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Information Literacy And You

Information Literacy and You

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Information Literacy and You

Information Literacy

Information literacy is the hyper abilities of a professional, team a particular body that requires them to know when there is a need for information, to be capable enough to recognize, pinpoint, analyze, and properly and effectively utilize the identified and required information for the concern and/or problem facing them.

Example Concepts

Research as inquiry

Information creation as a process

Information has value

Firstly and based on my understanding, research is a process in which the concerned entity asks questions to explore things and gather data as per the desired outcomes and that’s why research is known as inquiry. Another is, information creation is a process because it assists one to choose relevant sources to utilize while information always has value and that is why information at hand should be used as finely as possible (Head, & Wihbey, 2014).

Application to me

These concepts apply to me in different ways such as;

Research as inquiry applies to me that I should be engaged in inquiring information if I work on any academic research assignment or research paper.

Information creation as a process applies to me in a way that I always look for appropriate resources when getting something important such as gathering authentic material for exam studies etc.

Last, information has value applies to me in a way that requires me to value and learn every informative thing taught to me instead of devaluing it.

Importance of Information Literacy for College Students

Students need information literacy because information literacy promotes problem-solving approaches for students and improve their thinking skills when they are engaged in where the information is needed, what type of information is needed, and how to use information (Ross, Perkins, & Bodey, 2016).

Concepts Application

The above concepts apply to me in my professional life in the following ways.

These concepts enable me to inquire about every possible data and information that I need to solve my personal and professional problems. While I would apply the concept “Information has value” by asking questions and seeking answers when I have a concern at hand.

They apply to my personal and professional life in the way that I would allow me to not look for everything available while categorizes things available and use the relevant so I would have the desired results.

In professional life, it is a fact that people have complex problems that need quality information and material to solve. So the information has value applies enabling me to try to gather and warehouse information as much as possible so that I may solve any complex in an easy manner (Koltay, 2011).


Head, A. J., & Wihbey, J. (2014). At Sea in a Deluge Of data. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.chronicle.com/

Koltay, T. (2011). The Media and the Literacies: Media literacy, Information Literacy, Digital Literacy. Media, Culture & Society, 33(2), 211-221.

Ross, M., Perkins, H., & Bodey, K. (2016). Academic Motivation and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy: The Importance of a Simple Desire to Know. Library & Information Science Research, 38(1), 2-9.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Instruction Manual

Instruction Manual: How to Replace a Flat Tire


[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

Instruction Manual: How to Replace a Flat Tire

How often do people find themselves in a situation where they get a flat tire and feel helpless because they have no clue how to change it? Surveys suggest that nearly 60% of young drivers today are not confident that they can replace a flat tire CITATION Spe16 \l 1033 (Spector, 2016). Flat tires can come about anywhere, and it is quite apparent that knowing how to change a tire is a necessary skill for any driver. Fortunately, changing a flat tire is not too difficult and knowing how to work with a few simple tools can enable you to change one by yourself. By adhering to the following guidelines, changing a flat will not take you more than 15 to 30 minutes. It is, however, important that you do not leave out any of the 10 steps.

Required Equipment and Tools

Most of the tools you will need usually come with the vehicle. These include:


lever arm

inflated spare tire

lug wrench

Owner’s manual.

In case you do not have these items stored in the vehicle, it is important that you purchase them as early as possible. It is also important to ensure that the spare tire is inflated according to the recommended PSI figure CITATION Gun18 \l 1033 (Leister, 2018).

There are a few other items that usually do not come with the vehicle but it is useful to store them in the car’s trunk; they could be especially helpful in certain circumstances. These items include:

A fully charged flashlight

Rain Coat

Wheel Wedges

A rectangular piece of Wood to Secure the Jack


Key Terms and Processes

The tools and equipment that you will be using include:

Tires: A rubber covering that is placed around a wheel to create a soft contact between the vehicle and the road

Lug Nuts: A set of nuts that fasten the wheel to the vehicle’s axle by threaded studs.

Jack: A small device that can lift the vehicle off ground

Wrench: A tool that helps unscrew or tighten the lug nuts.

Lever arm: A tommy bar that operates the Jack

Sequence of Tasks

3543300338137500Step 1: Find a Safe location

When you realize that the tire has gone flat, you have to slowly reduce the speed of the vehicle without abruptly turning. Search your surroundings for a level ground and wide space.

Check your surroundings for incoming traffic. Avoid spots where an inattentive driver could inadvertently hit you or your vehicle

Step 2: Prepare

39090601587500Once you have found a spot and pulled off to the side or a safe location. The next step is to:

Turn the hazard lights off

Turn the engine off

Activate the parking brakes

370522534163000If you could not find level ground, wedge your tires by means of a piece of wood or rock. If you cannot find any, turn your steering wheel completely to one side

Step 4: Take the Hub Cap Off

Insert a screwdriver or a sharp object in the gap between the hub cap and the tire

Slightly apply force towards the outer side

Repeat the process from other areas around the hub’s circumference, until it loosens

right301879000Step 5: Unscrew the Lug Nuts

Use the lug wrench and place it over the lug net’s head

Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until it becomes loose

Stop rotating when you find that the nut can spin freely.

Do not completely remove the nut and repeat the same steps for the remaining nuts.

right5886450Step 6: Place the Jack in the correct place

Slide down slightly under the car to locate the chassis frame

Place the jack under the exact spot. If you cannot locate the frame, use the owner’s manual to find the right spot.

36004509525Make sure that the leverage point of the jack is facing towards you.

Adjust the Jack’s height manually between the frame and the ground by rotating the screw.

Most cars come with a scissor jack that operates by a rod-like lever arm.


3648075551497500Step 7: Raise the Jack

Insert the lever arm into the jack’s point of leverage by placing it inside the designated holes.

Take the other end of the lug wrench into your hand, and ensure that the lever arm is straight and makes a near 90 degree angle with the car’s door.

Begin turning the lever arm clockwise to operate the jack.

38576254445000The jack will raise and lift the car with it. Continue the process until the wheel can spin freely.

Step 7: Unfasten the Lug Nuts

Once the wheel is free, loosen and remove the lug nuts by hand or the wrench.

Secure the lug nuts in a safe location

384810027432000Grab the flat tire and remove it slowly, allow it to slide off the studs. Pull the tire towards yourself first.

It is heavy so you will have to apply some strength to lift it and place it on the ground

Step 8: Replace the Tire

Take the inflated spare tire out of the trunk and align its holes with the studs on the axle

Once the tire is correctly oriented, push it inside; the studs should pass through the holes

3857625543877500Tighten the lug nuts by hand onto the studs by rotating them clockwise.

Continue to manually tighten the nuts until they feel stiff

Step 9: Lower the Car and Tighten the Lug Nuts

Re-insert the lever arm into the jack and rotate counterclockwise.

righttop00Keep rotating until the Jack lowers itself and the vehicle with it.

Once the wheel touches the ground, and is thus no longer free to rotate, use the wrench to further tighten the lug nuts.

Rotate the nuts in clockwise motion until they are securely fastened.

Replace the hub cap over the wheel by placing it over the designated spot. It will snap back in.

7429503511550003438525351155000Again make sure that the lug nuts are securely fastened, after the vehicle is on the ground.

Step 10: Gather all the equipment and go

Place the flat tire into the trunk where the spare tire used to be

Gather all the tools and equipment and place them securely in the trunk and glove box

Visually inspect the tires and the lug nuts to see if everything looks good.

309562583820000333375819150Drive to the nearest tire technician to get the flat tire fixed or replaced because spare tires are not designed to drive high speeds or long distances.

Safety Precautions

Although the process is fairly safe, however, there are a number of safety precautions you must take. For your safety, it is important to take the following things into account:

Find the right parking spot; avoid areas where the roads are curved as an incoming driver will have difficulty seeing you.

Do not change tires on a road with a narrow shoulder, especially when there is oncoming traffic.

Pick a spot that has a level ground surface. In case you are on an inclined hill, make sure to use wooden wedges or bricks to lock the wheels

While rotating the jack, do not raise it too high; lift the vehicle only as much as it allows the wheel to rotate freely.

After the tire is replaced, use the wrench to tighten the lug nuts after the wheel is completely on the ground, and the jack is free.

Do not remove the lug nuts before lifting the vehicle up using the jack.

Make sure to apply the parking brakes of the car.

Troubleshooting and Useful Tips

One of the most important tip for vehicle owners in this case is to regularly have the tire pressures inspected by a technician. It is important to maintain the tire pressure between 30 to 40 PSI, or as mentioned in the owner’s manual. If the tire pressure seems low, you should drive slowly to the nearest fuel station to get them inflated at the required pressure. Furthermore, it is important for drivers to know that right or clockwise motion is to tighten the nuts and the left or counterclockwise motion is to loosen them. Some cars have allow or aluminum rims; in that case, it is important to carefully perform the process. It will also be useful to keep spare lug nuts, just in case, because they are easy to lose.

Additionally, even if you are skilled at replacing the tire, prevention is better than treatment. Therefore, it is important to keep the tires inflated and rotated according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. If the tire’s tread seems worn off, replace them with new ones. A worn off tire is more likely to skid, blow up, or prone to punctures. Even though, it is not possible to avoid a flat tire situation altogether, however, proper care and maintenance will substantially improve the performance of the tires CITATION Gun18 \l 1033 (Leister, 2018). It can also reduce the likelihood of getting a flat tire in the first place as the tire becomes more immune to external vulnerabilities.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Leister, G. (2018). Passenger car tires and wheels: Development -- manufacturing -- application. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Spector, N. (2016, September 28). 60 Percent of People Can't Change a Flat Tire - But Most Can Google It. Retrieved July 31, 2019, from NBC News: https://www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/draft-60-percent-people-can-t-change-flat-tire-most-n655501

Subject: Education

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Intelligence Analysis And Information Processing

Intelligence Analysis and Information Processing

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Intelligence Analysis and Information Processing

Homeland security is a critical function of the federal government in any country. In the US the Department of Homeland security (DHS) deals with information processing and the intelligence analysis to combat the security concerns in the country. But often information processing and intelligence analysis are confused with each other when they are entirely separate entities.

