of the social worker. However, I was unable to properly foster self-determination in my client. Instead of giving suggestions, I was making her rely on me. I provided her with a card for the medical center and even told her that she can use my reference in the hospital. Also asking about her social life, I told her that I would look for some social clubs for her. I would have let her find new things, new places, and new people by herself. This would create confidence and self-dependence in her and she would have come out of her isolation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"iKAwWVC9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(George, 2015)","plainCitation":"(George, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":109,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/69J7RNI4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/69J7RNI4"],"itemData":{"id":109,"type":"article-journal","title":"Working with Norms in Social Work Practice: Introjection, Discipline, and Self-Determination","container-title":"Psychoanalytic Social Work","page":"108-125","volume":"22","issue":"2","source":"Taylor and Francis+NEJM","abstract":"Since its beginnings, social work has emphasized the ways in which environmental factors and internal dynamics influence individuals. I propose that practitioners continue and strengthen this emphasis by exploring the role that norms play in conflicts and choices. Contemporary and longstanding concepts from sociology and psychoanalysis concerning norms can help us explore what we can change in ourselves, what norms might be outside our capacity to influence, and what change can be undertaken through advocacy or another method. In considering norms, I discuss the introjection process, research in sociology, and the role that discipline and self-determination (including external and internal freedom) play in our choices.","DOI":"10.1080/15228878.2015.1012682","ISSN":"1522-8878","shortTitle":"Working with Norms in Social Work Practice","author":[{"family":"George","given":"Laura J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",7,3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (George, 2015). Decision-making is also useful for every individual. Whether a person is in depression, or excitement, happy or sad, he should be able to make his own decisions according to his interests and needs. I would have prepared some questions that would clear whether my client is able to make her decision herself. It would have been helpful for her self-reflection and for my study and analysis as well. In other words, I was lacking confidence that made me uncertain of what I can and what I should do ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"c2mheUE8","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(De Jong & Miller, 1995)","plainCitation":"(De Jong & Miller, 1995)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":116,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NIZIECHW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/NIZIECHW"],"itemData":{"id":116,"type":"article-journal","title":"How to Interview for Client Strengths","container-title":"Social Work","page":"729-736","volume":"40","issue":"6","source":"academic.oup.com","abstract":"Abstract. The profession is witnessing a growing interest among practitioners and educators in finding ways to discover and mobilize client strengths in social","DOI":"10.1093/sw/40.6.729","ISSN":"0037-8046","journalAbbreviation":"Soc Work","language":"en","author":[{"family":"De Jong","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Miller","given":"Scott D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1995",11,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (De Jong & Miller, 1995).


Social work is not a process, rather it is an art or a skill helpful for people in strengthening their future and making them able to come out of the crisis they are facing in life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZKbI1P7x","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Paul, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Paul, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":128,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/Q6HTREXW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/Q6HTREXW"],"itemData":{"id":128,"type":"webpage","title":"Critical Thinking and the Critical Person","container-title":"Thinking","abstract":"Education is training in HOW to think rather than in WHAT to think; it is a confrontation, a dialogue between ways of assessing","URL":"https://www.taylorfrancis.com/","note":"DOI: 10.4324/9781315802015-27","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Paul","given":"Richard W."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",10,24]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",10,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Paul, 2018). Some of the qualities that asocial worker should have are already possessed by some people for example sometimes a person is naturally empathic or flexible. Such people can understand the feelings of others very well; still these qualities need to be practiced. A social worker is a very important part of the society as he is responsible for the issues caused by domestic violence, abuse, parental substance abuse, and neglect. They even deal with people suffering from mental, emotional, or psychological issues. It is an important commitment and a challenging job that requires a great deal of physical, mental, and emotional energy ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yTDt1ja9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Baldwin, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Baldwin, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":126,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/F265IGH3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/zQiT8c1c/items/F265IGH3"],"itemData":{"id":126,"type":"book","title":"Social Work, Critical Reflection and the Learning Organization","publisher":"Routledge","number-of-pages":"220","source":"Google Books","abstract":"A critical characteristic of human service organizations is their capacity to learn from experience and to adapt continuously to changing external conditions such as downward pressure on resources, constant reconfiguration of the welfare state and rapidly changing patterns of social need. This invaluable, groundbreaking volume discusses in detail the concept of the learning organization, in particular its relevance to social work and social services. Contributors join together from across Europe, North America and Australia to explore the development of the learning organization within social work contexts and its use as a strategic tool for meeting problems of continuous learning, supervision and change. The volume addresses a range of important topics, from strategies for embedding learning and critical reflection in the social work learning organization, to the implications of the learning organization for the new community-based health and social care agenda.","ISBN":"978-1-317-05326-2","note":"Google-Books-ID: iebeCwAAQBAJ","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Baldwin","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",4,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Baldwin, 2016).

References ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baldwin, M. (2016). Social Work, Critical Reflection and the Learning Organization. Routledge.

Berzin, S. C., Singer, J., & Chan, C. (n.d.). Practice Innovation through Technology in the Digital Age: A Grand Challenge for Social Work. 24.

De Jong, P., & Miller, S. D. (1995). How to Interview for Client Strengths. Social Work, 40(6), 729–736. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/40.6.729

Dunk-West, P. (2018). HOW TO BE A SOCIAL WORKER - PRISCILLA DUNK-WEST - Google Books. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9kJmDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=how+does+a+social+worker+help+people+fight+depression&ots=3Ib4Ky_cZ_&sig=S-LkByapR2MnpSJnpEnILsN2lIQ#v=onepage&q=how%20does%20a%20social%20worker%20help%20people%20fight%20depression&f=false

G. Reamer, F. (2015). Clinical Social Work in a Digital Environment: Ethical and Risk-Management Challenges | SpringerLink. Springer Link, 43(2), 120–132.

George, L. J. (2015). Working with Norms in Social Work Practice: Introjection, Discipline, and Self-Determination. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 22(2), 108–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228878.2015.1012682

Howe, D. (2017). An Introduction to Social Work Theory. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315262659

Kapoulitsas, M., & Corcoran, T. (2015). Compassion fatigue and resilience: A qualitative analysis of social work practice. Qualitative Social Work, 14(1), 86–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325014528526

Karpetis, G. (2017). (PDF) Social Work Skills: A Narrative Review of the Literature. Retrieved October 11, 2019, from Research Gate website: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318796235_Social_Work_Skills_A_Narrative_Review_of_the_Literature

Oxhandler, H. K., Parrish, D. E., Torres, L. R., & Achenbaum, W. A. (2015). The Integration of Clients’ Religion and Spirituality in Social Work Practice: A National Survey. Social Work, 60(3), 228–237. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/swv018

Paul, R. W. (2018, October 24). Critical Thinking and the Critical Person. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315802015-27

Rothman, J. (2018). Social Work Practice Across Disability. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315178028

Stanley, S., Mettilda Buvaneswari, G., & Meenakshi, A. (2018). Predictors of empathy in women social workers. Journal of Social Work, 1468017318794280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017318794280

Yahaya, R., & Ebrahim, F. (2016). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review. Journal of Management Development. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-01-2015-0004

Subject: Education

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Reflective Journal B

Foundations for Population Health in Community – Lauderhill, Florida

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Foundations for Population Health in Community

Date of Survey:

Community Name and Location Assigned in Clinical Survey: Zip Code 33311, North West 33rd Terrace, Lauderhill, Florida

History of the Community

Lauderhill was established in 1959 in Broward County edge of the Everglades in its dairy farm country. In 1959, Florida was poised for change, with Fidel Castro entering Havana. At this point, thousands of Cubans needed a place to immigrate. Furthermore, NASA’s space program, based in Florida’s Cape Canaveral, was racing to compete with the Soviet space program. They had just launched their very first satellite called Sputnik in 1957 and it was a matter of concern for the USA. A New York-based developer by the name of Herbert Sadkin recognized the huge potential for growth in Lauderhill, Florida. He was already well known for not only designing but also building the typical American House, which drew international attention, as the focal point of the American National Exhibition in the Soviet Union in 1959.

At the exhibition, Vice President Richard Nixon and the Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev held the kitchen debate. They sparred over the facts that whether this model home, with all its modern conveniences, was truly affordable for the average American. Herbert Sadkin brought that prefabricated modern ranch-style house design to Lauderhill. The very first homes were located near what is now called the Herbert Sadkin Community Center and Walt Park. These homes were sold for 12,000 US Dollars. Financing of these homes was advertised at $30 down and $30 a month.

By 1966, hundreds of homes had been built. Herbert Sadkin had plans to name this new Florida Community “Sunnydale”. However, his friend, a New York Times journalist by the name of William Safire, thought that it sounded too much like a neighborhood in Brooklyn. Instead, Safire focused on the wordplay between Hill and Dale and the name Lauderhill was born, despite there being no hills in the area. They called it a product of the cold war and the city of Lauderhill, Broward County, Florida, was born.

Initial Windshield Survey of the Community


Lauderhill, Florida is a community with manmade borders. It is a part of Broward County. It encompasses an area of 8.5 square miles and contains a number of multi-family, single-family, and townhouse households CITATION Flo16 \l 1033 (Florida, 2016). It has a number of healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, emergency services, shopping centers, recreational activity centers and various other business complexes vital to a thriving community. Everything that you are going to need is available in the area and easily accessible by car, public transport, and other services.

Open Spaces and Environment

The locality is lush and green, with well-kept grass lining the streets especially in the residential areas. While this increases the possibility of poisonous plants and soil-borne diseases, the area does not have a lot of stray cats and dogs roaming around, which is a relief. This decreases the potential of stray-related and soil-borne diseases considerably.

Additionally, the area does not have any big industrial unit in place that could adversely affect the environment. At the very best it has smaller industries with includes photo developing companies, paint stores, artisan stores, and dry cleaners.

Parks and Recreational Areas

The city of Lauderhill is lush and green. Being a planned city, the minds behind it ensured that ample space was reserved for landscaping to make sure that the town looked picture perfect. The city has a grand total of 26 parks, all of which are frequented by the people CITATION Flo163 \l 1033 (Lauderhill, Parks and Facilities, 2016).


The city of Lauderhill, Florida was created as a housing society or community from the very beginning, the sort that could house the brilliantly created model houses by Herbert Sadkin. Most of the neighbors still contain the original houses designed the Sadkin wanted. However, even after the completion of the project, the fact that houses of similar design and structure are used by single and multi-family homes is fairly commonplace. Apartment complexes are also popping up in different locations around the city. However, according to my assessment, none of the houses in the area were vacant or up for sale, with homes dating back to the foundation of the city.

Educational Institutes

There are more than 21 schools in the within the zip code 33311. Among them, six are public schools while the remaining are private ones. The students have their fair share of choices with regard to the schools they would like to go to. However, with regard to the designated location i.e. North West 33rd Terrace, Lauderhill, Florida, there are three schools in the area i.e. the Wingate Oaks Center School, Child Find and Larkdale Elementary School.


The area has a population of 72,750 people as of July 2018 CITATION Flo16 \l 1033 (Florida, 2016), with most of the population being foreign-born, primarily from Jamaica and West Indies CITATION Cen10 \l 1033 (Census, 2010). Thus, the zip code 33311 is filled with people of African origin. Secondly, Lauderhill is a retirement community. Thus, the number of baby boomers in the street or strolling in the park in the evening is a whole lot higher than the generations that follow them. However, there is an equally high number of teenagers in the area, who are often found milling around the Auburn Boulevard, Florida Avenue and Berkeley Boulevard in the evenings and over the weekend, chilling out with their friends. It often looks like they are having a great time.


