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Sustainable water management issues in Perth, the capital city of Western Australia.
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Sustainable water management issues in Perth, the capital city of Western Australia.
The rivers and streams in the Mediterranean climate region are ecologically very special. They reflect a unique pattern of precipitation and they have the most unusual form of flooding. They are the hot-spots for the living organism in the med-region. So the med-rivers require some adaptive mechanism to survive the drought. The humanitarian use of water in the area is complex and needs proper management.
The South-Western Australian experiences a Climate shift in the 1970s and the rainfall in this region reduced by 10-15. The reservoir that supplies water to the city of Perth also reduced by half due to less rainfall in the region. This city has a population of 1.8million and a Mediterranean Climate like the other parts of the world that are experiencing drought and less rainfall. The streams in the region will be reduced by a quarter till 2030 and the ground level of the plans in the coastal areas of south-western Australia has also decreased since the 1970s. At that time the aquifers of the mainstream going towards Perth were covered with vegetation. The groundwater level will fall down more till 2030.
The level of rainfall and ground level of water is decreasing and due to the increase in the local population water consumption is also increasing. The water yields need to be increased and the number of water sources that are used for consumption should be increased.
The water yields in the surface area decreased by 24 percent and groundwater yields are decreased by 2 percent. That is because the evapotranspiration has reduced and the fall of groundwater levels. Perth and other regions of South-western Australia will have a reduction in the water yields due to the current water consumption habit of the population. The surface water resources and the groundwater are available for use but that will completely drain out till 2030.
There were 125 GL of water in Perth in the 1970s but the area has now constructed a new dam and the water demand increased up to 250GL. The overall drinking water catchments have declined in Perth up to 70 percent. The reduction in the water level is partly due to climate change in the region. However, the runoff of the catchment is influenced by evaporation and precipitation. The runoff of rainfall depends on the climate and soil-vegetation interaction. In such a scenario the population of the area is also been reportedly increasing and the water yields are decreasing.
This report highlights the rapidly drying climate of Perth and the water management in the area. It discusses the most influencing factors that cause water crisis in the city. The report set a specific goal to minimize the problem of sustainable water management in Perth. The project will focus on the Sustainable Development Goals related to the water crisis and climate change.
The projects involve local government policymakers who will be generating new water management plans for the increasing population. The report will recommend some ways to overcome the water crisis in the city. As this is the most water-consuming area in Australia. The report will suggest how to preserve the water sources in order to save them from drying out in the future.
The scale to consider sustainable water management problem in Perth.
The scale chosen for this project is the local government water management department. The project will give suggestion to the local government to introduce new ways to overcome the water crisis in the city and to reconsider its water management strategies. It will let the government know that sustainable management of water is necessary for the future of the country in general and the city in specific.
The problem of sustainable water management in Perth.
Perth is using groundwater for commercial and domestic purposes. Groundwater is providing up to 80 percent of the water to this area and that is 560 GL per year. The rest of the twenty percent of the water in the area comes from dams. This city is unique among other cities of Australia as it uses groundwater for daily uses.
The city has been supplying water to other local areas. The water services in the city are based on centralized infrastructure that supplies ground level water to the urban areas. The system is unable to manage the groundwater resources and thus the water sources will dry out till 2030. The city is facing a sustainability problem as the centralized system of water management is unable to meet the sustainable goal set for water management. The Sustainable development goal number ensures the availability of water and the sustainable management of water and sanitation for everyone.
Factors contributing to the problem of sustainable water management in Perth
Poor regional water management programs
No water saving measures
Wasting of wastewater
No proper sanitation system
No water trading and water pricing
Major system factors influencing the problem of sustainable water management problem in Perth
The average rainfall in the area will reduce by 8 percent till 2030 and there is a 50 percent chance that it will happen so. There is a chance of ten percent that the rainfall might decrease by 15 percent. The groundwater level is the main source of water in the area and that will decrease to 580 t0 700GL per year due to climate change. The increasing temperature will dry out water resources and decreased the surface-water availability by 50 percent. The public supply and demand for water are increasing and the population is growing which is making the scarcity of water even worst.
Due to climate change, the demand for water in Western-Australia is increasing and the rate of demand is tremendously increasing in the dry out region of Perth. The region will have an absolute deficiency of water until 2020. The available resources of water are declining and Perth is importing water from its neighbouring cities. There is a competition of climate change and the demand for water, especially in urban areas. This scenario demands an alternative source of water, inter-regional supplier of water and the introduction of water re-use mechanism.
Due to climate change, the dams of Perth are receiving very less water, last year the dams received 72.4bn litters of water and the demand of the local population is very high that is 300 billion. The government has tried to fix the problem with desalination mechanism but the population is not able to cope with the increasing temperature.
This is the most influencing factor because due to climate change the ground level water reservoirs are drying out as a result of precipitation and the rainfall has also decreased due to the hot temperature.