Information processing is the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and broadcasting of information that is obtained through the first hand and secondary resources. This information is based on the factual data, stats and information regarding the different dimensions of life that is concerned with the security of the country and its states("Chapter 1 — Central Intelligence Agency", 2019). The information is processed by the computer processors and is organized in the accessible format by the information processing department. Under the DHS, the Information processing system (FIPS) operates that deals with the acquisition of useful information it's organization and broadcasting.

On the other hand, intelligence is an acquisition of data and information from multiple resources which is then verified by the DHS for its authenticity, which is called intelligence analysis. This process involves the individuals who have knowledge regarding the fields of operations, strategy, and tactical intelligence to weigh the data and test the hypothesis in a secret socio-context. The security agencies collect the information from a varied range of individuals and connect the similarities of their knowledge to create a shared truth. When the information obtained is not accurate it is referred to as intelligence error("What is Intelligence Analysis? | Security Degree Hub", 2019).

Thus we can say that the information processing and intelligence analysis are the two most important functions of the homeland security agencies. These entities are interlinked and dependent on each other but in nature, they are different from each other. Finding and organizing the information, and the analysis of the intelligence for verification is essential to take the correct set of actions to secure the country from threats.


Chapter 1 — Central Intelligence Agency. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/art4.html

What is Intelligence Analysis? | Security Degree Hub. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.securitydegreehub.com/what-is-intelligence-analysis/

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Intelligence Information-Sharing

Intelligence Information-Sharing

Name of the University

Name of the Writer

Literature Review

Nowadays, the world is a global community with interconnected parts that have a wholesome effect on the different nations residing within it. Within such an environment it is imperative that security of the state be maintained at all costs. This is where the different intelligence agencies come into play. These agencies play an integral part in collecting information regarding events that are about to occur and have occurred in the past. They use this information to assess the current and future conditions of the country. However, there has been some discomfort regarding the sharing of information between the different intelligence agencies operating within a country. But in recent years immense work has been done both in academics and in real life regarding information sharing between the different intelligence agencies operating within a country.

Research done by Skopik, et al, (2016), states that the threat landscape is changing immensely with each passing day. In terms of cyber-crime, a more organized approach to crime is being perpetrated. Attacks are taking place that are focused on circumventing traditional measures of security that are in place. Furthermore, networks have grown immensely in the past decade or so. They have become intertwined with other networks and the only way to safely secure the entire network is through combined efforts on part of all vested parties specifically intelligence agencies. With cyber-crime and cyber-attacks in order to fully grasp the entire situation regarding such crimes, information sharing is absolutely necessary. This is also important in order to thwart any future attacks related to the cyber world. Information sharing would prove to be useful in discovering malware and covert attacks, securing networks, early warning notice and the distribution of data on a more selective basis.

Furthermore, the work of Maras, (2017), entails the roadblocks that come in the way of sharing of intelligence between different agencies. This research dictates that the existing organizational framework is an important factor to consider when looking at the flow of information sharing between agencies. The organizational culture that is prevalent within agencies serving in the intelligence community has become a hindrance to the level of information that is being shared among them. Within these agencies secrecy and limited disclosures of any sort of information are prevalent and cultures associated with such characteristics are implemented within these agencies. Additionally, practicing the art of distribution of information and compartmentalization of information is impeding the exchange of information in the intelligence community. In order to further progress the information sharing, it is suggested that changes within the culture of the organization in the intelligence community is direly needed, as it is hampering the envisioning of information-sharing culture.

Furthermore, Weiser, et al, (2016) has also stressed immensely on the importance of digital forensic intelligence data and the development of a national repository for this data. This helps in information sharing between the different intelligence agencies. The modern world is heavily connected and this is leading to increasing connectivity for criminals as well. They can easily gain access to fiscal information such as credit card information that can put numerous people at risk. This is why it is important to form a national database for the collection of data in the discipline of digital forensics. This article illustrates how agencies around the world require the use of digital forensics in order to better protect the system in place. With a collection of information, they would not have to look far to gather up information regarding any certain impending crisis. Furthermore, all of this will help in increasing the understanding of any coming threat that could jeopardize the security of the homeland.

Further research has been done that shows how important the flow of information is between agencies is. As the more frequent the movement of information is the higher the chance that more awareness of threats related to homeland security is attained. The work of Jasper, (2016), illustrates how intelligence sharing has led to the increased awareness of threats of cyber nature and how they are potentially harmful to homeland security. With an increased in the frequency of information, activities of malicious actors in cyberspace that can have potentially detrimental effects for homeland security can be rooted out. This is really important as these groups have a plethora of resources towards dismantling any traditional form of defenses. These malicious actors can be either organized criminals or state-sponsored terrorist groups that mean to undermine the fabric of society. This research further states how increased intelligence sharing has benefitted homeland security in several instances. Such as the fact increased awareness regarding malicious groups in China that were targeting US-based companies

Work of Mohaisen, et al, (2017), focused on information sharing can be really helpful in accumulating actionable intelligence regarding a different threat to homeland security. They state that in the last decade the landscape of information threats and security has changed completely. This has made it very difficult for just one agency to work and defend the security of everyone. In this manner, the distribution of information needs to be facilitated between communities that are based on trust so that the defense could be facilitated to the maximum. Furthermore, the distribution of information threat indicators could be collected and could be used to scan information coming in alignment with them. This will also help in decreasing the time lag between information gathering and taking action on credible information. However, this piece of work illustrates some problems that might occur with collecting information for threat indicators. The report suggests that there should be models such as threat models that will help in collecting information on the basis of the risk understood from them, their measurement and scoring of each risk.

Furthermore, with the rise of information sharing, homeland security policing is also on the rise. This was highlighted by the work of Sedgwick and Hawdon, (2019), who illustrated the fact the homeland security policing has been on the rise. This is further leading to all police organizations coming together and cooperating with each other by sharing intelligence regarding any threats. Their work has listed that more light is shined on the increased cooperation between the federal and local policing agencies. Very little focus is kept on the cooperation between agencies who have a contiguous jurisdiction. Moreover, there is a humongous amount of research that details how information is shared between agencies but there is limited research present that actually details how any other cooperation than information sharing is done between different agencies. This piece of work suggests that other than information-sharing agencies have seen to be in cohesion in some form or the other. This includes joint activities and agrees on sharing the benefits that emerge from working together.

Vogel and Dennis, (2018), illustrated how important it is to share information between different agencies in order to increase awareness and thwart any threat that might threaten homeland security. They used the example of September 11 and the Iraq War of 2003 in order to further emphasize their point. These two instances saw the failure of intelligence agencies who were unable to prevent immense loss of life. Lessons were learned from such circumstances and the United States of America has recognized the importance of information sharing not only domestically but also internationally in order to work around any breakdowns in intelligence in the future. This paper further focuses on how this is the perfect situation for using Science and Technology scholars. It is exciting to consider the opportunities and the level of difficulties that will arise from such a relationship. Furthermore, the level of information that would be generated from the engagement between this type of scholar and the secret intelligence units would be something than what was ever done before.

Varga, et al, (2018), relates information sharing regarding the nation's cyber situation with increasing the awareness regarding the threats to it. These threats have potentially detrimental consequences for homeland security as well. According to their work, as more and more dependency is increased on the IT services with increasing modernity has the potential chance of cyber-attacks and service management mistakes that could have dire consequence for the security of the country. In order to mitigate this and increase awareness regarding such incidences, it is important to develop cyber situational awareness. However, this can only be done through increased information sharing that will lead to the formation of threat indicators. The paper aimed at the basic components of information that have to be collected in order to form a well-developed picture of increasing awareness regarding the situations related to cybersecurity. This is because cybersecurity has become the new war front for countries and can literally implode a country if not managed with a fine-tooth.

Further work done by Simola (2019), shows focus on cybersecurity threats as well and the need to increase awareness on these threats in order to impede their effect on national security. In recent times there has been a rise in threats related to the cybersecurity of the nation. Challenges related to cybersecurity are on the rise and agencies and different organizations need to step up in order to face these challenges. The only way forward is cooperation and cooperation in the sense of information sharing between the relevant authorities is immensely needed. Not only that information sharing between governmental and non-governmental entities has also been shown as an important step to be taken in mitigating risks related to cybersecurity and the threat that it poses to homeland security. However, in order to promote information sharing between different entities, this report highlights the importance of forming information sharing models that could help in an effective manner of transfer of information. So, in the formation of such a model, this article works on locating the different factors that affect the formation of such models and how they can be mitigated.

Lastly, Paula and Zhuang, (2019), have worked on researching the level of information sharing related to threats to cybersecurity that could have consequences for homeland security. In their research, they looked upon various entities such as government, adversaries, and citizens in order to analyze the level of information sharing that occurs between these different organizations. They see that a mixture of approaches has been done in literature in order to analyze this relationship such as quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative literature has defined the limitations and the benefits that have occurred in information sharing between several stakeholders. It further proposes measures that enable a faster, effective and secure means of relaying information between these different groups. Lastly, this review construes around eighty-two papers that have identified different approaches to information sharing and how it has affected the security of the nation.


Jasper, S. E. (2017). US cyber threat intelligence sharing frameworks. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 30(1), 53-65.

Maras, M. H. (2017). Overcoming the intelligence-sharing paradox: Improving information sharing through a change in organizational culture. Comparative Strategy, 36(3), 187-197.

Mohaisen, A., Al-Ibrahim, O., Kamhoua, C., Kwiat, K., & Njilla, L. (2017). Rethinking information sharing for actionable threat intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.00548.

Pala, A., & Zhuang, J. (2019). Information Sharing in Cybersecurity: A Review. Decision Analysis, 16(3), 172-196.

Sedgwick, D., & Hawdon, J. (2019). Interagency Cooperation in the Era of Homeland Policing: Are Agencies Answering the Call?. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 44(2), 167-190.

Simola, J. (2019). Comparative Research of Cybersecurity Information Sharing Models. Information & Security, 43(1), 175-195.

Skopik, F., Settanni, G., & Fiedler, R. (2016). A problem shared is a problem halved: A survey on the dimensions of collective cyber defense through security information sharing. Computers & Security, 60, 154-176.