The city has a public transit as well as a public taxi system in place. Furthermore, Lauderhill has a great road network that can easily bear the morning rush hour traffic. The markings on the road prevent you from often getting lost. With most members of the community owning their own cars, people of Lauderhill believe in the carpooling system and they often give one another rides from places to places, especially if they are headed in the same direction. Asking neighbors and the people one may recognize if they need a ride to someplace is very much commonplace in Lauderhill, Florida.

Social Service and Community Centers

The Henderson Behavioral center is frequently visited by community members, especially when they seek advice on a mental health issue. On the other hand, there are about 22 community centers in the area, with the Herbert Sadkin community center being the oldest and the one most frequency visited by the senior members of the community. They get to exercise, learn new things and meet friends here. However, there is only one social service center located on the North West 33rd Terrace i.e. LifeNet4Families, which caters to family and works on developing and improving the family institute in the area.


The most commonly observed religion in the area is Christianity, given the fact that there are almost 20 churches in the zip code 33311. However, none of the churches in the area are located on North West 33rd Terrace. Although the Christian Family Center Good Shepherd is located on North West 33rd Avenue, which is only a short walk away. People here are rather religious, with the Christian community being rather close-knit. Their affiliation with religion is easily noticeable with the number of people attending the Sunday mass in unison and choosing to spend the day together with the members of their community.

Business and Industries

There are more than 5000 registered businesses in the area, which employ as much as 10,475 people CITATION Flo16 \l 1033 (Florida, 2016). This includes both local businesses, owned and operated by the residents of the area as well as chain restaurants and other well-known stores with branches all over the country. These stores are usually frequented by the younger crowds since they happen to be the target audience. However, people that have been living in the area all their lives have the tendency to frequent the local stores, with most of them being friends with the owners.

Emergency Services

The city has a number of emergency response services in place to aid its population in case of an emergency. It has a fire rescues station, fire department, a number of ambulance services and even the Lauderhill police department located within the zip code. The city commission, sensing a renewed commitment to community involvement and engagement moved to re-establish the Municipal Lauderhill Police Department. The new Police Chief Mike Scott was tasked with hiring police officers whose diversity reflected the diversity of the community. Scott promised to take a proactive, problem-oriented approach to crime prevention as well as law enforcement. It had been a truly professional organization ever since and has been formally recognized by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) in July of 2005 CITATION Flo161 \l 1033 (Lauderhill, 2016). The prime mission of the Lauderhill Police Department is to protect the community, safeguard the people in the city and even provide professional police partnership in order to make the community a better place.

Healthcare in Lauderhill, Florida

There are ample of hospitals and healthcare facilities in Lauderhill, Florida. With a round figure of more than 15 hospitals and 4 healthcare centers, including mental healthcare centers, the healthcare system in place is beyond excellent. However, the north-eastern and the south-eastern part of the city is plagued with poverty, with a number of low-income households in the area. They have an annual income of less than $30,000 and often have to fall back on the community for aid. They often have to use government benefits (0.5%), Medicaid (28%) and Medicare (40.1%) in order to afford healthcare. The pupils here are also entitled to the free lunch program CITATION Cli13 \l 1033 (Cleveland, 2013).

As mentioned earlier, most of the people living in the area are from Jamaica and hence blacks. While palliative care and hospice should be culturally sensitive. However, according to research that is not the case. If the patient or their family does not belong to the same culture as the caregiver, there is a good chance that a communication barrier may exist between the two of them. They are often uncomfortable in their presence and are unable to administer the sort of healthcare the patient needs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"O2EmLvn3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Policzer, Mizell, Deese, Payne, & Sanders, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Policzer, Mizell, Deese, Payne, & Sanders, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":223,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/TB89EKI3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/TB89EKI3"],"itemData":{"id":223,"type":"article-journal","title":"Culturosity: Competence in Caring for Communities of Color (P10)","container-title":"Journal of Pain and Symptom Management","page":"310-311","volume":"51","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Policzer","given":"Joel"},{"family":"Mizell","given":"Deborah"},{"family":"Deese","given":"Diane"},{"family":"Payne","given":"Richard"},{"family":"Sanders","given":"Lawrence"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Policzer, Mizell, Deese, Payne, & Sanders, 2016).

Additionally, since there is a large number of the members of baby boomer generation living in the area, with Lauderhill doubling as a retirement community, there is a need for Geriatric healthcare specialists in the area. Add in the fact that the city hosts lush golf courses, this increases the chances of such individuals to suffer from back and hip related issues. Sometimes they may also need round the clock care. Thus, having professionals on board that can specialize in geriatric healthcare is necessary ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a6oljlJj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gallo, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Gallo, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":224,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WW7MHMBI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/WW7MHMBI"],"itemData":{"id":224,"type":"book","title":"Handbook of geriatric assessment","publisher":"Jones & Bartlett Learning","ISBN":"0-7637-3056-4","author":[{"family":"Gallo","given":"Joseph J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gallo, 2006).


Lauderhill is a lush city, boasting every amenity that you may ever need. It hosts a close knit community of people that care about one another. This community is strong, despite some areas belonging to a lower socioeconomic class, it is mutually supportive and meets every need in terms of food, water, shelter and a safe work environment for its residents. The health statistics in the area may need some work, but the way the community leaders in the city are working towards is development, that is one area that will not be an issue for quite some time. The city is improving on a daily basis and is working towards the introduction of health initiatives that it needs, while addressing more issues that need to be taken care of on a regular basis.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Census. (2010). Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved from Census.GOV: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/decennial-publications.2010.html

Cleveland, C. (2013). Community Health Needs Assessment - Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved from Cleveland Clinic: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/-/scassets/files/org/florida/about/2013-florida-chna-and-isr.ashx?la=en

Florida, L. (2016). City Profile, Lauderhill, Florida.

Gallo, J. J. (2006). Handbook of geriatric assessment. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lauderhill, F. (2016). Parks and Facilities. Retrieved from City of Lauderhill, Florida: https://www.lauderhill-fl.gov/parks-recreation/parks-list-view2

Lauderhill, F. (2016). POLICE DEPARTMENT, Lauderhill, Florida.

Policzer, J., Mizell, D., Deese, D., Payne, R., & Sanders, L. (2016). Culturosity: Competence in Caring for Communities of Color (P10). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(2), 310–311

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Repeat Police Calls

Repeat Police Calls

Student’s Name



Repeat Police calls

The number of police call an area determine the level of crime rate. Studies have established that call rate are different and it based on locality. However, in Denver, the high number of calls reported by the police is about crime against property. These crimes are related to arson, bribery, burglary, counterfeiting, criminal mischief, extortion motor vehicle theft, robbery, embezzlement and others. It is noted that theft from motor vehicle is leading with 15.4% of cases being reported followed by motor vehicle theft at 13.6% and then drug and narcotic at 8.4% of the cases. According to Denver Police (2019), each call to the police is related to a crime being committed and the frequent the call the frequent higher the rate of crime in a region. However, the statistic indicates a drastic change in repeated calls. This means that police has dealt with the issues of crimes being reported for the area to register a reduction calls.

However, in order to address the calls rate in the region, the police have established community policing, increase the number of patrons and improve coordination between the community and the law enforcement. High number of calls translates to high crime rate and therefore, to address the high crime rate the police department has encouraged the community to form neighborhood watchdog to help in the provision of security CITATION Ric16 \l 1033 (William, 2016). The police department has also increase patrol in areas, which several calls are being reported daily to ensure that it deters criminal elements from invading the society. According to Denver police department, the patrol has been increased from three to five times with police on patrol stationed close to crime prone neighborhood. This has helped in reducing the crime rate by almost 15% between March 2018 and March 2019. With efficient patrol system, it is likely to help in curbing all manners of crimes being committed and the calls to the police station would reduce by almost 50% within the next two years.

In order to deal with calls, the police department has assigned police office based on regions to handle the calls. It means that each officer on the call stations deals with specific area to ensure that there is efficient coordination between the police and the people on the field. Each call also has a time limit, which requires police officer to respond. According to Denver police department, the police officers are required to respond within 15 minutes of the call. And therefore, the police officers at the call station relay the call to the officer in field immediately for quick response and solution. Since each calls means there a security issues, the time limit is mandatory for the officer to adhere to and this has helped in addressing insecurity issues within the area.

Though the police have dealt with these calls appropriate to find a permanent solution, I would introduce follow up and efficient coordination between the police and the community. This is still missing with the police setup and therefore, it makes the solutions provided by the police to be temporary rather than establishing a better and permanent solution to the crime related issues. It is important to increase the number of officers dealing with calls and the assign each station specific role to follow. It would also be important to conduct research on establish the cause of high crime and provide solution in partnership with the community. The respond time limit should also be documented for efficiency and to ensure that police response is quick for permanent solution to perennial problems, which affect people living in Denver area.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Denver Police. (2019). Providing Aid to Officers & Enhancing Public Safety. http://denverpolicefoundation.org/ , 2-15.

William, R. (2016). A Dive Into Colorado Crime Data In 5 Charts | CPR. Police and Policing for improved security , 2-15.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Research And Policy

Criminal Justice


Institutional Affiliation


Criminal Justice

Empirical research evidence is critical when making decisions pertaining to criminal justice. Through proper research, it becomes easier to come up with better practices, programs, and policies (PROJECT, 2010). The results obtained from empirical research help in making essential decisions on various interventions to use. Interventions developed from empirical research helps in serving the public interests efficiently (Petersilia& Wilson, 2011).

Researchers have played a vital role in the US sentencing policy. Specifically, in determining when a sentencing archive the goal of incapacitation, rehabilitation, and deterrence (Petersilia& Wilson, 2011). Researchers have shown that rehabilitation does not reduce the chance of recidivism (Bardach& Patashnik, 2015). This research helped the sentencing policy to shift from indeterminate to determinate sentencing. Treatment participation was removed as a significant consideration, and objective-based sentencing was developed.

After discrediting rehabilitation, researches started to gather information on how a sentence can meet the goals of deterrence and incapacitation (Petersilia& Wilson, 2011). Based on information concerning the widespread presence of crime, researchers have identified that there has been a decrease in the levels of crime which have been brought by sentencing the offenders for a certain length of time (Gutwillig, 2014). This has led to lengthy sentencing of drug dealers, especially those thoughts of selling cocaine (PROJECT, 2010). This model has greatly assisted policymakers in coming up with targeted sentencing approaches to crime.

Other research has been carried out concerning overcrowding in prisons (Bardach& Patashnik, 2015). This is meant to assist administrators in handling probations operations, incarceration, and parole given limited resources. Researchers found that classifying inmates according to the level of crime while incarcerated. And the risk of recidivism if the prisoner is set free (Gutwillig, 2014). Researchers have used historical data to predict the number of inmates in future years, which has helped administrators to be prepared. Through this research, various states have come up with a system of classifying prisons. Prisons are termed as a minimum, medium, or maximum.

In conclusion, empirical-based research needs to be applied when determining policy and practices to be put in place when dealing with crime. The interventions provided by research are sure and help in serving the interests of the public as well as discouraging crime.


Bardach, E., & Patashnik, E. M. (2015). A practical guide for policy analysis: The eightfold path to more effective problem solving.

Petersilia, J., & Wilson, J. Q. (2011). Crime and public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gutwillig, s. (2014). ANNUAL REPORT 2014. Newyork: ADVENTURE WORKS PRESS.


Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Research Paper

Paper Title


Name of Institution

Caring for Vulnerable Population

Although there are different measures taken by the government to secure the populations from different types of natural disasters. Even then some populations are more vulnerable to different types of natural calamities including flood and earthquake. There are some areas where floods and earthquakes occur more frequently than other parts of the world. Like Japan, Malaysia and United States are some of the recent examples where such calamities occurred, lives were lost and properties were destroyed at a larger scale. There are many factors that contribute towards the vulnerability of such populations. Delayed rescue operation and lose of contact are some of the main factors that lead to the vulnerability. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jGnvsniC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(O\\uc0\\u8217{}Toole, Johnson, Aiello, Kane, & Pape, 2016)","plainCitation":"(O’Toole, Johnson, Aiello, Kane, & Pape, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":483,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/3WI25E4L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/3WI25E4L"],"itemData":{"id":483,"type":"article-journal","title":"Tailoring Care to Vulnerable Populations by Incorporating Social Determinants of Health: the Veterans Health Administration’s “Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team” Program","container-title":"Preventing Chronic Disease","volume":"13","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"Introduction\nAlthough the clinical consequences of homelessness are well described, less is known about the role for health care systems in improving clinical and social outcomes for the homeless. We described the national implementation of a “homeless medical home” initiative in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and correlated patient health outcomes with characteristics of high-performing sites. \n\nMethods \nWe conducted an observational study of 33 VHA facilities with homeless medical homes and patient- aligned care teams that served more than 14,000 patients. We correlated site-specific health care performance data for the 3,543 homeless veterans enrolled in the program from October 2013 through March 2014, including those receiving ambulatory or acute health care services during the 6 months prior to enrollment in our study and 6 months post-enrollment with corresponding survey data on the Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team (H-PACT) program implementation. We defined high performance as high rates of ambulatory care and reduced use of acute care services.\n\nResults\nMore than 96% of VHA patients enrolled in these programs were concurrently receiving VHA homeless services. Of the 33 sites studied, 82% provided hygiene care (on-site showers, hygiene kits, and laundry), 76% provided transportation, and 55% had an on-site clothes pantry; 42% had a food pantry and provided on-site meals or other food assistance. Six-month patterns of acute-care use pre-enrollment and post-enrollment for 3,543 consecutively enrolled patients showed a 19.0% reduction in emergency department use and a 34.7% reduction in hospitalizations. Three features were significantly associated with high performance: 1) higher staffing ratios than other sites, 1) integration of social supports and social services into clinical care, and 3) outreach to and integration with community agencies.\n\nConclusion\nIntegrating social determinants of health into clinical care can be effective for high-risk homeless veterans.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825747/","DOI":"10.5888/pcd13.150567","ISSN":"1545-1151","note":"PMID: 27032987\nPMCID: PMC4825747","shortTitle":"Tailoring Care to Vulnerable Populations by Incorporating Social Determinants of Health","journalAbbreviation":"Prev Chronic Dis","author":[{"family":"O’Toole","given":"Thomas P."},{"family":"Johnson","given":"Erin E."},{"family":"Aiello","given":"Riccardo"},{"family":"Kane","given":"Vincent"},{"family":"Pape","given":"Lisa"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",3,31]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,17]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (O’Toole, Johnson, Aiello, Kane, & Pape, 2016).

Although research has been done on the health effects of flood and also the characteristics of flood associated with health, little is known about the factors that play major role in the vulnerability of flood victims. Some of the factors that play a major role in such situation are gender, age and also social status. The health impairments as a result of flood and earth quake is tolerated by women and children as compare to the male population. This may be due to the fact that both women and children are physically weak, therefore they become the victims of such disasters than males. It has been noted that any natural disaster has a deep psychological effect on females and children than the male community. Other factors that play a major role in vulnerability are disability and age ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9jVXldNp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Du, Ding, Li, & Cao, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Du, Ding, Li, & Cao, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":486,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/EV3RLM3X"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/EV3RLM3X"],"itemData":{"id":486,"type":"article-journal","title":"The role of hazard vulnerability assessments in disaster preparedness and prevention in China","container-title":"Military Medical Research","volume":"2","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"China is prone to disasters and escalating disaster losses. Effective disaster mitigation is the foundation for efficient disaster response and rescue and for reducing the degree of hazardous impacts on the population. Vulnerability refers to the population’s capacity to anticipate, cope with, and recover from the impact of a hazardous event. A hazard vulnerability assessment (HVA) systematically evaluates the damage that could be caused by a potential disaster, the severity of the impact, and the available medical resources during a disaster to reduce population vulnerability and increase the capacity to cope with disasters. In this article, we summarized HVA team membership, content (disaster identification, probability and consequences), and methods and procedures for an HVA that can be tailored to China’s needs. We further discussed the role of epidemiology in an HVA. Disaster epidemiology studies the underlying causes of disasters to achieve effective disaster prevention and reduction. In addition, we made several recommendations that are already in practice in developed countries, such as the U.S., for future implementation in China and other developing countries. An effective HVA plan is crucial for successful disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4657270/","DOI":"10.1186/s40779-015-0059-9","ISSN":"2095-7467","note":"PMID: 26605045\nPMCID: PMC4657270","journalAbbreviation":"Mil Med Res","author":[{"family":"Du","given":"Yan"},{"family":"Ding","given":"Yibo"},{"family":"Li","given":"Zixiong"},{"family":"Cao","given":"Guangwen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",11,24]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,17]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Du, Ding, Li, & Cao, 2015). The effects of age and disability on disaster vulnerability were seen quite clearly in the aged population who were trapped in nursing facilities during many events like flood and earthquake.

The outcome of natural disasters varies from population to population. In some population the outcome is relatively severe than others, it also depends on the severity of the event and the country that is hit by the event. If the country is well-developed, like in case of USA when Hurricane Harvey hit then they were able to recover soon as compared to other Asian countries which takes quite longer to get out of the trauma both in terms of economy and healthcare. Less developed countries due to limited resources take longer to cope up with such situations. So in such countries the outcomes are severe, both the physical and mental health is suffered and infrastructure is damaged which causes more causalities so the impact also varies from population to population.

Population hazard vulnerability assessment has been studied comprehensively, and it proved to be quite effective. After the events of 11 September 2011, healthcare experts in the USA suggested that hospitals should be at the lead to organize and react to any such catastrophic event. Nurses were provided with basic training and other facilities and then they were sent to effected areas which were damaged both by man-made and natural disasters. It was suggested that hospitals should be community organization rather than a standalone institution. Whenever there is any natural disaster, then both the governments and the victims rely on the hospitals. So in that case hazard vulnerability assessment is the vital step in the emergency response to any calamity when it strikes.

Hazard vulnerability assessment is an effective step in evaluating the degree of the impact, and also it provides brief background information to create a targeted disaster mitigation plan (Rufat, Tate, Burton, & Maroof, 2015). While it is effective in case of natural disasters but at the same time, it can also be used for human made disasters like terrorist attacks. In addition to these, a community HVA and a hospital HVA should be designed in such a way to complement each other in emergency response and rescue. When such disaster strikes then special care is given to such populations. Whenever any natural disaster happens, then healthcare departments and hospital form a team of experts belonging to every field like healthcare, medical and emergency to cope up with the situation. It is usually developed by a multidisciplinary group depending upon the top hazards which are faced by the community and also on the availability of the resources in that area ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"tRTWhG37","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Alderman, Turner, & Tong, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Alderman, Turner, & Tong, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":491,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/AFTFMNX5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/AFTFMNX5"],"itemData":{"id":491,"type":"article-journal","title":"Floods and human health: A systematic review","container-title":"Environment International","page":"37-47","volume":"47","source":"ScienceDirect","abstract":"Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004–2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs.","DOI":"10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.003","ISSN":"0160-4120","shortTitle":"Floods and human health","journalAbbreviation":"Environment International","author":[{"family":"Alderman","given":"Katarzyna"},{"family":"Turner","given":"Lyle R."},{"family":"Tong","given":"Shilu"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",10,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Alderman, Turner, & Tong, 2012).

Such strategies are quite aligned with the “Healthy people 2020” because in both cases the wellbeing and security of the population are kept in mind. One of the main objectives of Healthy People 2020 is the promotion of health through a healthy environment. So by taking care of the population as a result of climate change which includes flooding and other natural disasters, is common between this study and Healthy People 2020.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Alderman, K., Turner, L. R., & Tong, S. (2012). Floods and human health: A systematic review. Environment International, 47, 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.003

Du, Y., Ding, Y., Li, Z., & Cao, G. (2015). The role of hazard vulnerability assessments in disaster preparedness and prevention in China. Military Medical Research, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-015-0059-9

O’Toole, T. P., Johnson, E. E., Aiello, R., Kane, V., & Pape, L. (2016). Tailoring Care to Vulnerable Populations by Incorporating Social Determinants of Health: the Veterans Health Administration’s “Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team” Program. Preventing Chronic Disease, 13. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150567

Rufat, S., Tate, E., Burton, C. G., & Maroof, A. S. (2015). Social vulnerability to floods: Review of case studies and implications for measurement. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 14, 470–486.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Richards V. Wisconsin

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Richards Vs. Wisconsin

Police in Madison, Wisconsin got a search warrant to examine a suspect named Richard hotel room for the illegal possession of drugs and all other items. Although the magistrate did not approve a no-knock entry into the victim's room, they got a general search warrant which required them to knock on the door and then identify themselves as police before starting the search operation. Once they arrived on the scene one of the officers knocked on the door and identify himself as hotel custodian. When the suspect opened the door, he saw another officer in uniform behind him and slammed the door on their face. When he did that, then the officer broke through the door and caught Richards while he was trying to escape the crime scene. After proper investigation of the room, they found cocaine and cash amount in the bathroom. When he appeared in the court, he demanded evidence suppressed because according to him the officer did not knock and identify themselves. In response, the state answered that Richards already knew that who was on the door and if they identified themselves then he would escape and destroy all the evidence.

The issue, in this case, referred to search and seizure; therefore it was needed in this particular case if the police violated the protection which was given by the fourth amendment which was related to illegal searches and seizures once the officers didn’t knock and identify themselves before entering the room. So the issue was there any blanket exception to the "knock and announce" rule of serving permits particularly when subatances like drugs were involved.

The holding, in this case, was no. The court did not provide any blanket exception for cases of drugs to knock and reveal their identity. But in order to obtain a no-knock warrant, the officer should possess genuine reason related to the occasion that knocking in such situation would be risky or it would involve the damage of evidence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mjT4sCDQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Richards v. Wisconsin Case Brief | Casetext})","plainCitation":"(Richards v. Wisconsin Case Brief | Casetext)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1034,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/L8U7EE79"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/L8U7EE79"],"itemData":{"id":1034,"type":"webpage","title":"Richards v. Wisconsin Case Brief | Casetext","URL":"https://casetext.com/analysis/richards-v-wisconsin-case-brief","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Richards v. Wisconsin Case Brief | Casetext).

