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Obstructive airway disease is characterized by an obstruction in the air passages. It can occur when swelling cause the airways to become shrank and making it difficult to go through the air from the lungs. Obstruction airway disease causes people shortness of breath. It makes harder for people to breathe especially during exertion. The most often causes of obstructive airway disease include asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. The obstructive disease makes it harder to exhale all the air from our lungs (Weinberg, 2003).
Restrictive airway disease is characterized by a reduced capacity of a lung. It can causes restriction in the lungs and not allow them to fully expand. People who are facing restrictive airway disease cannot completely fill their lungs with air. It has been observed that restrictive airway disease usually develops from a condition which causes stiffness in the lungs themselves. The most common conditions that cause restrictive lung disease include obesity, scoliosis, and interstitial lung disease. It has been observed that most restrictive airway diseases are very progressive and get worse with the time (Nancy, 2017).
Lung diseases are very common and they affect each individual differently. There are many different types of restrictive and obstructive airway diseases. However, both restrictive and obstructive airway diseases have different characteristics and they are different from each other. Restrictive airway disease can make it hard for a person to take a full breath while obstructive airway disease can make it difficult for a person to expel all of the air from the lungs. Both types of diseases can be worse over time and both may depend on the age of the person. There are certain levels of both restrictive and obstructive airway diseases which ranges from moderate to severe (Scano et al, 2010).
There are different treatments which can be used to cure both obstructive and restrictive airway diseases. Both restrictive and obstructive airway diseases can be diagnosed with the help of patient’s medical history and with the help of different tests to examine the range of the disease (Scano et al, 2010). Medical history of a person helps a doctor to easily determine which type of lung disease they are having and how they can treat a person. It has been observed that usually for lung disease doctors perform a pulmonary function test to examine total lung capacity (TLC). There are some other tests that may be important to fully diagnose a disease of a person according to the symptoms to make sure the correct treatment plan is arranged.
In restrictive airway disease, it has been observed that total lung capacity is usually decreased. There are several tests which are used for restrictive airway disease to show reduced lung functioning. Some tests that are used for restrictive airway disease diagnosis include forced vital capacity test, chest X-ray, CT scans, etc. The treatment plan for restrictive lung disease depends on the type of disease. Some times person might required oxygen therapy to breath properly in restriction airway disease. Ventolin is also preferred as a medication for the treatment of restrictive airway disease. Some other medications include methotrexate, corticosteroids, pirfenidone or azathioprine (Verywell Health, 2019).
There are different treatments for obstructive airway disease just like restrictive airway disease. The treatments work by helping to open narrowed airways. Usually, doctors give bronchodilators to patients who are diagnosed with obstructive airway disease. Bronchodilators help to relax the muscles and improve the airflow. There are various medicines that help to reduce inflammation in obstructive airway disease which include inhaled corticosteroids, montelukast, and oral corticosteroids (Verywell Health, 2019). Exercise is also very important to cure this disease and improve the symptoms of breathlessness.
Scano, G., Innocenti-Bruni, G., & Stendardi, L. (2010). Do obstructive and restrictive lung diseases share common underlying mechanisms of breathlessness?. Respiratory medicine, 104(7), 925-933.
Weinberg H.N. (2003) Obstructive Airway Disease. In: Taylor R.B., David A.K., Fields S.A., Phillips D.M., Scherger J.E. (eds) Fundamentals of Family Medicine. Springer, New York, NY
Nancy Choi, M. (2017). Restrictive lung disease: Treatment and symptoms. Medical News Today. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319012.php
Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease Differences and Treatment. (2019). Verywell Health. Retrieved from https://www.verywellhealth.com/obstructive-and-restrictive-lung-diseases-914741
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