Varga, S., Brynielsson, J., & Franke, U. (2018, August). Information requirements for national-level cyber situational awareness. In 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM) (pp. 774-781). IEEE

Vogel, K. M., & Dennis, M. A. (2018). Tacit Knowledge, Secrecy, and Intelligence Assessments: STS Interventions by Two Participant Observers. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 43(5), 834-863

Weiser, M., Biros, D. P., & Mosier, G. (2016). Development of a national repository of digital forensic intelligence.

Subject: Education

Pages: 6 Words: 1800



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


[Religious Conflict and Violence]


Religion is defined as a set of rules, regulations, principles, and instructions that guide an individual or a group of people about various aspects of life. Religion sets the boundaries and limits for people, it sets the framework of life for its believers (Zinnbauer, et. al, 2015). In short, religion acts as a guiding light or a path to follow for masses. There are approximately 4200 religions or codes of life in the world currently, and every religion teaches peace, humanity, humbleness, and piety to its followers but sometimes the same religion can become a curse for its followers or the other people living with the believers of some specific religion. The religious beliefs give rise to the fundamentalist approach and the followers start thinking that only the teaching provided by their own religion is right and every other religion or doctrine is wrong. One the basis of this fundamentalist thinking, people start inflicting violence among the believers of other religions, making it hard for them to live (Sacks, 2017). Although there are different religions in the world, and every religion has its own teachings, it should not be a reason for conflict or violence on the other people. Every religion teaches humanity and it should be kept in mind that every individual has the equal right to live their life according to their own set of beliefs.


It can be seen in this case that the difference of opinion or the uniqueness of teachings in different religions is proving to be the reason of conflict among the people living and sharing the space in a similar geographical location (Koesel, 2014). People living in different parts of the world are becoming a victim of the violence, created due to the rigidity in the beliefs and teachings of different religions. This rigidity in the beliefs creates a sense of extremism in the believers, which makes them believe that only the guidance provided by their own religion is the right one and the person or group of people denying to accept those teachings has no right to live.


The best solution to this issue is that every individual should be made to believe that every religion has its own set of teachings and beliefs which need to be respected. There should be developed a sense of mutual respect and an environment of peace among people so that this culture of violence can be discouraged. People should learn to respect the teachings and guidance provided by other religions to learn to live in peace with them.

Moreover, it is the also responsibility of religious leaders to propagate positive thinking among the believers of any specific religion. They need to inculcate a peaceful approach to resolve the conflicts arising due to the difference of opinion among the believers of the different religions (Neuberg, et. al, 2014).

Evaluation of Evidence

The evidence of religious conflict and violence can be seen in various parts of the world. This religious violence was carried on either the basis of difference in religion or sectarian violence (Selengut, 2017). According to reports, more than one-quarter of the world's countries experienced religious violence in various forms in 2018. It was either in the form of mob violence, domestic violence based on religious beliefs, terrorism and harassment on women on the violation of religious codes.


In a nutshell, it can be seen that religious conflict is a sad reality of the world and this harsh reality is being used as a tool to make people suffer and even die. Religious conflict gives rise to religious violence and it can be seen in the different parts of the world today, but it can be controlled by proper training and mindset building.


Koesel, K. J. (2014). Religion and Authoritarianism: Cooperation, conflict, and the consequences. Cambridge University Press.

Neuberg, S. L., Warner, C. M., Mistler, S. A., Berlin, A., Hill, E. D., Johnson, J. D., ... & Broome, B. J. (2014). Religion and intergroup conflict: Findings from the global group relations project. Psychological science, 25(1), 198-206.

Sacks, J. (2017). Not in God's name: Confronting religious violence. Schocken.

Selengut, C. (2017). Sacred Fury: Understanding religious violence. Rowman & Littlefield.

Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butfer, E. M., Belavich, T. G., ... & Kadar, J. L. (2015). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. In Sociology of religion (pp. 29-34). Routledge.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Lace Accessories In 1980s

Name: Cherise Zhu

[Name of Instructor]




From the sixteenth century onwards lace dressings have an enormous role in the ground of style industry. Lace can defined as a fabric which is nonwoven, bright and open worked. In the historical point of view, lace is made up of two outfits such as the needle and bobbin. Working on acquiring lace has always required a great deal of skills. Due to this from history, it has always been very classy. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, lace was one of the vital fashionable dress components. For instance, Lace-up details made its first appearance during the 1970s on pieces such as the peasant blouses, but before that, they were very prominent in women's boots that laced all the way up the front of the leg. (Block). In Europe, a handsome amount of money used to spend on lace that gave rise to reformed technologies to make lace manufacture less expensive. However late in the 19th century with the advent of modern machinery lace misplaced its attraction and were also used as a common wedding and everyday attire


Much before needle and bobbin lace advanced around 16th-century lace was stated as strings that were detached part of clothing. For example, sleeves, shoulders or back side of a dress. Strings were made in various ways such as the use of bobbins to intertwine the outfit. The term lace came into the context during the 18th century when it was also labeled as the interlaced bands. Lace fabric plays an important role in the overall clothing development. In turn, the clothing promoted the development of lace fabric. Late of the 20th-century artists and fashion designer sustained to craft lace. In fact in Australia, Denmark and Germany art schools were developed to teach students designing that followed designs of the early 2oth century. In the mid-20th century, designers explored artistic ways of using lace such as handmade lace patterns.

The trend of lace design originated due to Princess Diana who is known as a 1980s fashion icon. In the 1980s, Diana often wore lace collars, blazers, pearl necklaces, and hats. For instance, “What’s amazing to me, when you first meet Lady Diana Spencer in the exhibition, you meet her in her debutante dress from 1979,” Lynn noted, “and it’s very frilly, very lacy, and very far removed from the fashion icon that she would become.”(Tashjuan, n.p) In addition to this, throughout the belatedly 16th and two following centuries, lace collars, cuffs, borders, ruffles, and headdresses were de rigueur for anyone with fashionable pretensions.” (Parmal, n.p) However at the same time as the majority European states advanced in manufacturing some form of lace production, the majority of the two important beginning of lace fashion industries were in Venice and Flanders.

Likewise, in the 80s, fashionable underwear turn out to be stylish with women's styles lace trimmings, camisole with built-in bras and a collection of light colors fetching popularity still in the present time. For example, “now, if you're not too familiar with the distinctions of this era, there are a few standout looks we're sure you'll recognize: big shoulders, white jeans, underwear as outerwear and oversize jewelry. It was the decade of the power dresser but also of punks. It gave us Madonna, Tina Turner, and Cher, plus numerous other superstars whose sense of style influences many in 2018” (Block, 1). Likewise, In the 1980s, a post-punk gothic style carried on from the seventies that was popular in Europe and America with the ‘LA Scene.' The style featured black clothing made out of unusual materials such as leather, fishnet material, and lace.

The fashion of lace can never disappear for the reason that all the bridal industries and other cloth fashion designing include design from the decades of the 1980s. Now that lace is made up of silk dressed designed by artists are covered by lace appliqués. In addition to this, women wear in today's fashion entirely attached to different styles of using laces. The development of modern society pays more and more attention to environmental protection, green and ecological. In the field of design, the concept of lace fabric design is also gradually developing towards the direction of green and environmental clothing design. Under the influence of this design concept, the development of new lace fabric has gradually entered people's schedule of activities. For example, even in 2019, the trend of using lace is still popular. Inspired by Kaya Gerber many of the Channel logo belts that girls wear today are a fresh new crop of 19080' design. (Payer 3) Thus we can still see the trend of lace fashion and design connected in the present world.

In fashion and luxury-embroidery, laces and other soft material can be developed using innovative designs. For example, efforts made by the Fashion Museum and the designers who love lace made clothing still show the fact that it is the demand of the public which has yet to cease. The magic of lace is still imagined by both men and women where lace makers all around the world are teaching on different exhibitions about how to sculpture the art of lace. Lace is still a fashion for those who do not know the long history of it, but in fashion history, the love for lace will always be cherished. In addition, fashion and embroidery industry still use innovate ways to bring lace into the world of today’s fashion. Both men and women for everyday wear prefer designers to use lace in the outfit. It is not just women choice but men and women both.

Work Cited:

Block, Elinor. “80s Fashion is back—These Were the Most Iconic looks at the Time."


Clark, Sanmo. “History of Fashion 1980’s-1990”


Deleon, Jian. “The Greatest 80’s Fashion Trends ”


Parker, Allson. “8 Trends From the Chanel Show That'll Majorly Influence” 2019 https:// www.whowhatwear.com/chanel-runway-show-ss19-review

Rooney, Pia "Like Totally 80s."


Parmal, Pamela A. "Needle and Bobbin Lace Origins."


Tashjian, Rachel, " How Princess Diana became a fashion Icon" 2017


Subject: Education

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Michael Johnston’s Deep Democratization Theory

Michael Johnston’s Deep Democratization Theory

[Author’s name]

Michael Johnston’s Deep Democratization Theory


The broad idea of democracy is associated with various crucial forms of consideration. It is important to critically examine theoretical domains to figure out the actual functioning of the approach of democracy. It is worthy to mention that the detailed idea of deep democracy provides the philosophical foundations concerning the overall domain of process and the paradigm of the work. The concept of deep democratization is different from the conventional form of democracy because it mainly focuses on all the aspects relevant to awareness and frameworks of reality. Michael Johnston developed the perspective of deep democratization theory to deliver better philosophical base considering the main concern of corruption. Here the particular focus is to critically analyze Michael Johnston’s deep democratization theory to attain a better assessment of different vulnerabilities to corruption and its effects on the overall reforms.


Consideration of the theoretical foundation is essential to attain a better understanding of the prevailing connection between corruption and the democratization. There are various themes connected with the concern of corruption in case of deep democratization. It is argued by Michael Johnston that the issue of corruption will persist even in the existence of the rule. This specific argument is used by the researcher to develop the theory of deep democratization. The key approach of the deep democratization makes it essential for the citizens to defend their interests with the proper consideration of political channels. This basic principle of the theory established by the author to form a better understanding of the four major syndromes of the issue of corruption. These particular syndromes recognized in the form of Official Moguls in Egypt and Tunisia, Oligarchs and Clans in the Philippines, Elite Cartels in Argentina, and the Influence market in France, Australia, and the United States of America.