The issue, in this case, was the balance between privacy and the concerns related to public interests. In this case, the court frowned over no-knock entries except in some special cases like drugs in this particular case. The defense attorney referred to the case Wilson vs. Arkansas case while going against no-knock entries. Although entering without not knocking was against the sanctity of private properties of the individuals but he referred to drug possession as an exception due to the risks involved in it. They argue that in a situation when there are risks of weapons possessions or evidence destruction, then it is justified to enter the suspect's place while not revealing the identity. The rationale that was provided in this particular case was simple, that is that in some particular situation it is preferable to hide the identity as in this case the police were right because if they identified themselves then not only the suspect would escape, but also he would destroy all the drugs and then there would be no clue about the illegal action ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HWTL9ysc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hemmens)","plainCitation":"(Hemmens)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1031,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/5IK7I79U"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/5IK7I79U"],"itemData":{"id":1031,"type":"book","title":"The Supreme Court and the Knock and Announce Rule","source":"CiteSeer","abstract":"The regular “Recent Legal Developments ” feature here gives way to a review of SupremeCourt decisions addressing one particular criminal justice–related issue: the knock and announce rule. The knock and announce rule is an ancient restriction on the manner by which the police may enter a dwelling. Although the knock and announce rule has been examined by every state and federal court (Hemmens, 1997), its applicability to the Fourth Amendment was never expressly determined by the Supreme Court until 1995. Since 1995, however, the Supreme Court has decided five cases involving the knock and announce rule. This article discusses the history and development of the knock and announce rule and examines the Supreme Court’s recent decisions, including Hudson v. Michigan, decided","author":[{"family":"Hemmens","given":"Craig"}]}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hemmens).

The ruling of this case is also quite significant in case of criminal crime justice because most of the time it has been noticed that when the police identify themselves, then the suspects flew from the scenes and then they are never caught. So if the police have genuine reasons not to knock and identify themselves, then it is easy and also secure not to reveal their identity. So this ruling was not only helpful for the police officers in this particular case but in all the future cases where they would face any related thread and issue.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hemmens, Craig. The Supreme Court and the Knock and Announce Rule.

Richards v. Wisconsin Case Brief | Casetext. https://casetext.com/analysis/richards-v-wisconsin-case-brief. Accessed 21 Mar. 2019.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Sandro Botticelli’s Primavera


Name of Professor



Sandro Botticelli’s Primavera

La Primavera is one of the famous paintings of Sandro Botticelli. It is the masterpiece of the Florentine Renaissance and it was bought by the Medici family from Botticelli. The title “La Primavera” means “the Spring” and known to be the greatest work at Uffizi Museum. However, the detailed connotation the painting is unknown. The medium of the painting is Tempera on a popular panel. At that time, wood panels were very famous for painting.

In the painting, there is a group of people in an orange orchard. Botticelli was famous for his technique of using lines and the light shades which is reflected in this painting. While observing the figures closely, it seems that the artist has painted the Roman goddess, Venus in the middle. In the classical world, the presence of Venus is considered as the reflection of the popular concept of the humanism (Michalski, pp.213-222). In the painting, she is shown as a perfect woman accompanying by other figures. She is wearing a see-through white dress and light jewelry in the colors used by the Medici family at that time. The group of three ladies on her right side seem dancing and they are the three Graces. Next to them is Mercury, who is the messenger of the gods. He is wearing a helmet and having a sword to guard the goddesses (Michalski, pp.213-222). In the picture, with his right hand Mercury is plucking an orange from the tree. The son of Venus is flying above her and he has an arrow in his hands which is pointing at the three graces.

On her left side, there is Zephyrus, the wind god along with the goddess of spring. Moreover, the garden depicted in the picture belongs to the Roman goddess, Venus (Zirpolo, pp.100-109). She has raised her hand in the painting like she is welcoming others to her garden. One of the trees behind her is myrtle tree and it is considered as the symbol of her. The orange garden is used symbolically and it is depicting love and fertility. The composition of the painting is on the basis of a mythological text.

Works Cited

Michalski, Sergiusz. "Venus as Semiramis: A New Interpretation of the Central Figure of Botticelli's" Primavera"." Artibus et historiae (2003): 213-222.

Zirpolo, Lilian. "Botticelli’s Primavera: A Lesson for the Bride." The Expanding Discourse. Routledge, 2018. 100-109.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Shared Decision-making In Health Care And Advance Care Planning

Shared Decision-Making in the Healthcare and Advance Care Planning

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Shared Decision-Making in the Healthcare and Advance Care Planning


Medicine and healthcare are important areas or fields that play a very vital role in almost every human’s life. All the areas or subfields related to the profession of healthcare and medicine like nursing, pharmacy, and many others are equally sensitive as much as they are important, due to their direct dealing with the human lives. Even the slightest negligence from the side of medical professional can push the patient down the valley of death. Although a proper diagnosis and medication are the most important things for the speedy recovery of patient, there are some other things that also go side by side in order to cure the patient completely. These factors are mainly composed of care, nutrition, age, and communication. Communication between the patient and the medical practitioner poses to be one of the most important factors that determine the nature of the treatment and the time required for the recovery of the patient. Especially if the communication is shared (open between the medical practitioner and the patient) the process becomes much smooth and fast.


Effect of Healthcare Communication Topic (Shared Decision-Making in the Healthcare and Advance Care Planning)

Advance Healthcare Planning, also referred to as ACP, is an essential factor between the medical practitioner and the patient, especially in the case of some serious or long term illness. ACP determines the level of healthcare that a patient requires in a longer period of time especially after they are discharged from the hospital or medical facility. Shared decision making comes in very handy when the patient is unable to make any decision on their own (Ankuda, et. al., 2014). Hence the administration or the doctor consults the family of the patient so that a best decision can be taken for best interest of patient.

Scenario Example of Shared Decision-Making in the Healthcare and Advance Care Planning

A perfect example of shared decision-making can be taken in the form of a patient suffering from Alzheimer’s, in which case the physician takes the advice from the patient themselves and their family regarding the long term care. The opinion of the patient does not matter that much in this case as much as the family’s opinion is important. The family tells the patterns of improvement or decline in the patient’s condition and the physician then decides to continue with the present therapies or not.

Importance or Impact of Healthcare Communication Topic (Shared Decision-Making in the Healthcare and Advance Care Planning)

Shared decision-making in the case of healthcare, especially Advanced Care Planning holds great importance as it easies the decision-making process for the patient and/or the family of the patient. Moreover, it also makes it easy for the medical practitioner especially physicians to decide which kind of treatment to continue for the patient in their best interest (Hajizadeh, Uhler, & Pérez Figueroa, 2015). The shared decision-making process also makes it convenient for the physician to easily convey their concerns to the patient and this family and then take their opinion that what to do and what not.


Hence, in a nutshell, it can be concluded that shared decision making plays a very positive, in fact, a very vital role in the speedy recovery of the patient. A smooth two-way communication ensures that the patient is receiving a maximum level of care and family of the patient and patient itself is satisfied with this care. The quality of shared decision making also determines quality of healthcare for the patient, as this quality is directly proportional to the shared decision-making level. No matter what, shared decision-making only results in the favor of the patient, their family, and the medical practitioner.


Ankuda, C. K., Block, S. D., Cooper, Z., Correll, D. J., Hepner, D. L., Lasic, M., ... & Bader, A. M. (2014). Measuring critical deficits in shared decision making before elective surgery. Patient education and counseling, 94(3), 328-333.

Hajizadeh, N., Uhler, L. M., & Pérez Figueroa, R. E. (2015). Understanding patients' and doctors' attitudes about shared decision making for advance care planning. Health Expectations, 18(6), 2054-2065.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Social Issues And Justice

Social Issues and Justice

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Social Issues and Justice


Gun violence is a significant social issue that our justice system faces. Keeping guns is legal in America that allows citizens to carry guns everywhere. Consequently, people having any mental disturbance attack their fellow citizens and they scarcely get capital punishment if are not killed during the assaults. The courts cannot ban firearms because the Constitution has allowed it albeit firearms are used in more than 68% homicide incidents in the US. Scholars like Reiman and Wintemute also endorse this statement that firearms are used in the majority of murders in the US. This phenomenon has caused many conjectures among civilized citizens. Some of the states have introduced some laws to control this irrational freedom of having fatal weapons but that is not enough. The legislatures are supposed to determine the ability to have a firearm, and they should make amendments to the laws about having fatal weapons.


Every act of human being is intentioned to be productive but few acts meet the expectations otherwise many acts prove more counter-productive than productive. General permission to have firearms granted to the American citizens by the constitution is one such acts. Our forefathers might have thought that the citizens will feel more safe and independent if they carry self-defense weapons with them, but they perhaps did not know that it will eliminate many innocent citizens while doing their jobs honestly at workplaces and schools. Gun violence has become a headache for law enforcement agencies, it has become a social trauma, and scholars have discussed it many times proposing solutions to control it, but much is left to be done.


The purchase of guns for self-defense is allowed by the law in the US that has made our masses vulnerable to the shooters. Every American citizen can have any type of fatal weapons, and the non-citizen residents of America can buy a gun with permission. The approach to a firearm in America is so easy that they can be purchased online also. This easy access to arms has caused mass homicide incidents in America. People are killed in schools, colleges, universities, and workplaces. The Bureau of Justice Statistics claims that 10,117 people were killed in gun-violence in 1999 and the number rose to 10,869 in 2008. The National Crime Victimization Survey reports that 467,321 persons were killed with firearms in 2011 (Gun Violence in America, 2019). This rise is continuous although many debates were held to stop this inhumane practice. This dramatic rise in the incidents of gun-violence questions the integrity of the law enforcing agencies and the justice system. But the system has its own concerns rather than limitations that prohibit it to control such incidents. American constitution offers full liberty to its citizens and allows them to pursue their Happiness and American Dream (Follman, M., Lee, J., Lurie, J., & West, J, 2018). The Pursuit of Happiness phrase in the Declaration of Independence allows the citizens to do what makes them happy. American Dream perused by the middle and poor classes to update their social status. People buy weapons for self-defense or happiness generally, but the data indicates that when they are unable to pursue their American Dream due to financial setbacks, the sickly frustrated people attack their fellow citizens. Robert Merton explains it with Strain Theory. The theory claims that when people feel unable to meet their socio-economic goals, they become frustrated and that frustration makes them violent.

Gun Violence has horrified the society and a significant condemnation to this practice is on the record. A movement named Moms Demand Action is known to every American today that stresses upon the authorities to take a strict and solid action against gun violence. The official page of this movement claims that 8 school kids succumb to gun violence on a daily basis. The activists of this movement claim that the future of s great country like the United States of America is slaughtered daily, but the authorities give no importance to this issue that can cause a big crisis in the country.

Many scholars have written about the issue, some of them demand a serious consideration to this issue before it causes a national crisis while others believe that it already has caused it. Reiman claims that compared to other industrialized democracies, the United States has the highest firearm death rate by a significant margin. Garen Wintemute is a famous American researcher who claims that the entire increase in homicide in the United States through 1993 was attributable to firearm homicide. The easy availability of firearms has exposed the innocent masses to this mass shooting. The other problem caused by this easy access is that stressed people shoot themselves at the peak moment of depression. The managing editor of the Foundation for Economic Education John Miltimore notes that 33,000 people are shot annually and about two-thirds of these deaths are suicides (Jon Miltimore, 2019). Robert Merton argues in the Strain Theory that the government must ensure economic security for every citizen to control this crime by controlling mental stress.

Some states of the US have taken some measures to control this crime although it has not been proved much productive. Some deadliest gun-violence attacks in schools obliged Texas, California, Florida, Virginia, Connecticut, Oklahoma, and Nevada to introduce some measures to control this fatal practice (DeConde, 2003). Two terms are introduced in the different states of the US: concealed carry weapon, and open carry weapon. Carrying open weapons is now prohibited in all over the country. Carrying concealed weapons is legal in 50 states whereas New Mexico allows carrying concealed cum unloaded weapons. Some restrictions are introduced in the allowance of the permit like the authorities ask the reason of why the person wants to have a weapon. Even then, over 17 million permits were issued throughout the US in 2018 (Worldpopulationreview.com, 2019). It shows that the measures taken by the authorities are of little effect against gun violence.

