Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) are constantly experiencing hate crimes in the American community for centuries. The rate of these crimes is increasing at an alarming rate in the US as people are still not accepting them regardless of plenty of new rules and policies. It is important to consider the situation of the LGBT community in American society as this community is among the most vulnerable communities in the U.S. LGBT community is struggling hard to gain equal rights in American society. A critical examination of the experiences and suffering of the LGBT community is highly necessary to determine the severity of this issue. The LGBT community experiences hardships and oppression by the hands of White Americans. In addition to this, it is necessary to investigate the problems and issues of the lesbian group throughout the history of America. In the entire history of mankind, women faced various difficulties as men always considered themselves more superior to women. Here, the focus is to highlight the oppression and discrimination of men against women, especially lesbians.
The prospect of LGBTQ can be better apprehended by considering the historical approach. A critical consideration of the historical development of this phenomenon is also helpful to recognize a prominent historical issue that influences the entire practical domain of LGBTQ. Reframing of this concept is a necessary condition to examine the core areas of consideration. A comprehensive assessment of the historical approach is a helpful condition to identify prominent facets of concerns specifically for the developing scenario of LGBTQ over the years (Berlant, 2007). The misinterpretation of normativity is one significant historic issue related to the overall paradigm of the idea of sovereignty for people belongs to the community of LGBTQ (Berlant, 2007). A critical assessment of the framework of normativity is one basic requirement to better figure out the idea of modern projection of sovereignty for members of the LGBTQ community.
The misconduct of normativity by defining the accuracy and correctness of specific actions in the society can be eventually caused disturbance of sovereignty for the LGBTQ people. Development of specific norms and standards regarding the desirable and undesirable actions or outcomes directly associated with the necessary facet of sovereignty in the scenario of gay or lesbian individuals (Berlant, 2007). The existing difference of lesbians’ actions from the standard pattern of societal norms is one critical historic issue for the LGBTQ community. The existing gap between the behavioral perspective of lesbian individuals and the normal approach of society ultimately creates a chronic social imbalance for the members of the LGBTQ group (Berlant, 2007). An active and critical assessment of the framework of normativity in a social setting is a necessary condition to better understand the operating paradigm in the scenario of LGBTQ. This form of consideration is vital to find out some form of balance approach of social existence and development for the people who ranked under the position of LGBTQ. Strict evaluative standards in the form of normativity directly link with the perspective of sovereignty for people who recognized under the group of LGBTQ (Berlant, 2007).
In the mid-1900s, the LGBT community did not possess any specific platform or support due to which White Americans created plenty of troubles for them. It is notable to consider that having a specific platform is beneficial for any group to maintain its dignity in the society. In a society full of male supremacy, it was difficult for women to have any prominent place. In addition to this, the concept of lesbian or heterosexual women was completely new for Americans (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). Lesbian or transsexual women suffered from emotional and physical challenges in society as society was not ready to accept them (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). To avoid this situation, the development of lesbian-feminist politics occurred in the US (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). It is essential to consider that lesbian or transsexual women are revolting against the supremacy of men.
There are many research papers on explicit discrimination laws and policies against gays and lesbians in recent years. In April 1953, US government officials issued administrative order which banned any type of employment of gays and lesbians in government sectors (Johnson, 2004). This report basically on the history in which we can see how government and state sectors issued different laws and policies against gays and lesbians. However, these policies also became a model that influenced private sectors to repeat the same behavior with transgender and lesbians (Johnson, 2004). There are several laws and policies issued in the 1950s and 1960s which provided a shield to public and private sectors from explicit gender discrimination. As the federal government and public sectors found a way to get rid of gays and lesbians, they kicked out many employees from working sectors (Johnson, 2004). Thousands of employees fired and many were harassed to leave their workplaces. Afterward, thousands of applicants were also rejected on the basis of their gender (Johnson, 2004). They were treated so weirdly in state and became a threat to the state because then people start looking for court laws, media and congress.