It is integral to consider that there is a need for offering various responses when it comes to dealing with different kinds of corruption concerning the broad approach of deep democratization. The theory formulated by Michael Johnston in the form of deep democratization is established as the framework to successfully assess vulnerabilities to corruption and the overall effects of the reforms (Lavena, 2015). Furthermore, this form of knowledge can be utilized to explore new domains of favorable practices. The issue of corruption is closely connected with the factor of power. This certain association is used by the author to figure out different dimensions of corruption with the concern of deep democratization. At the initial stage of the analysis, it is important to establish this fact that corruption is an ongoing issue that can never be fully eradicated (Johnston, 2014). There is a need for adopting possible and fruitful reforms considering this particular this specific assumption. The theoretical concept of deep democratization provides the direction to evaluate the overall politics of corruption control. There is a need for examining various perspective on reform to better understand the operations of social and political procedures. Consideration of this specific approach is also suitable because the problem of corruption in different societies also come up with varied forms. Michael Johnston rightly established this prospect that there is need of observing specific social context to evaluate all the reforms links with the issue of corruption. Adoption of suitable political strategies is also an essential idea to propose better form in the society in case of corruption control.

The philosophical approach of deep democratization reveals that the approach of democracy itself can never be used in case of control of corruption in the country. It is argued by the author that the phenomenon of democracies also comprised of various forms of distinctive varieties of corruption. There is a need for enhancing focus on the theoretical grounds of deep democratization to find out new reforms in case of corruption control. Deep democratization provides a platform to establish it as the continuing procedure of forming workable rules. The theoretical perspective of deep democratization can be used to ensure better forms of accountability with the enhancement of the interest in the overall form of governing procedures. The practical implications of this idea can be assistive to draws force from the various operating levels of the society. It is also helpful to deeply monitor the functioning of institutions and the operations of the government. Combination of the social interests and implementation of the policy can immensely be productive to attain required forms of interests and values at the collective level. The essence of the philosophical approach of deep democratization is effectively proposed by Michael Johnston in case of checking corruption. The option of deep democratization is one complex and long approach that is linked with the proper intervention of many motivations and the practical domains. It is a complex perspective to successfully deal with the changing paradigm of the deep democratization referring to the distinct syndromes of corruption (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2016). Change of social setting is another major indicator linked with the application of the theoretical perspective of deep democratization. Economic change is one major indicator that impacts the consideration of deep democratization. Economic factors prevail in any society can never ignore to determine the actual process of deep democratization in the context of controlling corruption. It is rightly considered by the researcher that material well-being is one key factor for individuals to adopt the approach of corruption. People are interested to increase their financial domains by various means concerning the approach of economic activities.

The opportunity of deep democratization refers to the attainment of proper influence in case of different processes of rule-making. Various themes linked with the main idea can assess at different levels of social functioning. The main tasks of this particular theory can explore by considering the practical dimensions of this idea. These tasks are recognized as enhancement of pluralism, considering political and economic domains, the approach of reform activism, and the proper implementation of the main idea of accountability (Bull & Heywood, 2018). These certain tasks vary considering the application of syndrome of corruptions that differences exist in various societies. Detailed awareness of different frameworks of reality is crucial to determine the basic principles of the concept of deep democratization. The main idea of this theory comes up with the consideration to focus all the voices and interests to enhance the information level. The proper attitude of deep democratization is offered by the researcher to attain a better understanding of the central and the marginal forms of syndromes of corruption. The application of the theory ensures the active involvement of all the stakeholders of society to identify the root causes of corruption and propose better practical solutions to handle the problem of corruption. The experience of the deep democratization guarantees the proper flow of the process and the relevant activities to achieve the desired level of intervention in any society. Michael Johnston also comes up with the argument that deep democratization is one natural procedure that contains by any society considering the collective interests and voices. It is the social measurement that focuses on the involvement of all the stakeholders in the political procedure. In other words, this practical approach can establish as the active step to enhance the involvement of all shareholders in the procedure of handling the issue of corruption.

The theoretical idea of deep democracy makes it essential to consider the opinion and voice of others to enhance the prospect of diverse views. Undoubtedly, there is a need for increasing openness the point of view of others to figure out different reasons for the existing problem of corruption. Establishment of the theoretical perspective of deep democratization is not possible without the proper intervention of politics. The practical implications of the good governance are not possible without the consideration of other relevant factors such the political and economic considerations. The objective of the desired and successful reforms can never achieve without the involvement of all the stakeholders. Development of the trust at the collective level is another main aspect to ensure the proper utilization of the deep democratization (Silva, 2018). The objective of the successful reform can never imagine without the development of the necessary trust. Collective trust can establish as the beneficial form of working to achieve the desired level of reforms in case of corruption control. A collective-action problem such as the corruption prevails in the society demands to enhance the characteristic of trust to overcome the growing difficulty.


In a nutshell, it is worthy to consider that adoption of the indirect strategies at different levels of functioning in the society can be helpful to ensure the proper acquisition of the theoretical idea of deep democratization. Exploration of the contrasting syndromes of corruption is mandatory to successfully utilize the desired form of deep democratization according to the need of the society. The difference of opportunities, origins, and complications in case of different societies demands to consider the issue of corruption in the forms of various syndromes of corruption. The platform of the deep democratization can be assistive for the societies to use this theoretical idea according to the deep-rooted-situation of corruption.


Bull, M. J., & Heywood, P. M. (2018). Introduction: towards a better understanding of corruption and anti-corruption. European Political Science, 1-4.

Johnston, M., 2014. Corruption, contention and reform: the power of deep democratization.Cambridge University Press.

Lavena, C. F. (2015). Book Review: Corruption, Contention, and Reform: The Power of Deep Democratization.

Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2016). For a new generation of objective indicators in governance and corruption studies. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 22(3), 363-367.

Silva, P. (2018). Neoliberalism, democratization, and the rise of technocrats. In The Changing Role of the State in Latin America (pp. 75-92). Routledge.

Subject: Education

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Module 02 Project - Understanding Planetary Motion

Full Title of Your Paper Here

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Background Question – Describe Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion.

Objective: This assignment is aimed at analyzing the factors that influence the motions of the planets. This assignment will particularly analyze the study about such objects during the planets movement around the Sun. the basic premise is to analyze and to know exactly as to what constrain the movement of the planet. Is it relay a Meta thing, which disrupts the motion of the planets? If so, then to how much extent the motions of the planets are affected by the presence of such objects. This assignment will able the researcher to get a thorough analysis of the Kepler's laws about the motion of the planets.

Hypothesis: The movements of the planets conform to the laws of Kepler's, but somehow in the unavailability of the type of matter being searched that might be present in the space, it is impossible to analyze the perfect rotatory motion of the planet.

Q1. List the visible planets in order of increasing distance from Sun.

Answer: The list of visible planets from the sun in the order of their increasing distance is the Sun, Mercury preceded by the Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the Pluto, such movements have also remained observable in Brown’s observations of 2015 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"G6iBqTSK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brown, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Brown, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":20,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/F4XFTP8Q"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/F4XFTP8Q"],"itemData":{"id":20,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring skyscape in Stellarium","container-title":"Journal of Skyscape Archaeology","page":"93–112","volume":"1","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Brown","given":"Daniel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brown, 2015). Although Pluto does not qualify the definition of a planet, somehow it is observable.

Q2. Are the planets moving at the same speed? If not, which planet is the fastest and what planet is the slowest?

Answer: It has been noticed that the planet Jupiter is moving the fastest as compared to the movements of other planets, as it has the smallest length of the day and night. Whereas, the planet Venus is moving at the minimum speed if compared to the movements of rest of the planets in the solar system.

Q3. Is Mercury orbit perfectly circular or is it slightly egg-shaped?

Answer: It has been observed that the planet Mercury does not conform to the circular definition of shape, and nether it has shown any such attributes visible. Therefore, for the sake of this experiment, the mercury will be mentioned as the Egg-shaped or in simple words the oval shaped.

Q4. Is the Sun at the exact center of Mercury orbit?

Answer: it has been observed during the observation that as since the mercury shares, not an exact circular path, therefore it has been observed that the sun is not ion the exact middle of the planet Mercury's orbit.

Q5. When does Encke move the fastest? Is this in agreement with Kepler’s second law?

Answer: Universal gravitation calls for that whenever some closeness is observed between a planet and the sun, while the planet is revolving its orbital motion, some fastness will be observed in the motion of the planet. Similarly, it will appear to be moving slowly when it goes away from the sun. So since the mercury is the closest planet to the sun, it will keep on changing the speed of its motion.


distance (a)


Period (p)

= (perihelion + aphelion) / 2








 The Earth










 The Mercury









 The Mars










 The Saturn















Q6. Does your data support Kepler’s third law (p2 = a3)?

Answer: After the conclusion of this experiment, it has been observed that it does not conform to any of the laws of the Kepler’s.


During this experiment, I had faced problems in recording the observations and managing them with the variables of the tables provided. It has also remained a difficulty of adjusting the Stellarium software in accordance with the guidelines mentioned in the assignment. These observations have been also mentioned in many other observations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sb0P7cmU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sparavigna, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Sparavigna, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":21,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/42DB3SWM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/42DB3SWM"],"itemData":{"id":21,"type":"article-journal","title":"Stellarium software and the occultation of Aldebaran observed by Copernicus","container-title":"Philica","volume":"2017","issue":"923","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Sparavigna","given":"Amelia Carolina"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sparavigna, 2017). Therefore, there might be a possibility that the table reading might not get a proper adjustment with the standard readings. Thereof, the hypothesis claimed in the starting of this assignment has been hence proved.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, D., 2015. Exploring skyscape in Stellarium. Journal of Skyscape Archaeology 1, 93–112.

Sparavigna, A.C., 2017. Stellarium software and the occultation of Aldebaran observed by Copernicus. Philica 2017.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Module 05 Project - A Universe Of Galaxies


Most of these galaxies were found in nearness of groups of stars or are found inside them. I feel that I have met the target since I have a superior comprehension of the contrasts between characterizations of galaxies. It was simpler to see these distinctions at that point to find out about them. It was fascinating to see the diverse make ups of galaxies and how the ones with normal names show up as they are named, similar to the sunflower galaxy and the stogie galaxy. For troubles, I found that in Stellarium, subtleties can be difficult to see.



Classification Type

Interesting Features



Center is bright white and outer sides are blue. 