The justice system is helpless unless Congress takes strict notice of this crime. The penetration of firearms in all over the nation keeps the threat alive. America is a major global arms producer and exporter, but slaughtering its own citizens, for this reason, makes no sense. There should be an amendment to the laws that allow everyone to carry weapons. More restrictions on getting permits are required to control this crime. The state authorities should examine whether a person's demand for a weapon is right or not. In fact, a weaponless society has less number of deaths than an armed society. China can be taken as a good example where few civil citizens carry lethal weapons with them, and the common Chinese feel safer than the Americans feel while roaming in their country. Capital punishment can also stop many shooters from killing innocent cities if they know that they will not be spared after such an act albeit this punishment can help stopping a limited number of incidents. Otherwise, the people who suicide or kill themselves after the attacks can be stopped only by making our society weaponless.


An abundance of weapons in our society has boosted a terrible crime that horrifies the civilized citizens of a great country like America. Justice System cannot stop it because the constitution has legalized the purchase of weapons by everyone. The scholars criticize the practice and suggest that the government can control this crime by curbing disparity among the citizens and addressing their socio-economic issues. Some states of the US have banned open-carrying of firearms but it has helped little. The country cannot find peace until the firearms are prohibited to the civil citizens, and the culprits of a mass shooting are punished ruthlessly.


DeConde, A. (2003). Gun violence in America: the struggle for control. UPNE.

Follman, M., Lee, J., Lurie, J., & West, J. (2018). The true cost of gun vio

Gun Violence in America. (2019). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved 16 November 2019, from https://nij.ojp.gov/topics/articles/gun-violence-america

Jon Miltimore, (2019). Mass Shootings Are a Horrible Way to Understand Gun Violence | Fee.org. Retrieved 16 November 2019,


Worldpopulationreview.com.(2019). Retrieved 16 November 2019, from http://worldpopulationreview.com/states/concealed-carry-states/

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Stuff Dot Inc. – Rewarding Users For Actively Shopping And Sharing!

Title of the Paper

Student Name


Major Competitor Analysis



Human assistance at Addshoppers is certainly exceptional. Staff is very creative who are all the time prepared to attempt new experiments and also suggest new ways to grow business. AddShoppers is capable to grow out to discover users that have been to their website.


The information desk can be a little awkward and may not all the time suggest the data you need. You cannot manage all the sites on Addshopers at the same time; you have to manage them individually. You cannot test or can make changes on your own.



Bluecore is very good while dealing with CRM. It allows you to separate subscriber sections and apply them in different channels: email, search and particularly in Facebook specified all of their direct API integrations. They listen to consumer ideas, hear their business challenges, and cooperate with them to resolve their issues.


Bluecore lack designing tools for their consumers. It takes too much to create an audience at times. Bluecore is not easy to understand and it takes some high-level information to be able to learn this system.

User-friendliness Actions Analysis

In their recent update, it enables the user to earn more commission. Now users can have different ways to earn commission and it encourages other individuals to use their website or application to earn a commission. Now StuffDOT is more flexible than before, you can shop, share, and earn commission anywhere at any time. By adding a retailer list now user can see which shop is offering commission and also how much StuffDOT shoppers earns inn retailer list. Now users can search for shops, deals, and products without leaving the site. Users can track their purchases and commissions accordingly.

Social Media Platform

Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram-they are all free and they can be utilized for business purposes to interact with their users without deviation. But the thought that interaction with users is easy, free, and fast is wrong. There are steps you can take to accelerate the procedure.

S.M.A.R.T. Objectives

For developing a win-win strategy you need to set up your objectives. Without targets, you have no technique to estimate victory or ROI.

Your every objective should be:






This is the SMART objective structure. It will lead your steps and make sure they guide to actual business results.

Track Metrics

Conceit metric such as re-tweets and likes are easy to trace, but it’s difficult to show their actual value. Rather, focus on objectives like leads produced, web suggestions, and changing rates. You may want to trace multiple objectives for distinct means, or you want to use every channel differently. Be very sure to arrange your social platform objectives with your complete advertising strategy. This will make it straightforward for you to signify the worth of your effort and get professional buy-in and financing.

Knowing Your Audience

Perceiving who your user-and supreme consumer-is and what they need to perceive on social media is the way to producing information that they will relate with, criticize, and share. To turn social platform followers into consumer for your business is very critical.

Conduct Analysis

A competitor’s survey enables you to perceive who the opposition is and what they are performing effectively (and not so effectively). You will come by a good sight of what’s going on in your market, which will assist you to place social platform objectives of your own.

This inspection will also guide you to identify possibilities. For example, perhaps one of your opponents is superior on Facebook but has put small attempt into Twitter or Instagram. You might need to make that platform your center of attention where your user is located, rather than working to gain followers away for a superior competitor.

Inspect your Attempts

Previously if you have used social platform tool, you have to move back and examine what you have achieved in the past. Remind yourself of the following questions:

What’s in your favor, and what’s not?

Who is associating with you on social platforms?

Which platform does your target customer use?

How does your social platform existence compare to that of your opponent?

For planning how to enhance your outcomes, you will have better imitating point if you collect all these details in one spot.

Changes Needed In Website

The positioning of opt-in Offer

With the modest change of an opt-in present, you can attain substantial outcomes!

A usual and foremost implementation is to give little incentive to gather email addresses. Remember that and opt-in present is an excellent tool for collecting consumer’s email addresses and establishing your email record for fine marketing strategy in the future. The opt-in present positioning on a website can have a great effect on many users as well.

There are some choices to place your opt-in form on the website:




Middle of content

Bottom of the content

Pop up

Welcome page

Calls to Actions

Always keep in mind: You can come up with a straightforward call to action on every item which a subscriber or guest comes in contact with.

Are you providing a signup course of action for the journal?

Appealing them to like your social platform page?

Downloading any significant files connected to your company?

Or any buy choice accessible to the consumers?

To accomplish all your objectives in marketing then you should add all above options in your website.

Don’t add a phrase like “click here”. A CTA is a command that motivates gestures. Utilize actionable and simple text in your CTA. For example, “shop now”, “Reserve your Order”, etc.


Chen, M. J. (1996). Competitor analysis and interfirm rivalry: Toward a theoretical integration. Academy of management review, 21(1), 100-134.

Ghoshal, S., & Westney, D. E. (1991). Organizing competitor analysis systems. Strategic Management Journal, 12(1), 17-31.

Osman, R., & Hwang, F. (2018, July). An instrument for assessing e-commerce web object designs against guidelines for older adults. In Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (p. 100). BCS Learning & Development Ltd..

Kakizaki, Y., Akiyama, T., Otani, K., & Sasaki, R. (2016). Online Accounts Management Method Using Risk-Based Approach. Journal of Computer and Communications, 4(14), 26.

Hoffman, D. L., & Fodor, M. (2010). Can you measure the ROI of your social media marketing?. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 41.

Kim, A. J., & Ko, E. (2012). Do social media marketing activities enhance customer equity? An empirical study of luxury fashion brand. Journal of Business research, 65(10), 1480-1486.

Evans, D. (2010). Social media marketing: An hour a day. John Wiley & Sons.

Ashley, C., & Tuten, T. (2015). Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1), 15-27.

Erdoğmuş, İ. E., & Cicek, M. (2012). The impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 1353-1360.

Amanah, D., Hurriyati, R., Gaffar, V., Wibowo, L. A., Harahap, D. A., & Saragih, Y. D. (2017). Which is More Influential in Online Purchasing Decisions: Price or Trust. In 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics, Bussiness and Philanthropy (pp. 798-803).

Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Teacher’s Role

Teacher’s Role

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Teacher’s Role

How will you prepare for a meeting with a family when a challenging behavior occurs?

Preparing for meeting with child’s parents to discuss the challenging behavior is critical step towards the tackling the behavior. But parents can often become defensive in such meetings, which can be avoided by preparing for the meeting. Make sure to share the issue with the parents with the facts. Note down all the important points that are required to discuss in the meeting. Be sure to ask parents relevant questions regarding the child’s behavior. Never look for reassurance from parent’s side regarding the interventions, but make sure to discuss the interventions taken by you for improving child’s behavior.

List three strategies you will use when meeting with a family to discuss their child’s behavior

I will talk to them in friendly tone.

I will inform the parents about behavior on basis of facts not rumors.

I will not sugarcoat the facts and shoot them straight the way they are.

Examine your own attitude and discuss whether or not you think families are responsible for how their child behaves at school. Support your stance.

It is important for teacher to examine her own attitude with the child to see if she herself can be responsible for causing the challenging behavior of the child. I will examine my own attitude and try to see if I am at mistake. I personally think that parents and families can be responsible for child’s behavior at school and the children get deeply influenced by the tensions and stresses that they face at home.

What data and records will you bring into the discussion to help move the conversation forward in a positive direction?

Depending upon the type of problem caused by child, I will bring all the relevant records to the meeting, to inform the parents. For example if child’s relevant performance is dropping, I will show test’s and assignment’s scores to the parents. Similarly if the issue is reading attendees I will show them attendance records. Incase if the issue is regarding discipline I will show them disciplinary cards. These records will ensure that parents know the exact facts; these records will help parents believe that teacher is trying to help the student and they are on same page for problem’s solution(Linsin, 2019).

Beyond these considerations, what other factors may be involved?

Other factors that influence the teacher-parent meeting is the readiness of the meeting room and time selected for the meeting. Teacher should ensure that meeting time is selected keeping the parental convincing in mind. Also all the relevant records and reports should be kept ready, to avoid inconvenience during meeting.


Linsin, M. (2019). How To Talk To Parents About Their Misbehaving Child. Retrieved from https://www.smartclassroommanagement.com/2011/06/04/how-to-talk-to-parents-about-their-misbehaving-child/

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Texas V. Johnson Brandenburg. Extra Credit


Texas v. Johnson Brandenburg

Author name



In 1984, respondent Johnson took part in a political protest to object the policies of the Reagan administration. During the protest, Johnson burned an American flag that caused no physical injury to any person. However, this flag burning offended several witnesses. As a result, he was convicted of a violation of the 1st amendment and Texas law that forbids destroying respected objects. He was fined $2,000 and was sentenced to one year in prison. His conviction was overturned with his appeal to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. The court motive was that the State could not penalize Johnson for burning the flag as the First Amendment defends such activity as symbolic speech. A symbolic speech is an expression of an idea such as flag waving and demonstrations.

According to the 1st amendment, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of the religion, or prohibiting the free exercise or abridging the freedom of speech, or the right of the people to assemble peacefully”. Therefore, the government has no right to proscribe speech if it is disagreeable. It can only restrict speech for a legitimate government resolution. The speech can only be stopped if it is intended to lead to violence, likely to lead to violence and will lead to imminent violence. The Texas Court of Criminal reversed the appeal based on this 1st amendment. It further concluded that the State could not illegally approve flag desecration as it had not resulted in the serious disturbance. According to the court, as a result of arrest and fine, Johnson’s civil and constitutional liberties were definitely desecrated. Moreover, man’s expression of burning the flag is safeguarded in the United States Constitution. Therefore, based on the 1st Amendment to the United States Constitution, Johnson won the case as the symbolic speech is constitutionally protected even when it is offensive.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The Congressional Medal Of Honor.