The lesbian rights movement in the 1950s also started in the US. This was the first national and social movement for lesbian rights began by four female couple in 1950. This movement initiates different activities to highlight their problems, present activities to support isolated genders, mothering lesbians and gays (Johnson, 2004). The movement began to issue their own magazines to spread awareness, the first magazine was published in October 1956. The cold war and anti-communist movement also provided a push to government policies and laws against gays and lesbians (Johnson, 2004). This was the era of “Lavender scare” and “Red scare” when state officials start a campaign against those genders by associates them with communists (Johnson, 2004). Then another Truman‘s loyalty-security program era was hard for gays and lesbians as they fire six to fifty employees per month from state offices. More than communist transgender and lesbians were dismissed from workplaces for security reasons as they called (Johnson, 2004). In 1961, that policy of Truman‘s was adopted by President Eisenhower in his order 10,405. He extended the policy by giving the name of the federal loyalty-security program (Johnson, 2004). His policy added more insecurities to transgender and lesbians because he ordered their dismissal from every government department and armed institutions. Hence, under his policy, over 800 government office employees got dismissed or resigned under the act of sex perversion (Johnson, 2004). Afterward, hiring agencies always checked people's history when applications registered in government agencies or offices.
In 1969, LGBT civil movement also started. Lesbians also take part in the feminist program. In 1970 when the “United Organization for Women” happened many feminists take part in congress by wearing shirts on which the first statement of the feminist statement came at the front (Johnson, 2004). This feminist group later turned into the Radical Lesbian group which expressed heterosexual feminism in affirmative form. Then in 1971, NOW has passed a resolution for their equal rights and independent way of living. Afterward, a task force was made by NOW in 1973. These resolutions were again Lesbianism with disconcerting of sex. While that movement was not about sex but equal rights of jobs other opportunities (Johnson, 2004). By continues struggle for equal rights National Women Conference which was held in 1977, succeeded to add the Equal Right Amendment in the US constitution (Johnson, 2004). In the 1990s lesbians took part in national politics as first open state Senate. To the City Council Seattle, the first African American official was elected in Washington in 1991. Then in 1993, the first lesbian acquiescently appointed as Assistant of American Senate (Johnson, 2004). Another lesbian gay was appointed as a judge in 1994 in New York. There were several cases of success for lesbians and gays in the 2000s. Same-sex marriage was registered and several legitimate unions were admitted in this era (Johnson, 2004). First, same-sex marriage was done and considered legal in 2004 by the court decision in California.
However, after all amendments and policies for gays and lesbians, the government requires a license from people of the state. Even private sectors demand licenses from employees which was approved by government officials or government agencies. In these licenses, they require some moral fitness tests and over 40 percent of public employees undergo this process (Johnson, 2004). As under the shade of moral tests, government agencies rejected transgender and lesbians. They were got fired in case of moral turpitude as disciplinary action plans. These requirements are still applicable in government and private sectors (Johnson, 2004). Under this plan, government officials titled this action as the candidate must be of “good moral character” for occupations in different departments of government. And this is clearly an act of contradicting the right to apply in government or private sectors by canceling their license.
It is evident that men have a limited view of women. American society is a male-dominated society in which they consider themselves superior (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). At the beginning of the 20th century, lesbianism was significantly highlighted by some prominent women. Lesbianism was started to create awareness about the sexual identity of homosexual women (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). However, men considered this lesbianism as a sexual act. Limited views of men towards women can be examined by their perception of women. They only think about women in terms of sex. Furthermore, the concept of lesbianism is still not acceptable by men as they do not even consider these lesbians as real women (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). Since the beginning of time, women are treated as less as compared to men. They are not given emotional, political, social, physical, and economic support in society (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000). Due to this particular reason, women turn themselves towards other women in search of social, physical, emotional, and political support (Bunch,Bottom of Form 2000).
To conclude the above discussion, the LGBT community had suffered plenty of oppression and discrimination in American society. More specifically, lesbians experienced tougher circumstances due to the traditions and cultures of America, which is male-dominated. Lesbianism was started to put an end to these oppressions and negative perceptions against lesbians. The provision of the supportive platform in terms of social, economic, political, and emotional support helped lesbians to stand by each other and get their rights in society. In this report, arise of gender discrimination against transgender and lesbians summarized as how it starts and how all those acts and policies were dragged from the 1960s until now. It provides the historical preview of how discrimination against LGBT in public sectors and government departments restricted their license. There was a huge struggle from LGBT to get their equal rights in every sector from the 1950s until now. There was a huge debate on how private sectors adopt the model of gender discrimination against LGBT. How LGBT starts different movements of equal rights and at the beginning of movement they faced isolation every time. From “lavender scare” to Truman’s loyalty security program LGBT faced hardships in form of rejection from every public and government sector.
Berlant, L. (2007). Slow death (sovereignty, obesity, lateral agency). Critical Inquiry, 33(4), 754-780.
Bunch, C. (2000). Lesbians in revolt. Radical feminism: A documentary reader, 332-336.
Top of Form
Johnson, D. K. (2004). The lavender scare: The Cold War persecution of gays and lesbians in the federal government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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