Bluish purple in color 



 Light purple shade



 Blue colored



 Colored like a whirlpool of red and blue.



 Bright white at center



 Bright white star like appearance



 Appearance like sunflower



Brownish red bars across 



 Shape like a cigar with bright red top and bluish bar



 Marron colored



 Smokish cloud



 Surrounded by grey clouds.



 Bluish white condensed cloud



 Greyish violet cloudy appearance



 Golden yellowish color



 Appearance like a pinwheel



 Arms like appearance



 Have a dust lane



 Arms like appearance



 Cyclone type appearance with blue and white color

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Module 06 Written Assignment - Evidence For The Big Bang Theory

Big Bang Theory




Olbers' Paradox

The fact that the Universe has a finite age provides a new approach to a relatively old problem, first raised by Kepler and picked up in more precise terms by Heinrich Olbers in 1826. This problem is known by the name of the paradox of Olbers, and it is enunciated thus: why the sky is black at night.

Olbers proposed the following explanation to the paradox in 1826: the night sky was black because the interstellar matter absorbed the radiation of the stars and weakened, then, it's light. However, as stipulated by thermodynamics, energy must always be conserved. Thus, the radiation absorbed by the interstellar medium had to be emitted again in one form or another, and Olbers' explanation was not sustained. Another explanation was to say that the stars were not evenly distributed, as they regrouped into galaxies. But this solution was not satisfactory either, because the reasoning that led to the paradox could very well apply to the galaxies themselves (Brent, 2018).

It is, in reality, in the finite age of the Universe, it is necessary to seek the solution to Olbers' paradox. Indeed, since the Universe is only about 13.7 billion years old, light, whose speed is finite, could not travel much from its origin, but a finite distance, and it is impossible for us to observe objects more distant than this maximum value (Howell, 2017).

The explanation of the paradox then becomes very simple: galaxies that are beyond this maximum limit are inaccessible to us and do not contribute to the brightness of the sky. There remain the directions of the celestial vault in which our gaze finds absolutely nothing. Olbers' reasoning no longer holds, and the paradox rises: the sky is black at night because there are a large number of empty spaces in the distribution of the observable galaxies. That means that the further away a galaxy is, the weaker is its contribution to the brightness of the sky (Cain, 2017).

Example of observation evidence that supports the Big Bang Theory

The scientific evidence related to big bang theory leaves little room for doubt. There are numerous key points in the understanding of the universe. These points help us to get a remote idea of ​​what happened at the beginning of time. And that also helps us to imagine what will happen to the universe. The foremost one is demonstrated by Edwin Hubble back in the 20s, this astronomer, one of the most important in our history, spent his scientific life studying nebulae. Among his research, he discovered that there is something beyond our galaxy. And he also managed to explain that the great celestial objects were moving and how they were doing it: moving away from the same point. In particular, all extragalactic nebulae move away and the farther they are, the faster they do it.

In the end, his observations translate into the fact that the universe is expanding, which may make us think that at some point in time, it was concentrating on a point. To arrive at the conclusion, Edwin Hubble described the speed of each object by measuring it according to its "redshift". This process occurs when a light source increases in its wavelength, (so it is seen, when it is visible, in "red tones"), which happens precisely because it is moving away from our point of view (Dashper, Denny & Shannon, 1993).

To understand, this great evidence makes us think that at one point the universe was a small energy ball filled with a soup of particles. Although it is very difficult to describe, one must understand that at that time there was no time or space. This singularity suddenly, "exploded" and expanded in a magnitude that one simply cannot even imagine. So, this is how the universe, space and time came into being.


Brent, S. (2018). Evidence for the Big Bang Theory: Background Radiation, Red-Shift and Expansion - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/evidence-for-the-big-bang-theory-background-radiation-red-shift-and-expansion.html

Cain, F. (2017). What Is The Evidence For The Big Bang? - Universe Today. Retrieved from https://www.universetoday.com/106498/what-is-the-evidence-for-the-big-bang/

Dashper, J., Denny, J., & Shannon, M. (1993). The big bang theory. [Auckland, N.Z.]: [J. Dashper].

Howell, E. (2017). What Is the Big Bang Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.space.com/25126-big-bang-theory.html

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Most Alert

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Most Alert

Human bodies are programmed on the basis of timing. No human can stay active for a whole day long; we all need rest in order to regain our energies. Just like our cellphones work for a specific period of time and then they need to be put on charging, similar is the case for human bodies. A person can only stay active for a limited period of time and then he or she needs to "recharge" themselves so that they can function properly for the upcoming day (or night).

This phase of being active differs for every individual; some people are most active in the day, some are most productive in the afternoon, while some perform much better in the night as compared to any other time of the day. I belong to the last category of people. The people who are most active during the day timings are called early birds, just like a lark, who gets up very early in the morning and starts functioning. On the other hand, people, like me, who stay up late in the night and feel more active and energetic during night time as compared to during the day are known as night people or night owls. This name has been given to them because of their similarity with an owl, who becomes more energetic in the dark hours and only functions in the night.

Honestly, I have never tried to change this habit, because I am happy with my body clock. I do not force my body to adopt something that it is not programmed for. I can never go to sleep early even if I try to, keep tossing and turning in the bed. I don’t think so that being a night own or a night person will harm me in any sense, in the present or the future, as the employers are now taking care of this fact and introducing flexible working hours for their organizations.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Non-Invasive Monitoring Technology – Capnography

Non-Invasive Monitoring Technology – Capnography

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Non-Invasive Monitoring Technology – Capnography

What are some of the problems associated with the clinical usage of Capnography measurements?

Capnography is a technique used to monitor the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the respiratory gases excreted via the body by the respiratory system. This technique or its results are mostly represented in the form of a graph, plotted against time. Sometimes, the graph is also plotted against expired volume, which is more useful and result oriented method. The tool that is used for the measurement or monitoring of the concentration of the carbon dioxide is called the Capnogram and the graph used to represent the results are known as Capnograph (Al-Ali, 2015). The unit of measurement of this concentration is millimeters of mercury, or mmHg.

Capnography is mostly used in the intensive care units and while giving anesthesia to the patients. It is very beneficial in the diagnosis and the treatment of various respiratory diseases in the respiratory systems especially early respiratory depression and airway disorders (Suarez-Sipmann, Bohm, & Tusman, 2014). Where this technique is proving very much beneficial for in the medical field, it has also some issues while using it for various medical purposes. The first and foremost issue that if being used in the sedation, it sometimes gives varying information or values for the exhaled amount of Carbon Dioxide which may cause confusion for the medical practitioner.

In addition to this, the technology of Capnography can be a little confusing while providing the data for the concentration of Carbon Dioxide if plotted against various variables. For example, if the values are measured against time, they may vary from the values measured against any other factor like expired volume. The values obtained as a result of graph plotted against expired volume are considered much more valid and reliable as compared to the values obtained out of the graph plotted against time.


Al-Ali, A. (2015). U.S. Patent Application No. 14/627,500.

Suarez-Sipmann, F., Bohm, S. H., & Tusman, G. (2014). Volumetric capnography: the time has come. Current opinion in critical care, 20(3), 333-339.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Organization Structure And Chart



DATE: 14/10/2019

SUBJECT: Organization Structure and Chart

Organization structure and chart plays a major role in business performance. The structure helps in operations and running the business. Operations include the strategies that is marketing, finance, production and administration. Besides, there is ease of communication from the top management to the bottom management and other staffs. A good structure follows the necessary principles and incorporates all the stakeholders. Therefore, listing of positions and organization should be of attention.

Listing of positions

Effective management and attaining of the organization goals, it is necessary to have employees with different titles. The following are the jobs available for Smart Solutions;




Chief Executive Officer


Communicating on behalf of the company, ensure that the company achieves its long and short-term strategies, contribute in the creation of the company’s mission and vision

Web Design/Developer


Responsible in the design, layout and coding of the website play a role in the technical and graphical aspect of the website. They are also responsible for development and maintenance of the website.

Social media marketing


Responsible for marketing in the social media platforms, they also design and distribute posters to the social media users

Business development manager


To oversee the work of the markers in the development of the business



To organize for live events as they walk through institutions to seek business and create awareness.



To conduct all accounting functions including preparing budgets, financial statements and cost management



Recruiting, firing and performance evaluation of employees

Organization Chart

The organization chart helps in understanding the flow of operations and communication. This follows the principles of superiority and defines who has Authority over the other. Since the company is still on development with 13 employees, the structure is as follow;

Organization chart

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Platelets And The Positive Feedback Of Clothing What Is Normal?

Platelets and the positive feedback of clotting what is normal?

Author name


Hemostasis is the biological process of discontinuing injured blood vessels from bleeding while upholding regular blood flow in other areas. It includes clotting of the blood. If there is too much clotting, then blood vessels can get blocked, which are even not bleeding. Moreover, if there is little clotting then the result can be the excessive bleeding even from a slight injury. Thus, the body keeps control mechanisms to check the regulation of clotting. One such mechanism is clotting by platelets. Platelets being component of blood react to bleeding when there is an injury, forming the “platelet plug”. The platelet plug is formed by fibrin within the several minutes of the injury, known as adhesion stage. After this, there are activation and aggregation stages leading to achieve hemostasis.

Moreover, blood coagulation is a result of a number of biochemical reactions. These reactions must move quickly to completion. For this quick process, there is another mechanism; positive feedback. Positive feedback is a kind of self-intensifying process that causes a stimulus to result in a greater change in a similar direction. Thus, when any blood vessel is damaged then platelets as a result of chemical signals stick to the vessel wall. These platelets then release more and more chemicals to accelerate the clotting process. This process finishes once a clot has mended the vessel wall.

Positive feedback is harmful in most cases for the body as it does not return the body to homeostasis but changes body status. But in the case of blood clotting, it is advantageous for the body when used in a limited fashion. More and more platelets get activated due to multiple positive feedback reactions. For instance, positive feedback activates enzymatic proteins resulting in the formation of fibrin that functions in blood clotting ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0uueOy9e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Jesty & Beltrami, 2005)","plainCitation":"(Jesty & Beltrami, 2005)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2457,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/NHUKNZ5E"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/NHUKNZ5E"],"itemData":{"id":2457,"type":"article-journal","title":"Positive feedbacks of coagulation: their role in threshold regulation","container-title":"Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology","page":"2463-2469","volume":"25","issue":"12","author":[{"family":"Jesty","given":"Jolyon"},{"family":"Beltrami","given":"Edward"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Jesty & Beltrami, 2005). Furthermore, during this loop, after the formation of thrombin, there is also activation of platelets.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Jesty, J., & Beltrami, E. (2005). Positive feedbacks of coagulation: their role in threshold regulation. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25(12), 2463–2469.