The Congressional Medal of Honor

Farrion McCollough

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

The Congressional Medal of Honor

Major Charles s. Kettles values had always inspired the American people. Being a flight Commander, he had served the nations with conspicuous gallantry and thoughtfulness. Belonging from the 14th Combat division of Aviation, he always stood different from his contemporaries. On May 15th in the year 1967, he volunteered his services to fight against the enemy, when the American airborne infantry unit suffered serious injuries during a firefight ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"daf7syXI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jordan 1996)","plainCitation":"(Jordan 1996)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":233,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/2XPK337Y"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/2XPK337Y"],"itemData":{"id":233,"type":"book","publisher":"Schiffer Military History","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Yesterday's Heroes: 433 Men of World War II Awarded the Medal of Honor, 1941-1945","title-short":"Yesterday's Heroes","author":[{"family":"Jordan","given":"Kenneth N."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1996"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jordan 1996). He carried reinforcement and led the battle from the front, while also evacuating the wounded personnel. He ended up landing during the intense firefight with the enemy, which resulted in serious injuries. In such condition, he was successful bring back the helicopter which was facing fuel leakage as well.

Major Kettles exhibited the values of velour, bravery and commitment to duty. The United States Armed forces depicts these values, along with ensuring commitment to the country’s interests. Major Kettle’s services reveal all such values ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"YEweCkti","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(CMOHS.org - Private First Class CURREY, FRANCIS S., U.S. Army n.d.)","plainCitation":"(CMOHS.org - Private First Class CURREY, FRANCIS S., U.S. Army n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":231,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/4L3RNSIZ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/4L3RNSIZ"],"itemData":{"id":231,"type":"webpage","title":"CMOHS.org - Private First Class CURREY, FRANCIS S., U.S. Army","URL":"http://www.cmohs.org/recipient-detail/2698/currey-francis-s.php","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,2]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (CMOHS.org - Private First Class CURREY, FRANCIS S., U.S. Army n.d.). He left behind the legacy that despite worst conditions, the enemy must be countered and any asset belonging to the land of ours must be taken care of. His services had been so important during the Vietnam War, he would therefore, be remembered for securing the interests of the US land. For those who aspire to become a part of the US air forces, should inspire him, since he was part of the last crew who fought for securing peace and the American values.

There are many Americans out there, who want to be part of these dressed services. The values Major Kettles had exhibited are self- explanatory. Padmanabhan writes that if you are strong enough to witness the enemy, you should not shy away from facing him by showing the best example of velour you have ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZW6OWKpy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Padmanabhan 2010)","plainCitation":"(Padmanabhan 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":234,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/BYCQUDXQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/8reWiRZH/items/BYCQUDXQ"],"itemData":{"id":234,"type":"book","publisher":"Cambridge University Press","source":"Google Scholar","title":"Gravitation: foundations and frontiers","title-short":"Gravitation","author":[{"family":"Padmanabhan","given":"Thanu"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Padmanabhan 2010). This quote falls exactly right to the example of Major Kettles.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “CMOHS.Org - Private First Class CURREY, FRANCIS S., U.S. Army.” http://www.cmohs.org/recipient-detail/2698/currey-francis-s.php (January 2, 2020).

Jordan, Kenneth N. 1996. Yesterday’s Heroes: 433 Men of World War II Awarded the Medal of Honor, 1941-1945. Schiffer Military History.

Padmanabhan, Thanu. 2010. Gravitation: Foundations and Frontiers. Cambridge University Press.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

The History Of Fingerprints

History of fingerprints

History of fingerprints

DNA technology has revolutionized the field of forensic science. This DNA technology has helped in being more specific about criminals involve in any case. Different to the DNA, the fingerprint technology is still considered the most valid form of identification, widely used in law enforcement. In the Babylon times, fingerprints were used in making ridge patterns for trade-related transactions and in many governmental procedures. It was in the fourteenth century, that people started noticing the fact that no two fingerprints are alike. This helped in expanding the use of forensics in criminal proceedings. This was the exact time; the history of fingerprints began. In the very first phase, the scientists working on criminology started studying the spirals, loops, and ridges on finger patterns. In the year 1686, Marcello Malpighi, a professor of anatomy, started pointing out differences in the finger patterns ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XQ6CCZ5k","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Pollitt, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Pollitt, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1473,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/75VAAEC3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/75VAAEC3"],"itemData":{"id":1473,"type":"paper-conference","title":"A history of digital forensics","container-title":"IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics","publisher":"Springer","page":"3–15","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Pollitt","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Pollitt, 2010). He made no declaration to the value of personal identification.

In the nineteenth century, John Evangelist of the University of Breslau published nine patterns of fingerprints. This research study about fingerprints was published in a thesis form. Although he presented the nine patterns of fingerprints, he refrained from explaining each pattern, identified in his thesis. In 1856, William Hershel, who was the Chief Magistrate used fingerprints for the first time in the native documents. Again, this time, it was a surprising fact that none of the fingerprints had the characteristics similar to others. This fact helped in proving the identification of persons whom he made transactions with. In 1880, a British Surgeon shared some new findings with Charles Darwin. Their findings were related to mainstreaming the use of fingerprints in forensics ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jaL7B2YX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hawthorne, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Hawthorne, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7HK5MCEY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7HK5MCEY"],"itemData":{"id":1470,"type":"book","title":"Fingerprints: analysis and understanding","publisher":"CRC Press","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Fingerprints","author":[{"family":"Hawthorne","given":"Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hawthorne, 2017). Later in the last decade of the nineteenth century, Francis Galton started working on relating fingerprints and genetic history. He also expanded the research on fingerprinting and intelligence, but his studies failed in presenting some new findings. Although he remained to fail in presenting some new findings, he proved through his experiments that fingerprints never change during one's lifetime.

With the start of the twentieth century, the field of forensic experienced new scientific findings related to fingerprints. Paul- Jean Coulier developed a new mechanism for transferring fingerprints from any surface to paper. He developed this method by using iodine fuming. This process brought revolution in forensics. It was for the first time that Scotland Yard started using fingerprints for the identification of criminals. Soon after, the United States' Police department started using the same strategy for fingerprint identification. The first conviction in recorded history was held in Scheffer's case of 1902 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"y7WMX0AX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1472,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"itemData":{"id":1472,"type":"book","title":"Forensic Fingerprints","publisher":"Academic Press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Houck","given":"Max M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Houck, 2016). The identifications, arrest, and conviction of the murderer were based on the fingerprint evidence. The fingerprint evidence for the murderer was captured some days before from a fractured glass. After the conviction of a murderer on the basis of fingerprint evidence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HHfnS3sR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1472,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"itemData":{"id":1472,"type":"book","title":"Forensic Fingerprints","publisher":"Academic Press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Houck","given":"Max M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Houck, 2016), the fingerprints were used as the primary source of evidence in criminal cases.

At present, the identification of criminals through fingerprinting is considered essential. It is interesting to note that, fingerprinting has also been valuable in body identification in the aftermath of natural disasters. Since the beginning of the last century, fingerprinting has helped in limiting and specifying the evidence. This has also been valuable in anthropogenic hazards. The largest fingerprint identification system at present is managed by the American Federal Bureau of Investigations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"6SrkF094","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Houck, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1472,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/FBYUJM5G"],"itemData":{"id":1472,"type":"book","title":"Forensic Fingerprints","publisher":"Academic Press","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Houck","given":"Max M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Houck, 2016). Before the FBI, the French investigation firms established the mechanism to record fingerprints of the detainees. The first forensic lab for recording the fingerprints was also established by the French. Until now, there has been no mechanism to override the fingerprint evidence. There are cases in which criminal use gloves to hide their identities, but it also leaves some unique prints, which can serve the cause of criminal investigators.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hawthorne, M. (2017). Fingerprints: Analysis and understanding. CRC Press.

Houck, M. M. (2016). Forensic Fingerprints. Academic Press.

Pollitt, M. (2010). A history of digital forensics. IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics, 3–15. Springer.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

The United States, PRC, And Taiwan


Name of Professor



The United States, PRC, and Taiwan


The phenomenon of cross-strait relations immensely influence the associations of the United States of America, China, and Taiwan. Different forms of considerations linked with the entire perspective of cross-strait relations. It is worthy to indicate that different strategic, political, and economic factors are closely involved in the entire scenario of cross-strait relations. Dramatic changes in the form of different events eventually make it difficult to achieve the objective of peace for all the shareholders. The perspective of cross-strait relations going through with different forms of transitions that ultimately leads to the new forms of development of the entire prospect. The approach of cross-strait relations considered as the prevailing connection between the geographical areas of China and Taiwan. This sort of relationship between these two countries is immensely complex because it indicates about the controversial and politically unstable relationship between Taiwan and China ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZaZabHpq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clark)","plainCitation":"(Clark)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1997,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/ET5Z2DLR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/ET5Z2DLR"],"itemData":{"id":1997,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Taiwan Relations Act and the US Balancing Role in Cross-Strait Relations","container-title":"American Journal of Chinese Studies","page":"3-18","author":[{"family":"Clark","given":"Cal"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clark). This particular controversial association exist between these two countries from the time period when the national management of Taiwan was transferred from the country of Japan after World War II. The growing intervention of the US in the entire scenario of cross-strait relations changed the perspective of diplomatic association between the related countries. Here the particular focus is to critically investigate the existing evidence to examine how greatly dynamics of relations between the US, China, and Taiwan changes after the growing role of the United States of America.


When it comes to the increasing role of the US in the case of cross-strait relations then this particular intervention can observe in many different forms. The US factor can never ignore when it comes to the development of the relationship between the two main stakeholders of China and Taiwan. This certain aspect eventually changes the existing relationship between the two strong countries of China and the United States of America. The sovereignty dispute between China and Taiwan ultimately turns as the major political concern at the global level. The government of the US used the element of the global issue to intervene in the entire domain of cross-strait relations between China and Taiwan. The super-power of the United States of America plays a central role in the entire rivalry approach exist between the countries of China and Taiwan. The foreign policy of America is established as the mandatory indicator to understand the different dimensions of the prospect of cross-strait relations. On the other hand, the triangular association between Beijing, Taipei, and Washington have enormously change the entire concern of sovereignty between China and Taiwan.

Detailed consideration of the history indicates that the countries of the US and China witnessed immensely cold relationships that ultimately appears in case of growing conflict between China and Taiwan. It is observed that after the era of war, America play its active role as the main support and security protector of Taiwan when it comes to the entire phenomenon of prevailing tension between the countries of China and Taiwan. Consideration of the role of the United States of America is important because it is characterised as an important indicator in the evolving form of cross-strait relations. Different time periods witnessed different forms of associations between the countries of China and Taiwan. This form of consideration greatly impacted by the increasing role of the US in the entire domain of consideration. The emerging form of 2008 is one considerable example when the government of the US strongly showed its presence in the entire scenario of the cross-strait relationships between the main shareholders of China and Taiwan. A comprehensive exploration of the historical eras between China, US, and Taiwan helps to determine about the growing role of the US considering the issue of authority between the regions of China and Taiwan.

Critical evaluation of the historical events of the last two decades clearly reveals that relations between these three countries became less stable with the passage of time. This form of consideration raises the concern that what are the major causes that lead to this particular situation. The increasing role of US is one factor linked with the overall development of the cross-strait relation. The aspects of change ultimately reveal in the form of dramatic change in foreign policies of these countries. Researchers established this fact that Washington plays its active role when it comes to forming and determine the relationship between the cities of Beijing and Taipei. It is established that the strategic perspective of cross-strait relations can never be considered complete without considering the triangular prospects of the US, China, and Taiwan. The active role of the US influenced by two major aspects of consideration ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"40SmgOMQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Clark and Clark)","plainCitation":"(Clark and Clark)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1996,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/P3TMRIR2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/P3TMRIR2"],"itemData":{"id":1996,"type":"book","title":"The Changing Dynamics of the Relations among China, Taiwan, and the United States","publisher":"Cambridge Scholars Pub.","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=16InBwAAQBAJ","ISBN":"978-1-4438-2783-6","author":[{"family":"Clark","given":"C."},{"family":"Clark","given":"J."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Clark and Clark). These specific factors recognised as the strategic and economic interests of the United States of America in the entire case of cross-strait relation and existing tension between China and Taiwan. It is crucial to establish what are the main shares and benefits for America in the entire situation. This form of exploration further assists to figure out what is the actual role of the power of America in case of cross-strait relations. The features of anti-communism, human rights, development of the democracy, and the great form of economics are the other major factors that closely influence the increasing role of the United States of America in this region. The government of America determine to establish its foreign policy on these particular values. This form of consideration also appeared in case of growing tension between the governments of China and Taiwan and how US play its active role in this perspective.

