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What does Sedgwick mean by alloidentification and autoidentification
Sedgwick, in her book Epistemology of the Closet, explicates a banal phrase that we are all different people, apparently the expression is used merely as a pun. According to the incorporated notion of witticism, Sedgwick implies that we all are totally different from each other, and in due course, we are not the same ourselves in all cases. Therefore, the first half of the expression rectifies a gesture of identification with others called alloidentification (Sedgwick, 1990). And because the second part of the explanation that affirms we all are not the same ourselves is correct, the auto-identify takes place, which is not uncomplicated to pinpoint, once and for all.
What is this lesbian masquarade
The term lesbian masquerade addresses the cases in which a gender conceals its true identity to induce a woman into a romantic relationship. The expression is substantially interconnected with a medical phenom, hermaphroditism, and the literature is laden with the instances of homoeroticism. Lesbian masquerade was highly observed throughout the 14th century in Renaissance-era during the epoch, women used to imposter the persona and other apparent traits of men such as outfits and hairstyles, etcetera. Such women were not easy to identify, and in a myriad of cases, they maintained their fake gender identity successfully even for decades. However, later on, the legislation devised a death punishment order for women who dressed up as the opposite gender.
Why does Newton believe that the mannish lesbian is a myth
According to the underlying posit of Esther Newton, the mannish lesbian is a myth because of the associated impossibility of rational practicality. The term elaborates on the first generation of New Women of 19th century the faction was well-educated, independent, and favored the affectionate connectivity among female friends and did not incline toward a public expression of sexual affiliation (Newton, 1984). At those times females were considered as a creature with no sexual desire, and therefore a common perception was established that it was their overgrown tribade and perceived masculinity that evoked them engaging in a sexual relationship with similar gender.
What is axiom one of Sedgwicks Epistemology of the Closet
According to Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick s axiom one from Epistemology of the Closet, People are different from each other (Sedgwick, 1990). Sedgwick asserts that, however, it is a self-evident phenomenon, yet only a few viable devices are available to tackle with its conceptual implications. It is further reflected that, unfortunately, society has only a few different categories to define the differences, such classifications of multitudes include class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientations. In due course, the author proffers an elaborative instance of everyday relationships, and it is underlined that regardless of the proximity of many personal, convivial, and professional relationships, all people are different.
What does Foucault mean by the repressive hypothesis
According to a renowned French philosopher, Michel Foucault, the history of sexuality is under-considered since the eighteenth century. Foucault defines the general standpoint of observing the intricacies of sexuality as a repressive hypothesis. The theoretical framework of repressive hypotheses implies that the stability of bourgeoisies questioned and scowled at every activity and factor that consumed energy or involved an element of indulgence. Consequently, the customary perception took sex only as a practical and privately conducted activity that mainly takes place between a wife and a husband. A similar school of thought denies the prospect of any other sex out of proper wedlock and repressed any such possibility or craving. In this context, people intentionally strive to impede extramarital sexual orientations and also suffuse utter endeavor to repress any relevant thoughts and sayings.
Sedgwicks Axiomatic Commitments and Their Significance in Analytical And Historical Study Of Sexuality
In 1990, an American academic, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick penned down an amalgamation of seven axiomatic expressions regarding sexuality and titled it Epistemology of the Closet. In the following the last three, that means axiom 5, 6, and 7 are elucidated along with a brief analysis of their historical and analytical significance from the perspective of sexuality.
Axiom five says that the historical search for a great paradigm shift may obscure the present conditions of sexual identity, according to the underlying analysis of Sedgwick it is implicated that Michel Foucault proposed the period of 1870 as the origin of modern homosexuality however, more than forty historians have proffered clear-cut timeline of homosexuality development. Moreover, Sedgwick believes that homosexualitys developmental notion has firmly embedded roots into history and substantially intertwined with the idea of contemporary homosexuality. The associated aspect of vividness and productivity have enough potential to eradicate the natural and familiar facades of the subject and can obscure the past and present of homosexuality in terms of anthropology and chronology simultaneously.
Axiom 6 relays that the relation of gay studies to debates on the literary canon is, and had best be, tortuous. In order to highlight the trend and inclination of classic literature regarding the gay subject, Sedgwick includes the instance of Oscar Wildes 1891 book Picture of Dorian Gray. Sedgwick delineates that regardless of brief and feeble gesture, the narration depicts male gay intersexuality along with gay desires in an astoundingly artistic way. The story encapsulates the dispositions from the aristocratic backdrop and involves different age and professional groups to portray the profoundness and multi-faade nature of the issue.
Axiom 7 explains that the path of alloidentification is likely to be strange and recalcitrant. So are the paths of autoidentification. In this context, Sedgwick scrutinizes the theoretical and political positioning of the perceived role of women and feminist penmanship regarding the homosexuality of males. According to Sedgwick, the mtier of male homosexuality lacks the theoretical framework, and therefore it is a positive advancement to explore the issue by womens standpoint.
Throughout the last three axiomatic statements, Sedgwick enwraps the gesture of language and historical implications and intricacies of sexuality, particularly homosexuality of gay males. Epistemology of the Closest is widely acknowledged for its unique contribution in the area of historical and analytical research about the taboo subject of sexuality. The fundamental conception of epistemic representation of axiomatic statements provided scholars and academics with concrete foundations to assess and comprehend the functionality and other interconnected dimensions of sexual and intimate relationships through including a broader range of demographics. Furthermore, the publication poses a considerable and significant impact on the gay community, and for them, the book is known as something extremely imperative. Along with other countless achievements, Sedgwick established a crucial position in the development and proposition of queer theory through her axioms.