Perth is growing rapidly. It is isolated from the other population centers of Australia. It has a green environment despite the low rainfall and dry climate. Its population has tremendously increased in the previous years. The population will increase up to 2.3 million approximately by 2030. It has doubled as compared to the year 1980. Thus, the residential water usage is also increasing. The water efficient should be increased in the future in order to cope with the increasing demand for water in the growing city. The current usage of water is 145 kiloliters per person in a year and with this increasing rate of a population the demand has increased by 120 gig liters.
Increasing population is among the most influencing factors that increase the problem of sustainable water management problem in Perth. It is increasing the demand for water and it also needs more water management policies so that the increasing population will have enough water supply.
Traditional approaches to water management
Perth is using the traditional approaches of the dam, rainwater, and groundwater as a source of water supply to its increasing water. Those water sources will lose their demands in the near future because they will be unable to supply enough water to the increasing population. Perth will face a water challenge in the near future even more if the city will be unable to upgrade its water infrastructure. By 2050 the demand for water is, even more, increasing in the city and 238 gig liters need to be generated.
This factor is important because due to the traditional water management approaches Perth is unable to manage its water sources and new centralized water cycling mechanism, desalination approaches, and water supplying infrastructure are needed.
Analysis of the linkages of the factors
Climate change, increasing population and the traditional approaches of water management are the influential factors that affect the water management in the city of Perth. The traditional water management approaches are constructions of dam, using rain water and ground water as a main source of water in the city. Due to increasing population the demand of water is increasing and the city needs modern means of water storage, infrastructure and water recycling mechanism so that it can cope with the increasing climate change and the huge water demand of the population.
The climate change is increasing the overall temperature which reduced rainfall and increasing the precipitation of water from the surface of the dam and it is drying away the ground source of water. So modern means of water management is needed to cope with climate change. Moreover, the huge population is increasing the demand for water which also needs modern means of water management.
Perth is the major driest city of Australia and it has been facing water crisis from decades. The average rainfall in the city is decreasing and the city is dependent on groundwater as a primary source of water. But its population is increasing tremendously which is increasing the demand for water and making this city the most water-consuming city in Australia.
The overall goal of the project is to minimize the problem of sustainable water management in Perth the outcomes of the project are to identify modern means of water management and sanitation. It also aims to ensure the availability of water for everyone in the city. The project also focuses on controlling the human activities that increase the greenhouse effect and thus helps in increasing the overall temperature of the earth.
The outcomes of the project are related to the Sustainable Development Goals that ensure the availability of water to everyone and the sustainable management of water and sanitation. The project is also targeting the factors that lead to climate change and it relates to the goal 13 of the SDG which says to take actions against climate change.
The projects involve local government policymakers who will be generating new water management plans for the increasing population. Who will also make population control plans to decreases the water demand in the region. The key stakeholders will be the local government official, NGOs, and volunteer organizations and the will be involved by letting them know the water crisis in the locality. The projection will run in coordination with them.
The main activities under this project will be to conduct background research on the water crisis in the city and to recommend water management ideas to the local government. Then taking help from NGOs and volunteer organizations to implement those recommended tasks.
The major barrier to the project could be the global behavior which leads to Climate change and the cost of implementing modern means of water management. They can be overcome by strengthening the diplomatic ties with other countries so that they could invest in the modern means of water management inside the country. Overcoming climate change is not possible in a year or two but taking care of the harmful emissions of CFCs could lessen the effect of climate change.
The success of the project could be measured if the city overcomes the water-crisis and the demand for water in the country will be easily met. If the number of water reservoirs in the city increased and the city overcome the increasing population and drought.
In nutshell, the evidence can be drawn from the research that Perth is highlight being affected by climate change and it is facing a major water crisis. At the same time, the city is unable to control its increasing population which is consuming the maximum of water in Australia. The project will help the local government of Perth to overcome its water crisis.
Expanding the source of water supply and the recycling of wastewater should be focused on. The water conservation will be promoted without compromise the life standards of the local people.
The long term supply of water should be managed by investing in new sources of water that is desalination of water and importing water from other cities.
The uncertainties in the rainfall should be taken into account and the department of water of the local government should reactivate the exploration of groundwater.
Water should be given monetary values so that people of Perth will not waste it.
Exploratory drilling will be continued by the local government in search of a new source of groundwater.
The groundwater database should be managed.
The local population should be controlled by population controlling plans
The human activities that lead to an increase in global temperature should be controlled.
The social, environmental and economic aspects should be balanced and more technological investments should be ensured to supply usable water.
The desalination plans should be planted across the city so that cheap sour e of water will be available.
Sustainability of the water sources should be ensured by the development of groundwater sources so that the future generation will not have to experience further water crisis.
The local government should take the NGOs on board in order to increase the investment on new measures of water management.
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Syme, Geoffrey J., and Blair E. Nancarrow. Overcoming Water Scarcity in Perth, Western Australia. Water Resources Planning and Management, 2011, 35566.
Thomas, J. F., and B. S. Sadler. Water Futures for Western Australia 2008-2030. Volume 4 Accounting for Climate Change In. Vol. 5, 2008.
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