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Policy Project Check-In

Criminal Justice



Controlling crime has been a major headache on people the world over. Heads of nations have come up with a number of policies aimed at preventing the vice from raging on and costing people all their hard earned fortunes in the long run. This paper therefore seeks to provide various contemporary ways of controlling crime.

To begin with, nations need to come up with strong criminal justice systems that will see the criminal apprehended and locked up for their crimes. The government needs to invest in the courts, give them absolute power for prosecution and even set up correctional facilities where the criminals can get to pay for their crimes (Siegel & Worall, 2015).

In addition, there need to be reforms on the criminal justice system to ensure that the police apprehend only the people who committed the crime. A number of times people have been framed for crimes they did not do and in the end the true criminals walk free. The criminal justice system got worse to a point that incarceration is now an issue whenever state of the correction facilities are touched on. In view of this, reforms need to be instituted (Wilson & Petersilia, 2011).

The officials in the high ranks of the police commissioners need to watch keenly the conducts of police office they send on the field and ensure they do not aid in criminal activities. It is paramount the justice system has been diluted by the corrupt police officers who work closely with criminals and arrest the wrong people as a cover-up for their wrong deeds (United Nations General Assembly, 2011).

In conclusion, the government needs to ensure that all the senior officials are properly vetted based on their past records and initiatives they have taken towards stopping crime. As such the government will know that they have the right people in place and can effectively combat crime.


Assembly, U. N. (2011). Crime Prevention and Control. NCJRS, 3-34.

James Q. Wilson, J. P. (2011). Crime and Public Policy. Chicago: Oxford University Press.

Larry J. Siegel, J. L. (2015). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Chicago: Cengage Learning.

National Public Radio (Producer). (2012, September 20). Is ‘Tough on Crime’ no longer a talking point? [Radio program]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/09/20/161475623/is-tough-on-crime-no-longer-a-talking-point

Subject: Education

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Presidential Executive Orders

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Presidential Executive Orders

The president of the country issues executive orders which are legally binding. The executive order comprises the ideas, rules, laws, or policies for the betterment of the country at the national level as well as international level. Executive orders are not always made to change the policy or develop a new law. It is also issued to guide a particular institution or officer to guide or provide them direction on existing laws. Executive orders are popular and controversial because they give power to the president for major decision making, which does not require acceptance of Congress. If Congress disagrees with any of the executive order, then it can amend a previous law or allow rewriting the order. At this point, the President can veto to the decision of, but it requires a two-thirds majority for acceptance.

Present president Donald Trump issued 97 executive issues till now. It shows how real and rapidly he wants to change the policies of former President Obama. One of the controversial executive order is developed for the restructuring of the immigration system in America. He issued three executive orders within a week to handle the issues of legal and unauthorized immigration, and taxpayers of America. The executive order for immigration system is issued to prioritize the lawful ways to enforce the law of immigration in the country. The order gives guidance to the secretary of homeland security ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"x3hFFokJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}An Overview of President Trump\\uc0\\u8217{}s Executive Actions on Immigration\\uc0\\u8221{})","plainCitation":"(“An Overview of President Trump’s Executive Actions on Immigration”)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":290,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/7ISF8XSC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/7ISF8XSC"],"itemData":{"id":290,"type":"webpage","title":"An Overview of President Trump’s Executive Actions on Immigration","container-title":"AAF","abstract":"Since taking office, President Trump has prioritized restructuring the U.S. immigration system. Within a week of his inauguration, he issued three executive orders which carry significant implications for unauthorized immigrants, legal immigrants, and American taxpayers. The following paper explains each executive order in detail and examines their effects. Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of …","URL":"https://www.americanactionforum.org/insight/overview-president-trumps-executive-actions-immigration/","language":"en-US","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",3,6]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“An Overview of President Trump’s Executive Actions on Immigration”). Another aim of this executive order is to control the crime in America. Improvement in the immigration laws would remove various categories of immigrants as unauthorized immigrants, immigrants who are charged with the crime and convicted and an immigrant who is charged with the crime but not convicted, etc. This order will also be applied to the immigrants who come to America through proper channel and legally. If any legal immigrant gets involved in any unlawful activity, then this order will be subjected to him.

The fundamental reason for the executive order on immigration system is to make the country free of terrorism. After the incident of 9/11, America advanced to combat terrorism. Through the amendment of the immigration system, terrorism can be finished. This executive order provides more flexible authority to apprehension officers, which has led to immigration raids. The focus of the immigration raids is stronger towards noncriminals. However right of immigration hearing or legal counsel is available for all immigrants.

The executive order on immigration system is beneficial in some aspects, but its drawback cannot be ignored. Although the aim of the present Donald Trump is to control the crime and terrorism from the country, this law may cause difficulties for many people. The new immigration law results in difficulties for the people who are legal immigrants. America is the world’s largest economy. People from different countries move here to find out new opportunities. Not only businessman or employees but a large percentage of foreign students come for higher studies. Therefore strictness and long process for visa and immigration process can make difficulties for such people. People who are involved in criminal act or terrorism do not migrate to the country through the legal channel. Therefore, it will be less beneficial to minimize their access through immigration law. Policies should be made on law enforcement to control illegal immigration through borders and ports. Also, policies should be more effective to handle criminal cases within the country. For common people, the immigration system should not be difficult to access.

Therefore, a potential executive order on immigration system shows the power of the president to establish the policies for the country. This order is developed for the betterment of the country. It is beneficial for the peace and prosperity of the country. While it has one major drawback that legal immigrants may face problems with the new law.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY “An Overview of President Trump’s Executive Actions on Immigration.” AAF, https://www.americanactionforum.org/insight/overview-president-trumps-executive-actions-immigration/. Accessed 6 Mar. 2019.

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Policy Project

Author Name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Policy Project

Identification of the Problem

The criminal system comprised of various aspects of consideration that requires necessary attention. There are different forms of criminal issues under the spectrum of a criminal justice system that needs to be comprehensively addressed. The central objective of the series of criminal justice system prevailing in the country is to develop better policies and law of action to effectively deal with different types of criminal issues. It is noteworthy to mention that juvenile delinquency is recognized as one major concern that is identified as a complex phenomenon. Proper handling of cases of offences by juveniles is necessary because it involves a vulnerable population, based on individuals under the age of 18. The facet of juvenile crimes is one critical and serious issue for the criminal justice system of the country that requires some suitable policy development (Jordan & McNeal, 2016). The formulation of a comprehensive policy is necessary to successfully handle the growing concern of juvenile crimes and involves young individuals in the mainstream functioning of society. The concern of juvenile delinquency can be further examined by focusing on various domains of consideration. The overall situation relevant to this criminal issue requires adopting some unique forms of practical measures. Identification of possible weaknesses and limitations is a necessary condition to ensure the successful application of policy against the growing issue of juvenile offences. Proper development and application of the policy in the form of juvenile corrections are only possible by considering various related aspects. A detailed understanding of the problem of juvenile offending is the first practical step to propose suitable policy measures. The development of a significant plan of action is a necessary condition to provide better services in order to obtain and sustain the mental development and overall well-being of juvenile offenders. The central focus is to critically examine the possible strengths and weaknesses of the policy measures relevant to the problem of juvenile offending.

Review of Current Literature

There is a number of former research studies in which researchers focus to examine various dimensions of the issue of juvenile offending. A critical and comprehensive review of existing literature on the problem of juvenile delinquency is an integral condition to propose better policy solutions effectively and efficiently. This form of evaluation is also vital to identify all the obstacles referring to the objective of implementing a successful juvenile correction system. Identification of the approach of treatment in case of juvenile offending is a mandatory facet of consideration to ensure successful handling of the growing trend of criminal activities by young individuals.

The existing connection between the issue of crime and public policy is successfully examined by James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia (2010) in their research book, “Crime and Public Policy”. The central focus of this exploratory work is to examine various associated forms and domains of considerations when it comes to developing public policy in order to meet the needs of crimes at different social levels. The inclusion of this piece of research work is vital to apprehend the position of the public policy, specifically in the scenario of juvenile crimes. Undoubtedly, it is vital to successfully understand the approach of current public policy concerning the growing issue of juvenile delinquency. Various features of consideration referring to the issue of juvenile crime and the justice system are illustrated by researchers in the fourth chapter of this book. This specific research work was presented by Peter W. Greenwood and Susan Turner. It is important to mention that the inclusion of this piece of knowledge is vital to identify all the risk factors associated with the approach of criminal behavior by young people. According to researchers, identification of primary stimulating factors is a necessary condition to offer suitable practical measures in the form of correction domains for the juvenile offenders in an effective manner (Wilson & Petersilia, 2010). It is strongly argued by the researchers that active consideration of evidence-based practice in case of juvenile corrections is an obligatory condition to provide better and well-aligned treatment programs for young offenders. A critical consideration of vast domains of prevention, corrections, and the overall role of community and relevant institutions is vital to provide better protection to young individuals against the risk of crime.

The spectrum of youth violence prevention also comprehensively addressed by Thornton and his fellow researchers by presenting the research study with the title, “Best practices of youth violence prevention: A sourcebook for community action”, published in 2000. The primary objective of this research work is to examine the usefulness of the overall framework that is used in the form of community action, to propose better measures of prevention in case of a growing issue of youth violence. It is crucial to indicate that the opinions of the main stakeholders in this scenario such as teachers, community care providers, parents, school administrators, etc. were considered as the potential respondents by the researchers, to find out better measures of reduction for the issue of juvenile offending. It is argued by the researchers that prevention is one of the most critical phases of the overall criminal justice system in case of juvenile offending. It is proposed by the authors that active intervention is a necessary measure when it comes to proposing suitable prevention techniques (Thornton, Craft, Dahlberg, Lynch, & Baer, 2002). These particular strategies of prevention can be recognized under the domains of parent-and family-based, home-visiting, social-cognitive, and assessment plan of action.  