Power transition during 2008 in Taiwan enormously changed the role of the United States of America in case of cross-strait association. Detailed understanding of the transition phase in Taiwan is essential to figure out the role of America before and after this form of development. Understanding of the historical background of the power conflict between China and Taiwan is critical to make better inferences about the increasing role of US in the form of a factor of change. It is claimed by the authorities of China that tension of authority between China and Taiwan is its internal issue and there is no need for external involvement. The growing prospect of triangular association in the form of roles of the US, China, and Taiwan reveals that the option of internal intervention can never fully ignore when it comes to the deep understanding of cross-strait association. The role of the US is established as the main contributor to the overall creation and maintenance of the issue of authority conflict between China and Taiwan also appeared in the form of cross-strait association. It is important to consider the active role of the United States of America in case of the existing conflict in China and Taiwan ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9VJqapl5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Roy)","plainCitation":"(Roy)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1998,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/88GNDRQ6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/88GNDRQ6"],"itemData":{"id":1998,"type":"chapter","title":"The US-China-Taiwan Relationship: New Circumstances, Persistent Challenges","container-title":"The Future of United States, China, and Taiwan Relations","publisher":"Springer","page":"149-165","author":[{"family":"Roy","given":"Denny"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Roy). This form of consideration can eventually help to involve the approach of the US to propose better solutions to this growing issue. The dramatic transition of 2008 reveals that the policy of the US plays a vital role to reshape the prospect of a cross-strait relationship between the triangular domain of China, the United States of America, and Taiwan. The new reality of the cross-strait relations can never imagine without the increasing intervention of the US in the entire domain of consideration.

Adoption of the proactive policy by the government of the United States of America in 2008 is one major role that completely changes the political scene in Taiwan. This form of political development eventually makes the position strong for Taiwan in case of cross-strait relations. The authorities of the US play their role as the clear opposition when it comes to Chen Shui-bian’s program of UN referendum considering future complications. The officials of the US clearly indicate their point of view and strongly present their voice at the international level. The specific strategy with the name of “making a case to the Taiwanese people” was introduced by the government of the United States of America to show its strong appearance during the entire growing conflict. The aim of this form of an attempt at international level was to deliver clear support for the Taiwanese voters in case of UN referendum. The government of the US played its active and influential role to ensure the smooth transfer of political power in the country of Taiwan. This particular attempt by the country of the US is one major development that ultimately expands the active involvement of Washington in the form of cross-strait relations. Undoubtedly, the growing coordination of American authorities with the government of China makes it possible to attain the better form of outcomes in Taiwan in the form of the presidential election. Elimination of the role of the DPP government in Taiwan ultimately reduces the probability of the military showdown in the region. This approach is one major objective of America in the region that is achieved in the form of no war. The outcomes of the presidential election in Taiwan also explicitly indicate about the active intervention of the United States of America in the form of political dominance.

On the other hand, it is also critical to mention that the new developments in Taiwan in the form of presidential election cause a new form of challenges for the government of the US. This particular time period was a major domain that enhances the role of the US in this region. The officials of the country of the United States of America play their role to determine the factor of status-quo in the country of Taiwan. Prior to the political change in Taiwan, the authority of the US come up with the consideration that the element of status-quo in Taiwan needs to be defined by the US to ensure its active involvement in the entire paradigm of the cross-strait association. The active role of the US appeared in the form of playing its role as the mediator when there was no direct connection between Beijing and Taipei. That was the particular time when the government of the US play its role to define the prospect of status quo in case of cross-strait relations. The growing role of the US was greatly acknowledged by the new administration of Ma Ying-jeou in Taiwan. It was assured by the new government of Taiwan that the prospect of negotiation with China in the form of unification is not possible in the form of Taiwan Straits. This form of reassurance from the administration of Taiwan considered the existing political form in the country in the form of cross-strait relations. It is critical to indicate that the government of the US played its active role after the presidential election of 2008 in Taiwan. The authorities of Washington invites both the stakeholders of Beijing and Taipei to reopen the significant option of dialogue. The main objective of this form of the proposal was to ensure the improved form of cross-strait relations by successfully adopting different available options. The government of the US claimed this phenomenon as the major opportunity for the authorities of China and Taiwan to find better consensus about the growing tension of authority ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HwqErMvb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wang)","plainCitation":"(Wang)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1995,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/9PKUFLWW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/9PKUFLWW"],"itemData":{"id":1995,"type":"article-journal","title":"United States and Evolving Cross-Strait Relations","container-title":"Journal of Chinese Political Science","page":"351-369","volume":"15","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Wang","given":"Jianwei"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wang). The involvement of the US in the entire scenario of cross-strait relations is immense as it is identified that President Bush personally called the officials of Taiwan and China to grab this major opportunity to build strong relations for future.

The main objective of the growing role of the US is to ensure the better forms of negotiations between the authorities of Beijing and Taipei. Arrangement of different forms of dialogues are the clear and positive examples of the active role of the US to build effective forms of cross-strait relations. The particular aim was continuously endorsed by the officials of America at different forums. The initiative of ECFA is one significant example to indicate the active involvement of the United States of America in the entire domain of negotiation between the regions of China and Taiwan. It was clearly indicated by the authorities of the country of the US that Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) is the great attempt to achieve the better forms of relations across the two countries in the form of a new phase of negotiation. Proper maintenance of the status quo in the region of Taiwan is another objective of the US that ensures its active involvement in the broader perspective of cross-strait relations. The authorities of the US actively show their concern in case of maintenance of the status quo for the region of Taiwan. The main focus of this particular concern is to assure the proper avoidance of the issue of disruption of dialogue between the concerned authorities.

Development of better political interaction with the government of Taiwan is one major concern of the US that appeared after the presidential election of 2008 in Taiwan. The government of the US attempt particular practical measures to minimise the restriction in the form of developing active communication between the officials of both countries. The authorities of the US seriously focused the prospect to formulate proper policy to propose better forms of political association between the US and Taiwan. It is important to indicate that this form of development of political relation between the US and Taiwan ultimately cause some form of anxiety for the government of China. This sort of concern was positively and sensibly catered by the authorities of the US to build a stable association with the government of China in the form of active dialogues. Military relations between the US and Taiwan is another major perspective that indicates the growing role of the United States of America in the scenario of cross-strait relation. Military development is one major concern for the government of China as it was perceived as the threat to their claim of power in the region of Taiwan.


To conclude the discussion about the active role of the United States of America in cross-strait relation, it is important to indicate that the increasing involvement of the US changes different dimensions in case of existing association between the shareholders. The country of the US established as the major shareholder when it comes to the consideration of the issue of power conflict between China and Taiwan at the international level. The perspective of the status quo in Taiwan is one major aspect of concern for the authorities of the United States of America to achieve the objective of equality of power. Dealing with the new political developments in the form of cross-strait relations between these countries cause different forms of challenges for the country of the US. The major achievement for the US from the entire new development of cross-strait relations is the exclusion of the concern of military tension.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Clark, C., and J. Clark. The Changing Dynamics of the Relations among China, Taiwan, and the United States. Cambridge Scholars Pub., 2011, https://books.google.com/books?id=16InBwAAQBAJ.

Clark, Cal. “The Taiwan Relations Act and the US Balancing Role in Cross-Strait Relations.” American Journal of Chinese Studies, 2010, pp. 3–18.

Roy, Denny. “The US-China-Taiwan Relationship: New Circumstances, Persistent Challenges.” The Future of United States, China, and Taiwan Relations, Springer, 2011, pp. 149–65.

Wang, Jianwei. “United States and Evolving Cross-Strait Relations.” Journal of Chinese Political Science, vol. 15, no. 4, 2010, pp. 351–69.

Subject: Education

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Typical Or Atypical Development

Typical or atypical development

The disparities can be checked by the development checklist provided by the ECE. The motor, cognitive, language and social factors are considered for evaluating the development of the child. The assessment of the motor responses depends on examining the body movement and involvement of the child in different activities such as pushing his legs and rolling from stomach to the back. The responses of child to voice and things are assessed for examining his cognitive development. The language is assessed by examining how the child makes use of sounds, voices and noise. The social development is assessed by making observations of eye-contact, emotions like crying, smiling and anger CITATION CDC171 \l 1033 (CDC, 2017). By examining these aspects the possible outcomes and development aspects of the child are recorded. Development is assessed according to the age and months of the child.

Alex Smith is selected for the case study having the age of 3 months. The assessment of his motor performance depicts that his development is normal because he is capable of moving his body parts appropriately. He pushes is legs, roll down the stomach and bring hands back and forth. His cognitive development is also normal because follows objects responds to voice, recognize objects and use eyes and hands in coordination. His language development is also normal because he makes sounds, responds to them and smiles on sounds. His social development is also normal because he makes use of eye contact, develops a smile and enjoys playing. The overall assessment of Alex indicates that he didn't exhibit delayed development. No areas are revealed that are more concerning. The child is professing in all milestones. This indicates that the development is normal and the child does not need any improvement in any of the aspects CITATION Sab18 \l 1033 (Rebis, 2018).


BIBLIOGRAPHY CDC. (2017). CDC's Developmental Milestones. Retrieved 05 01, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html

Rebis, S. A. (2018). Understanding Developmental Delays. Retrieved 05 02, 2019, from https://www.parents.com/baby/development/problems/understanding-developmental-delays/

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Unit VII Essay

Unit VII Essay


Institutional Affiliations

Author’s Note

Unit VII Essay

Public speaking skills are an important part of personal and career life. Good communication skills are an inclusive characteristic that distinguishes individuals from others. Technology has been booming and brought about significant changes in the field of communication. It has brought together the whole world and improved the transfer of information all over the world within no time. Technology has improved the patterns of communication and made the task easier for both the receiver as well as the sender. Individuals with social anxieties find it hard to communicate and deliver their messages to others. While technology has made it possible for such people to communicate with anyone without having to face the other person ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"m9hESA8W","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u193{}lvarez-Bermejo, Belmonte-Ure\\uc0\\u241{}a, & Estrella-Ram\\uc0\\u243{}n, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Álvarez-Bermejo, Belmonte-Ureña, & Estrella-Ramón, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":661,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/6EFGF5WM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/6EFGF5WM"],"itemData":{"id":661,"type":"article-journal","title":"AN INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVING COMMUNICATION, SOCIAL REPUTATION, AND SERVICE QUALITY: A CASE APPLIED TO THE HOSPITALITY SECTOR.","container-title":"Una propuesta de innovación tecnológica para la mejora de la comunicación, la reputación social y la calidad del servicio: caso aplicado al sector de la hostelería.","page":"960-969","volume":"25","issue":"6","source":"EBSCOhost","archive":"bsu","abstract":"In this paper it is presented a new mobile application called RE2, that was designed to help service sector professionals with managing information related to customers and services. It is based on one of the most interesting recent developments within the framework of customer management: customer engagement. In particular, RE2 digitizes customers' loyalty cards, recording the personal data and consumption patterns of customers. Using this information, RE2 aims to achieve an improvement in service quality, communication strategy, and social reputation by organizing the reward program automatically and suggesting connections for customers to their social networking sites, where customers can then disseminate their experiences with the business. This paper presents the theoretical bases used to develop RE2, describes its main functions, and explains its main contributions to the special case of the hospitality industry (although the application can be applied to other industries). (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]","ISSN":"13866710","journalAbbreviation":"El Profesional de la Información","author":[{"family":"Álvarez-Bermejo","given":"José-Antonio"},{"family":"Belmonte-Ureña","given":"Luis-Jesús"},{"family":"Estrella-Ramón","given":"Antonia"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Álvarez-Bermejo, Belmonte-Ureña, & Estrella-Ramón, 2016). It has also brought more confidence among people so that they can be heard and seen even in distant places. Technology has provided a means for improving social learning, social design and professionalism, and evaluation of communication gaps ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ib1JSA0Z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sanden & Vries, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Sanden & Vries, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":668,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/6F2AY7MM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/6F2AY7MM"],"itemData":{"id":668,"type":"book","title":"Science and technology education and communication : seeking synergy","source":"http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/eds/ebookviewer/ebook?sid=ccda082f-414b-45e8-9c3a-4bb3f71755b0%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&ppid=pp+C1&vid=0&format=EB","language":"English","author":[{"family":"Sanden","given":"Maarten C. A.","suffix":"","dropping-particle":"van der"},{"family":"Vries","given":"Marc J.","suffix":"","dropping-particle":"de"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sanden & Vries, 2016).