Black Womans Subjectivity and Racial and Sexual Multiplicity in History from Hartmans Glance
In her 2017s essay The Terrible Beauty of the Slum Saidiya Hartman portrays a detailed and somehow dismaying picture of a black girls life in a slum. Throughout the content, Hartman revealed the catastrophes of the Progressive Era and the Glided Age that, in turn, paved the path for the contemporary United States. According to common perception, black and American Africans encountered brutal and unjust treatment only in the working environment. However, the limitation is a vague gesture as the perilous haphazard was an integral part of the neighborhood, as well. Hartman observes the regular slum lifes incidents and mediocre happenings and examines the ordinary and banal protagonist of a black slum girl.
Through a sensible scrutinizing, Hartman asserts that black women are pivotal in altering the overall political, economic, and cultural paradigm of the United States through their persistence and will to survive. Furthermore, Hartman reveals that the widely disseminated hypothesis that talks about the thriving and prosper image of women in the progressive era is entirely vague and absurd. The depiction of miseries and offensiveness encountered by the black slum women utter that women of color at that time were facing the horrible side of the American past. Hartman painted a picture of the back alley, the ghetto, and the slum and unveiled the chattering, disdainful, deprived, unjust, and lower-than-human-level lifestyle. She describes the setting as a place of beautiful flaws and terrible ornaments. The black girl became a target of polices racism-based abatement and loathed by shop owners and their customers.
Literature is laden with different stories and instances of black women who suffered both from their racial and gender multiplicity. The black girl understands her fragile position in a world that is full of superiority-phobia the world believed that men are superior to women and whites are superior to blacks, and there she was a woman and black, and therefore she had to deal with the gush of both severity for being exacerbated inferior. Every time she experienced a deprivation, her doubts become more substantial the black slum girl hopelessly hoped for the freedom and eventually comprised only on to survive and stay alive, and so she said can I live (Hartman, 2017) the question itself held a multitude of anticipation, pain and hope and an amalgamation of all these emotions was founded on the pillars of expectancies of promise and beauty.
Foucault, Sexuality as an Absent Cause, Repressive Hypothesis and Notion Sedgwick
An absent cause can be referred to as something that does not exist in the present and features no actual elemental presence sexuality, according to Foucault, is the same an absent cause. As a matter of fact, sexuality is not such an indispensable and prominent matter from a societal perspective, neither in todays world nor in the past. However, the propagandas and social activism and process always ignite an inextinguishable fire and in turn, augment the impact of sexuality simultaneously. Repressive Hypothesis is a theory developed by Foucault and defines the social and individual repression on sexual desires and orientations. The social movements that are designed and conveyed to suppress sexuality often construct the antagonism and reverse effect instead. Take the instance of a spring that when pressed jumps in a more fervor manner, the same equation applies to the idea of sexuality that gets constructed because of perceived suppression. Even in the modern epoch of the twentieth century, people overlooked the possibility of open discussion based on the subject of sexuality. Only academic and research mtier are able to converse about such taboo issues, but otherwise, the discourse is not opened for the general public. In due course, a dialogue or elongated discussion on sexuality deems as a revolt and insurgency against the traditional system of repression and considered as an issue of political freedom instead of rational scrutiny.
Similarly, according to the description of Sedgwick, heterosexuality and homosexuality are the products of the contemporary western bourgeois. According to Sedgwick, the phobic discourse is an integral part of the elevated knowledge level of the western world because it enhances the idea of selfhood that, in turn, provokes an individual to identify the inner self and genuine inclinations. Take the instance that before the repression of bourgeoisies, the antiquity was bared of such any distinctions and sexual diversities. However, the repressive practices assisted sexuality and homosexuality to emerge in the wake of the 17th and 18th centuries. The phenomenon, in turn, partook in the construction of sexual inversion experiences in the nineteenth century. According to a myriad of research studies, it is proved that sexuality is a social construct, and it has nothing to do with any genetic or biological factors. Experts discourage the amount wasted in laboratories that are spent on examining biological factors that could deliver a gay or lesbian baby in this regard, it is critical to understand that a fetus never holds the sexuality.
Michael W. Hannon (2014) explicates that in many cases, the underlying terminology of Foucaults social construct is mostly misunderstood, and it is perceived that sexuality is not real nevertheless, it is not the case. In order to elaborate on the proposition, Hannon suffuses the notion of fragile construct and the underlying power of the real-world by explaining the harassing experiences of LGBTQ students and homeless gays and transgender. The outer world and societal system have specific rules and regulations, and in accordance with widely accepted value sets, they recognize and chastise the outcasts and people who do not follow the normal flow. Similar to race, gender, and ethnicity, an individual does not have any control or contribution in determining their sexuality. The sexuality-based structures construct by the standards and customary practices as well as repressiveness of modern society, and they commence to take shape from the day when an individual attains cognizance regarding its implied position in the premises of the planet.
Foucault M, Foucault M.The History Of Sexuality. London Penguin 1990.
Hannon M, Hannon A. Against Obsessive Sexuality Michael W. Hannon. First Things. https//www.firstthings.com/web-exclusives/2014/08/against-obsessive-sexuality. Published 2014. Accessed October 28, 2019.
Hartman S. The Terrible Beauty of the Slum Brick. Brick. https//brickmag.com/the-
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Kosofsky Sedgwick E.Epistemology Of The Closet. 1990.
Wilde O.The Picture Of Dorian Gray. London Planet Three 2004.
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