 The research bulletin provided by Griffin and fellow researchers in 2011 with the name, “Trying juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer laws and reporting” is another suitable piece of information. The outcomes delivered by researchers in this research work are assistive to critically overview all the laws of the state when it comes to the provision of a proper criminal justice system for juveniles. It is argued by the researchers that adoption of the proper mechanism is a necessary condition in order to assure successful transfer of juvenile offenders to criminal courts, under state law. It is explicitly established by the researchers that consideration of element of evolution is important when it comes to assuring the successful transfer of a juvenile to the criminal courts under the broader legal domain by the state (Griffin, Addie, Adams, & Firestine, 2011). The main idea of transfer mechanism in case of a young individual greatly related to the changing prospects and positions. The information shared by researchers in the form of this research work can be helpful to examine the current position of the criminal justice system offering for young criminals. This form of assessment is vital to examine the effectiveness of different preventive actions in the scenario of criminal offences by young individuals. 

 A detailed consideration of the factual information is also one necessary condition to better apprehend the issue of juvenile offences concerning the approach of better corrections mechanism. This form of knowledge is successfully attained from the research report, “Finding Direction: Expanding criminal justice options by considering policies of other nations” by the Justice Policy Institute in 2011. This source of research information is viable to successfully obtain the overall domain of the juvenile justice practices adopted in the United States. Additionally, consideration of critical comparison between the features of the incarceration rate and age of responsibility in case of juveniles (Institute & America, 2011). This form of assessment can be helpful to critically examine the effectiveness of different methods adopted for the rehabilitation of juvenile offending. It is important to indicate that the domain of juvenile protection and rehabilitation in case of different regions of Europe, Australia, and the U.S. is adopted to recognize the most suitable form of consideration. 

 The approach of graphical representation is utilized by Anne Teigen (2019) in a research report, “Juvenile age of jurisdiction and transfer to adult court laws.” The central aim of this form of consideration is to critically analyze the existing domain of juvenile offenders’ transfer, referring to various aspects of consideration. According to the author, it is necessary to determine the actual and suitable age group when it comes to the issue of juvenile transfer to adult court laws. A comprehensive assessment of the existing scenario in this domain is a necessary condition to ensure the successful application of corrective measures for juvenile offenders (Teigen, 2019). It is critically indicated by the researcher that the age of a juvenile offender needs to be considered as one primary aspect when it comes to developing the idea of transferring them to the adult court system. 

 The research information provided by the Office of Juvenile Justice U.S., in 2004, is also a necessary form of the research report. This piece of research study can be considered to address the issue of juvenile delinquency because the main concern is to identify the potential causes of the growing problem of juvenile crimes. Undoubtedly, the identification of the root-causes of the main problem is the mandatory condition to propose better practical measures for the future. According to the researcher, it is vital to apprehend the actual domain of delinquency in order to offer suitable practical measures in the form of future direction (Office of Juvenile Justice, 2004). The growing risk in the form of extensive involvement of gangs is critically examined by the researcher to understand the existing connection between the causes and consequences of juvenile crimes. 

Prevention is recognized as a necessary condition when it comes to finding possible solutions to deal with the issue of juvenile offending. The prospect of prevention in the context of violent juvenile offence is critically examined by Wasserman and his fellow researchers (2000) in the research article, “Prevention of serious and violent juvenile offending.” The central aim of this form of exploratory research is to identify specific aspects of practice areas that can be considered to propose better solutions to the concern of juvenile offending. Identification of the various nature of risk factors is a necessary condition when it comes to offering successful forms of preventions for the offenders who are characterized as under-aged individuals. It is proposed by researchers that offering multi-systematic intervention programs for juvenile offenders is one of the most significant practical measures (Wasserman, Miller, & Cothern, 2000). This form of the action plan is a feasible condition to propose the prospect of prevention to different juvenile offenders according to their specific requirements. 

 The overall scenario of juvenile delinquency is also comprehensively examined by Heilbrun and fellow researchers (2005) in the form of research work recognized as, “Juvenile delinquency: prevention, assessment, and intervention.” The inclusion of this piece of research study for the review is effective to successfully observe different dimensions of the main issue of juvenile offending or crime. It is a crucial prospect of consideration to identify the factors that influence the behavioral domains of young individuals and that they are eventually involved in different criminal activities at a young age. One of the developments of the main argument by researchers in this selected book is to examine the importance of forensic mental health assessments of the offenders (Heilbrun, Goldstein, & Redding, 2005). It is proposed by the researchers that proper evaluation of the mentioned condition of young offenders is a necessary condition to propose better practical solutions for them. Moreover, the importance of different shareholders in this scenario is highlighted when it comes to achieving the objective of proper prevention in case of juvenile offending. 

 A comprehensive series of knowledge provided by the researchers considering the importance of growing concern of juvenile delinquency. Furthermore, it is established that consideration of different phases is a necessary condition to achieve the objective of proper handling of the problem of juvenile offending. According to the researchers in this book, the first step of this correctional process is to critically examine the particular factors that encourage young individuals to get involved in different illegal and improper activities. The growing involvement in this form of action eventually appeared as the growing cases of juvenile delinquency in the country. Additionally, it is established that there are various integrated factors that can be characterized as the main causes referring to the issue of juvenile offending. A successful exploration between risk factors and prevention factors is a mandatory condition to offer better solutions to the growing concern of application of criminal activities by the young offenders. According to the researchers, this form of assessment is a vital measure referring to the entire process of corrections and preventions for young criminals (Heilbrun et al., 2005). It is also explicitly mentioned by the researchers that the option of mental health treatment can never be ignored when it comes to offering better living conditions to young offenders. According to former researchers, mental treatment of juvenile criminals needs to be an obligatory part of the overall criminal justice system to propose better forms of practices for young individuals. The aim of better corrective measures for young offenders can never be achieved without helping them with their psychological disturbances and upheavals. 


Summary of Existing Policy and Potential Approaches

           A complete assessment of the issue of juvenile delinquency is not possible without considering the effectiveness and the application of existing policy in this scenario. It is vital to observe and examine the current domain of corrective measures for juvenile offending. It is important to successfully deal with this issue and achieve the objective of better prevention in this scenario. Furthermore, this form of assessment can be vital to propose better practical solutions for prevention and treatment for the future in the context of juvenile offending. It is also vital to indicate that the critical examination of existing practices of correction also helps to propose better potential approaches for future domains. Identification of the current juvenile justice system is a necessary condition to identify the potential hazards and the areas of opportunities referring to the objective of better prevention. 

          Currently, there are three main mechanisms adopted under the paradigm of the juvenile criminal system. Identification of all these practices is effective to determine the current legal position in the overall scenario of juvenile offending. These main practices are recognized as a judicial waiver, legislative exclusion, and prosecutor discretion. All these parameters or standards are utilized referring to the growing concern of juvenile offending. The most common method of sending juveniles to the courts is identified as the adoption of judicial waiver standard. In case of this form of consideration, juvenile offenders can transfer to the courts by the decision of judges. In this method, judges have the authority to successfully waive their approach of the jurisdiction in the form of transfer instead of considering the option of an adult court. This mechanism is also recognized with the title of discretionary waiver that illustrates the important role of judges in case of development and application of the overall juvenile justice system. 

           Another potential approach in the overall form of juvenile criminal justice has appeared in the form of legislative exclusion. This practical scenario is another important prospect when it comes to finding better solutions to the issue of juvenile crimes. This particular method characterized its position as one of the most frequently applied methods concerning the approach of transferring juveniles to the criminal courts. Under this mechanism, the entity of the state legislative body has the authority to pass a law concerning the idea of youth charged with some specific forms of offenses. This form of power is utilized to define the position of specific cases that need to be prosecuted in criminal courts instead of considering the age of the offender. In this particular practice of the juvenile criminal system, the main focus towards the actual nature of the crime and giving less attention to the age factor in the entire scenario of juvenile delinquency. 

           Prosecutor discretion is another major standard followed by the juvenile criminal system to better apprehends the issue of juvenile crimes. This method is sometimes adopted by the legal authorities to successfully define the criminal position of young individuals. The state law provides authority to the prosecutors in the form of power, to decide whether it is significant to send juveniles to the criminal court or not (Democracy Now, 2019). This facet of consideration also identified with the name of concurrent jurisdiction that is used with regards to some specific cases of criminal offenses. It is vital to indicate that the entire procedure of the juvenile criminal system closely associated with the domain of prevention in the entire issue of juvenile offending. Development of various strategies is proposed to provide better living conditions for young offenders. 

Assessment of the Strengths and Limitations

           A critical assessment of the strengths and limitations of the current practice in the form of the juvenile criminal system is a necessary condition to propose better solutions to this growing and complex issue. This form of consideration requires an examination of the suitability of existing strategies to examine the potential benefits of these methods. It is observed that the current positioning of the juvenile justice system lacking the suitable perspective of rehabilitation in the scenario of juvenile offenders. It is one critical downfall of the current system that requires necessary attention and suitable fixation. The limitation of the juvenile justice system also appeared in the form of proper transfer of young individuals to the criminal courts. It is argued that young individuals, as the offenders, still suffer from the scenario of the criminal justice process, irrespective of this under-age domain. 

           Exploration of major strengths of the current practices in the case of juvenile offending is also important to successfully illustrate the current legal position in this manner. The major strength appearing in this legal mechanism is that it assures young people’s protection from various forms of physical and mental abuse. The existing approach of the juvenile criminal system has the authority to provide necessary protection to the young offenders by differentiating them from the usual form of criminal offense and the entire process of prosecution. Additionally, the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders is another strong practical option delivered by the current approach of juvenile justice. A detailed examination of the entire scenario of the juvenile justice system explicitly reveals that there is a need for offering better practical measures to ensure successful development and execution of the rehabilitation approach. 


Democracy Now! Kids for Cash: Inside One of the Nation’s Most Shocking Juvenile Justice Scandals. (2019). 

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Griffin, P., Addie, S., Adams, B., & Firestine, K. (2011). Trying juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer laws and reporting. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile ….

Heilbrun, K., Goldstein, N. E. S., & Redding, R. E. (2005). Juvenile delinquency: Prevention, assessment, and intervention. Oxford University Press.