Technology has brought more difficulty in listening to people around, as it is a source of greater distraction. People are extremely indulged in using their gadgets and doing their tasks on their digital devices that it becomes hard for them to focus on what happens around them. It has become very common that people often ignore important messages, announcements, and notices, as they are unable to multitask. The human brain can only handle so much, and the more pressure we put on it, it releases the stress hormone cortisol. Our brains have become addicted to receiving multiple stimuli simultaneously making it hard to focus on one thing at a time ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SguLAMIQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bormann, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Bormann, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":664,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/P9Q9PUWM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/P9Q9PUWM"],"itemData":{"id":664,"type":"webpage","title":"Our Mind’s on Tech: How Technology Affects the Human Brain","container-title":"Computer History Medium","URL":"https://medium.com/chmcore/our-minds-on-tech-how-technology-affects-the-human-brain-dd8a2ff7490d","title-short":"Our Mind’s on Tech","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Bormann","given":"Sarah"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",3]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bormann, 2018). It leads people to depression and anxiety and it becomes even more difficult for them to be good listeners.

Technology has several advantages especially in improving communication in daily life. However, it comes with certain barriers as well in some cases. There is only one incident in my life where I felt it has made my communication extremely ineffective. It was the time when I was applying for an internship project at a very renowned organization in another state. I had to give an interview and present my project plan over a telephone and video conference. I had prepared well and had been working on it all summers. However, at the time of the presentation, there were certain ambiguities in my plan that I was unable to explain to the supervisor. I had it drawn out the layout and sent it to them, but they were unable to apprehend it and I could find no means to make them understand it. I asked for a week to further work on it but unfortunately, I could not explain it to them over the video conference and I lost the chance to avail that internship. It was that moment when I realized that digital communication has its flaws and it can make some very important communications extremely ineffective.

My advice to anyone struggling from communication barriers due to technology is to understand the extent to which it can comply with official and personal communications. People need to understand that there are limitations to it and it can only be overcome either by innovative programs or by finding out flaws in oneself. Many online programs provide education about using technology in the right order to make communications effective. People struggling with such issues should take those programs. They should focus on improving their interpersonal communication skills and bring confidence so that they can make use of technology in making their tasks easier and effective. They should also be able to bring clarity in their thoughts and understand the need of their audience. The tone, language, and style of communicating is also a very important factor in removing any barriers from digital communication ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mGKOSrCs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Natale & Lubniewski, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Natale & Lubniewski, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":669,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/3J5X26EI"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/OnfrXiA2/items/3J5X26EI"],"itemData":{"id":669,"type":"article-journal","title":"Use of communication and technology among educational professionals and families","container-title":"International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education","page":"377-384","volume":"10","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Natale","given":"Kirstin"},{"family":"Lubniewski","given":"Kathryn"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Natale & Lubniewski, 2018).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Álvarez-Bermejo, J.-A., Belmonte-Ureña, L.-J., & Estrella-Ramón, A. (2016). An Innovative Technology Proposal For Improving Communication, Social Reputation, And Service Quality: A Case Applied To The Hospitality Sector, 25(6), 960–969. Retrieved from bsu.

Bormann, S. (2018, March). Our Mind’s on Tech: How Technology Affects the Human Brain. Retrieved from Computer History Medium website: https://medium.com/chmcore/our-minds-on-tech-how-technology-affects-the-human-brain-dd8a2ff7490d

Natale, K., & Lubniewski, K. (2018). Use of communication and technology among educational professionals and families. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(3), 377–384.

Sanden, M. C. A. van der, & Vries, M. J. de. (2016). Science and technology education and communication: Seeking synergy.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

What Is Terrorism?

Terrorism and Homeland Security

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Terrorism and Homeland Security


Terrorism is defined as one of the insider threat that refers to the unlawful use of force and violence by anyone of the individuals who is associated with an organization. The term terrorism was first coined during the French Revolution when the French government interfered and engaged in the reign of terror. The term was used to oppress the people and use terrorism tactics against the revolutionaries who tried to oppose them. The history of terrorism can be traced back to Zealots Sicarii, a jewish group from the first century. They were located in Palestine, when it was occupied by Romans. The goal of the terrorist group was to gain independence from the Romans and incorporate their strict rule (White, & J, 2016). It is asserted that force is used against an organization to achieve some social and political objectives that might be against the interest of an organization. It is also termed as the use of force or violence against a property to intimidate and coerce citizens or government. In particular, insiders use the familiarity of the elements of an organization such as security, empowering layout and structure to maximize and enhance causalities that can sabotage systems.


In the past hundred years, there has been a lot of changes and evolutions in the understanding of terrorism, within the framework of a global pattern. By today, there are four major classifications of terrorism such as anarchist, religious wave, the anti-colonial and the new left. These classifications were identified by Rapaport, taking into account that these waves are named based on some terrorist activities in that period. These names have marked some particular waves over time. There are two dimensions to define terrorism, both as a strategy and tactic, a crime as well as a holy duty. Terrorism is also a justified reaction to any kind of oppression as well as an inexcusable abomination (White, & J, 2016). It is also defined as an effective tactic for those who are at the weaker side of the conflict. In accordance with the asymmetric form of conflict, terrorism refers to the coercive power of having a lot of advantages of military force that is serving at a fraction of the cost. However, adhering to the secretive nature and the small size of terrorist organizations, it is highlighted that the opponents are not given significant clues to defend and deter. It is asserted that prevention from terrorism is one of the top priorities of the department taking into account the resolution to protect Americans from any kind of homeland security threats and terrorism, taking into account the ambition of preventing nation-states and their processes (White, & J, 2016). It may include groups of people who are engaged in terrorist and criminal acts and the transnational criminal organizations, where such platforms threaten the Homeland. In the past few years, criminals and terrorists have adopted some unique and new tactics and techniques that can help to circumvent homeland security and threaten the safety prosperity and security of the allies and the American public. Adhering to the rapidly evolving threats from environmental demands, a proactive response was generated by DHS that lets its partners prevent, identify and detect the attacks against the United States (White, & J, 2016). The Department of Homeland Security’s includes several counterterrorism responsibilities that are defined in four different goals, such as collection, analyzing and sharing of actionable intelligence, disrupt and detect threats, protection of events and soft targets along with the analysis of counter weapons of mass destruction and other emerging threats (Martin & G, 2019).

Types of Terrorism

There are two major classifications of terrorism, domestic and international terrorism.

Domestic terrorism refers to the violation and destruction of the citizens of the country without any kind of foreign directions (Anderson & N, 2019).

On the other hand, international terrorism is connected to a foreign government or other groups that have the power to transcend the boundaries of different nations (Anderson & N, 2019).

Terrorism and Homeland Security

The terrorism and homeland security committee are a combination of different emergency service leaders and agents who provide required guidance to the policymakers and IAFC so as to help them prepare for any kind of terrorist attack. Some major tasks are to, identify terrorism and issues related to homeland security, act as a resource to homeland security issues, maintain and foster the rations and are crucial to homeland security leaders and strengthen the visibility of IAFC so as to address issues of homeland security (Terrorism Prevention, 2018).

Terrorism Protection

The Science and Technology Directorate supports the idea that the Department of Homeland Security terrorism prevention has a mission that is applied by conducting a certain evaluation, applied research and the integration of scientifically derived knowledge that can help to inform the policy and other programs to ensure the Homeland Security Enterprise (Terrorism Prevention, 2018). According to the data retrieved from the official website of Homeland Security, it is found that terrorism protection is one of the most crucial ideology to address. In conjunction with the Office of Terrorism Prevention Partnerships, the S&T develops a wide range of resources that can support both local and government partners to support the understanding of individual motives for engaging and disengaging from violent extremism. It is also asserted that the Office also develops and assists in the interventions at the local level that can facilitate conjunction with the local partners along with the valuation of the effectiveness of terrorism protection, activities and policies (Terrorism Prevention, 2018). The platforms of information resources for terrorism protection are research products that include evidence-based products, fact sheets, providing key information about issues, evaluations affirming terrorism prevention policies and program that could inform Homeland Security Enterprise. It is highlighted that the S&T transition to the public, as well as data tools, provide insight into some violent extremism, where prime focuses are understanding the engagement in violent extremism, development of local terrorism and prevention capabilities along with the evaluation of terrorism prevention program and interventions (Terrorism Prevention, 2018).

Counterterrorism and Homeland Security

Taking into account the threat to terrorism that is created vaguely for national homeland security infrastructure that should be understood within a strategic context. It is asserted that the terrorist attacks have a direct cost but on the same platform, they can seek self-injurious overreaction such as waste of taxpayer’s money and blood on the part of victim state, with sympathy gains and recruitment when the victim state misdirects any violent response. However, the weakening of the political order in the society is also attacked this way adhering to the induced intention to act wrongly. In such a case, Homeland security recedes the moral as well as ideological intentions to a high ground that could make the terrorist groups look more legitimate (Anderson & N, 2019).

It is asserted that the policymakers tend to use major risk assessments that can help to prioritize the security efforts along with avoiding the promise of exemplary security. Moreover, civil liberties should be fully protected as well as consistent with the well-focused and fully protected domestic security efforts.


In conclusion, it can be said that terrorism is one of the greatest threats that can compromise all relative and supporting actions and departments of country such as trade relationship, foreign propositions and cultural advances. Moreover, terrorism can challenge the economy of country as well. Significant effort is required to address terrorism threats so that there would be a safe approach towards lives of people and the approach towards representation of country as a peaceful identity.


Anderson, N. (2019, February). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Progress and Challenges in DHS's Management of Its Chemical Facility Security Program, Statement of Nathan Anderson, Acting Director Homeland Security and Justice, Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. In United States. Government Accountability Office (No. GAO-19-402T). United States. Government Accountability Office.

Martin, G. (2019). Understanding homeland security. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Terrorism Prevention. (2018). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/science-and-technology/terrorism-prevention

White, J. R. (2016). Terrorism and homeland security. Cengage Learning.

Subject: Education

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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