Institute, J. P., & America, U. S. of. (2011). Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations.

Jordan, K. L., & McNeal, B. A. (2016). Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system. Law and human behavior, 40(4), 387.

Office of Juvenile Justice. (2004). Juvenile Justice: Causes and Correlates: Findings and Implications.

Teigen, A. (2019). Juvenile Age of Jurisdiction and Transfer to Adult Court Laws.

Thornton, T. N., Craft, C. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Lynch, B. S., & Baer, K. (2002). Best practices of youth violence prevention: A sourcebook for community action. June 2002 (Revision).

Wasserman, G. A., Miller, L. S., & Cothern, L. (2000). Prevention of serious and violent juvenile offending. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile ….

Wilson, J. Q., & Petersilia, J. (2010). Crime and public policy. Oxford University Press.

Subject: Education

Pages: 10 Words: 3000



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Child abuse is a serious issue in the United State. It was discovered in 1874 but forgotten because people thought that child abuse especially sexual abuse is a rare case. Latest researches indicate that child abuse has been increased so much that nearly five children die a day become of it. It is also reported that about one lac children die every year because of sexual abuse every year wherein 65% cases they are abused by family members. It is important to rediscover the issue because the perpetrators are always an acquaintance that means he can be blood relative, neighbor, caretaker, teacher, parent's friend or step-parent. It is also important to rediscover the issue because it affects the psychological and physical development of the child. Researches indicate that child who becomes a victim of child abuse get more risk of heart disease, lung cancer, anxiety, depression and even suicidal ideation in later life. Therefore, it is important to identify the problem and spread the awareness for the protection of children as they are the future of the nation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CBqsBhkX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Read \\uc0\\u8220{}Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect\\uc0\\u8221{} at NAP.edu}, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Read “Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect” at NAP.edu, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":717,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/AS6E9RKD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/AS6E9RKD"],"itemData":{"id":717,"type":"book","title":"Read \"Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect\" at NAP.edu","source":"www.nap.edu","abstract":"Read chapter 5 PREVENTION: The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. Yet, without a conceptual framework, research...","URL":"https://www.nap.edu/read/2117/chapter/7","note":"DOI: 10.17226/2117","language":"en","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Read “Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect” at NAP.edu, n.d.).

The basic cause of child abuse is the carelessness of parents or guardian. When parents do not keep their eye on the child, the perpetrator finds the way to please himself by abusing the child emotionally, physically, or sometimes sexually. Physical and emotional abuse can be due to the economic and social condition of the family. When a family faces financial crisis their elders often beat their children or shout on them, and even neglect them without any reason which affects children physically or psychologically. In addition, in the case of a single-parent child often molested or sexually abused by the partner of the parent that is stepfather/stepmother or parent's boyfriend/girlfriend. In short causes of child abuse include; the history of child abuse, depression, anxiety, poverty, lack of parenting skills, personal mental health issue and substance addiction ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kIInNReR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zaken, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Zaken, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":718,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/TS2AHLML"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/TS2AHLML"],"itemData":{"id":718,"type":"webpage","title":"Preventing and identifying signs of child abuse - Child abuse - Government.nl","genre":"onderwerp","abstract":"The government has introduced measures to put a stop to child abuse. It is important that signs of child abuse are identified sooner, so that steps can be taken to stop the abuse at an earlier stage and limit the harm to the child.","URL":"https://www.government.nl/topics/child-abuse/strategy-against-child-abuse/preventing-and-identifying-signs-of-child-abuse","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"Zaken","given":"Ministerie van Algemene"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",6,8]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zaken, 2016). Child abuse prevention is necessary to reduce the death rate because of it and for the positive physical and psychological development of the children. The first step to prevent child abuse is to spread awareness about the issue. Public information campaign can be helpful so that people can identify the cases of abuse around them. Healthcare providers including the physician, nurses and other staff should acquire knowledge and education related to child abuse. The best way to teach professionals is to add the subject of child abuse within the academic programs. Another way to prevent child abuse is the mandatory reporting code. Healthcare professionals, teachers and parents should report about the case immediately after they discover it ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VhYfVM3Y","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Child Abuse Prevention Is Still As Important As Ever,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2016)","plainCitation":"(“Child Abuse Prevention Is Still As Important As Ever,” 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":715,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/VJKPF6FR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/VJKPF6FR"],"itemData":{"id":715,"type":"post-weblog","title":"Child Abuse Prevention Is Still As Important As Ever","container-title":"Childhelp","abstract":"Nearly five children in the United States die every day as a result of child abuse, according to Childhelp, a national organization dedicated...","URL":"https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse-prevention-still-important-ever/","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",4,20]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Child Abuse Prevention Is Still As Important As Ever,” 2016).

People often hide the cases of child abuse because they feel shame to discuss it or to put their children for trial. Therefore, the government has provided rights to the child while facing the courtroom trial so that more people report the cases. Rights include the protection of identity and personal information, non-physical appearance in court, and the use of multi-disciplinary child abuse teams. It means it is not necessary for the child to be present in the courtroom instead; guardian or parents can attend the trial. In addition, their identity remains protected so that people do not hide the issue. In addition, multi-disciplinary child abuse teams consist of the law enforcement officer, doctors, lawyer, therapist and caseworkers who help the family to get justice ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TgNB0WaI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Rights Of Child Victims,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2015)","plainCitation":"(“Rights Of Child Victims,” 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":716,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SI34M3SU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SI34M3SU"],"itemData":{"id":716,"type":"webpage","title":"Rights Of Child Victims","URL":"https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/rights-child-victims","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2015",5,26]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Rights Of Child Victims,” 2015).

In the video one type of child abuse that is sexual abuse has been discussed. The video identifies the characteristics, reasons, and facts of child abuse. The video is helpful to find out the signs of sexual abuse. The video is also important to spread awareness about the issue and to develop confidence in parent to report the case and discuss it with child care providers as the video has discussed in detail how the care provider handles the case and help the child to recover from the problem.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Child Abuse Prevention Is Still As Important As Ever. (2016, April 20). Retrieved July 13, 2019, from Childhelp website: https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse-prevention-still-important-ever/

Read “Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect” at NAP.edu. (n.d.). https://doi.org/10.17226/2117

Rights Of Child Victims. (2015, May 26). Retrieved July 13, 2019, from https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/rights-child-victims

Zaken, M. van A. (2016, June 8). Preventing and identifying signs of child abuse - Child abuse - Government.nl [Onderwerp]. Retrieved July 13, 2019, from https://www.government.nl/topics/child-abuse/strategy-against-child-abuse/preventing-and-identifying-signs-of-child-abuse

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Reconstructing Crime Scenes

Reconstructing Crime Scenes

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Reconstructing Crime Scenes

Crime Scene Investigator’s Procedure

The circumstances encountered by investigators signify crime scene investigation because different steps and sequences are used for different cases. There are seven basic steps that outline crime scene investigation. (Singh, 2018).

Scene Dimensions and potential safety and health hazards

It refers to the identification of “focal point”, highlighting and pointing out the area of disturbance. It may be the place where the victim was found or the area with physical evidence. Safety is another paramount concern to address, because weapons, chemical, and biohazard would be a threat to the investigator as well. (Shebaro, et, al. 2019).

Establishing security

It is quoted, “Any individual entering or exiting from crime scene adds or subtracts material from the crime scene, compromising the security of crime area”. (Singh, 2018). Crime area should be cordoned off with crime scene tape etc. along with the documentation of people entering or exiting the crime scene. (Shebaro, et, al. 2019).

Plan, coordinate and communicate

Investigators should develop the theoretical framework of the crime scene because the type of crime justifies the evidence that could be presented. Information should be collected from witnesses and then evidence collection strategy would be formulated adhering to an atmospheric or physical condition such as time, date and any event, etc. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 

Conducting primary survey

It is meant for the collection of valuable evidence and information in the form of notes and photographs. It includes conditions such as presence of light, and the position of furniture, etc. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 

Documentation of scene

Scanners, cameras, diagrams, and sketches are used for the documentation of the scene because biological evidence is vulnerable to destruction but physical evidence are a major tool to justification. (Singh, 2018).

Conducting secondary survey

It is about validation or authenticity of the primary survey.

Record and preserve evidence

It includes the formulation of an inventory log that is used to collect and keep a record of the evidence collection, accompanied by a description of crime scene with respect to evidence. (Shebaro, et, al. 2019).

Crime Scene Reconstruction

The process of working with the sequence of events before, after and during a crime is called crime scene reconstruction. It is one of the basic and underlying aspects of forensic science as it is the most controversial and critical point of crime investigation. It is significant to note that the victim is the focal point of crime scene reconstruction. It would not be wrong to say that reconstruction is a scientific fact gathering procedure that involves five different stages, particularly utilized in crime reconstruction. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 

Data Collection

It refers to the collection of information either obtained from the place of crime, any witnesses or the victim, referring to proper documentation. There are different conditions of data collection involving obvious impressions, patterns and the condition of evidence that is reviewed organized and documented. (Shebaro, et, al. 2019).


This step involves a detailed analysis of the evidence that is obtained relevant to the crime scene. Conjecture also includes a possible explanation of the events, taking into account that it is treated as a possibility only, where there is a space for more explanations. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 

Hypothesis Formulation

It refers to the accumulation of data on the basis of examination of physical evidence and extended investigation. A hypothesis is formulated on the basis of scene examination and analysis of physical evidence such as analysis of impression patterns, fingerprint, and bloodstains. This process also refers to the formulation of an educated guess. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 


Testing is done to approve or disapprove the interpretation of specific aspects of the hypothesis. This stage includes a comparative analysis of samples. It also includes controlled testing and experimentation of recorded physical activities. (Regensburger, et, al. 2019). 

Theory Formation

Theory formation refers to the additional information that could be acquired for the investigation of the condition of the victim or suspect. It also includes activities such as experimental results, activities of individuals and narrative accounts. (Shebaro, et, al. 2019).


Regensburger, D. (2019). Criminal evidence: From crime scene to courtroom. Aspen Publishers.

Shebaro, B., & Fisher, C. P. (2019). Crime in the 21st Century: A Co-Teaching Experience. The Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 54.

Singh, S. (2018). An evaluation of the role of forensic science in crime scene reconstruction (Doctoral dissertation).

Subject: Education

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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