Final Paper Political Theory
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]
Democracy is one of the major strands of politics, taking into account that it is one of the types of government that is prevalent in present time. It would not be wrong to say that six out of ten countries are working under democratic politics. Major political powers of the world are ruled under the stance of democracy highlighting that it is a framework that allows ruling and ruled over to work in synchronization with each other. It is asserted that democracy is the only form of government that is viewed as something legitimate around the world. It was thirty years ago, that only a quarter of states of world were democracies. It is significant to note that democracy has been expanded throughout the world. There are a number of countries in this world who are trying to achieve a democratic stance of politics. It highlights that democracy is a bridge that connects past politics with current political affairs, adhering to the will of ruled over.
Athenian democracy originated in 550 BC, taking into account that it was a system of government that was formulated to allow citizens play their role in decisions making. Apart from political revolutions, Athenian democracy was a remarkable stance that empowered citizens to incorporate their will in the decisions of state. It was the 5th and 4th century when Athens was a democratic state, void of hegemony of the oligarchs who ruled government in many of historical eras. It is significant to note that tension between Democrats and oligarchs was one of the major points of attention because of the difference of perception toward government. There was hardly any situation when Democrats were not suspecting oligarchs of conspiracies against democracy or when Democrats were not fearful of the hostile encroachment on wealth and privileges. It was 411 when a number of oligarchs were executed considering them as opponents of a democratic timeline. According to Plato, Athens was more like a puppet in the hands of rhetoric who were easily swayed by deceptive and emotional timelines referring to ambitious politicians. He derived, “democracy” to be derived from “demos” taking into account that the majority of ordinary people that supported disastrous campaigns of the Peloponnesian War by the power of votes. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100).It is significant to note that the authorities had condoned trail and execution of Socrates which was one of the major aspects that changed the perception of Plato regarding political authorities. In a simplified form, Athenian politics was more like an irremediably corrupt affair that could pursue wisdom in the personal life and privacy of one’s solitude. (Corcoran & P, 2019, pp. 1-21).
Plato did not see himself as private life of the mind, taking into account that he made a contribution in terms of construction of just and rational society. He considered justice and reason as a subject that could not be treated as personal matter as it could cast a massive impact on the paradigms of society. In his writing, “The Republic”, Plato identified certain stages of government that are unavoidable but they are also unreliable on the same paradigm. Plato predicted society that was facing an enormous socio-economic gap, where the poor will become poor with every passing hour while the rich will continue to gain more wealth with each step. He asserted that this stance of conflict will pave the way for oppression from the side of society in order to impart a balance. (Corcoran & P, 2019, pp. 1-21). He considered and named, “balance” as a democratic supplant, taking into account that it would be reminiscent of a number of historical revolutions, such as the American Revolution.
Plato made profound discrimination between the stance of desire, creating a line between necessary and unnecessary desires. He considered the chase of resources as a stance that made authoritative people enforce and practice their will, living on the sweat and blood of those who don’t speak. Plato had several problems with democracy taking into consideration that democratic leaders ensure their power by formulating certain rules and regulations. One of the reflections of this imposition can be found in the formulation of laws that can bolster their position. It is asserted that the inability to fight back will make so-called leaders impose a tax and other implementations against the commoner, as a stance to suppress the power of the general public. Anyone who will try to react and oppress against the set pattern would be called a “rebel" and then he will be made victim to the will orientated laws. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100). Moreover, if people will try to get rid of office that formulate such laws or act as a major promoter of the regulation, asserting that such individual would either be forced to exile or he will be struck down by some sort of political opposition.
Plato used the term “tyrant” for politicians asserting that they will try to secure all their accessories such as power and wealth by appointing bodyguards making them more powerful and worth respecting. Plato asserted that becoming tyrant, deprives an individual of the office and its regulations affirmed that the tyrant will rule in accordance with his will, side by side he will make soldiers as slaves and someone who is degraded and degenerated. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100). In a nutshell, a tyrant would be born of an individual who was once given a certain position to protect the rights of the general public. This account is a clear depiction of Plato’s description of democracy, taking into account that it is a provoking expression that behooves an individual to analyze and examine its own government. Plato believed that democracy will lead an individual to be ruled by brutes and bullies, taking into account that democracy could drive a nation to the deep caves of fear and destruction. There are certain evident challenges and complications that are determined by the analysis of democracy, inferring that “corruption and inefficiency” is one of the major issues. It has been highlighted that in many of the democratic countries, the one who has the power is corrupt; he/she manipulates and exploit power through excessive use. It is highlighted that certain unethical habits have become a major trait that makes someone able and eligible for a post in any of the office.
An exegetical analysis reveals that implication such attributes clearly highlights what Plato thought of a democratic state, taking into account that nowadays every individual has become a major victim to lack of trust. Anti-Social elements are also playing an equally important and significant role in realizing and maintaining the dark picture of democracy, people prefer illegal and unfair means to achieve their personal and social aims. (Corcoran & P, 2019, pp. 1-21). A common example is an election, where people are bribed and then forced to cast vote for a particular party. Rigging has also become one of the major elements of election and political proceedings. Increasing economic imbalance and social inequalities are acting as a serious threat as well as a major stance of "gap" in democratic stance, highlighting that there are a number of inequalities among people. It would not be wrong to say that every state affair is already decided, inferring people are puppets in the hands of authorities how they are manipulating and exploiting resources. It is significant to note that Communalism and Casteism have also become one of the catch lines of democracy because a number of decisions from the side of the public are taken in accordance with the cast and religion of a candidate. Even formulating a political party is also designed by the interference of cast and religion, referring to the revolution and support of the people of the same ethnicity. On the same platform, it is asserted that there are a number of ways, through which these gaps can be assessed, even in the present time; there are certain organizations that are formed with the sole aim to keep a check and balance on the authorities who are in power. (Hyland, et, al. 2019).
An analysis of facts and figures highlight that “literacy” is the only stance that could address gaps that are imparted and localized by democracy. Education will not only allow people to realize what is required of them, side by side it will incorporate stability and suitability of choice, asserting that masses invest more power in their “illiterate paradigms”. On the same timeline, “lack of consciousness" is also one of the major gaps that make democracy a failed and somewhere an ineligible institute could facilitate governance. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100). It is important to note that democracy and its drawbacks can’t be highlighted without understanding certain key elements that formulate the actual baseline of democracy. There are four basic aspects of democracy such as a system of competition of power, participation, and right of citizen and implication of the rule of law. Democracy is more like a stance that allows people to choose their own leader who can be trusted and can be treated as a stance of accountability in terms of future goals. In a simplified form, “consent of governed” is treated as one of the major element of democracy. The elected representatives strive to work for the betterment of the general public, considering themselves as protector of rights of the general public. It is important to note that election occurs after certain tenure in order to keep “chance” and “equivalence” in practice. (Hyland, et, al. 2019).
Other major element of democracy is the participation of citizens, taking into account that citizens and general public is one of the major pillars of democracy. Citizens are obliged to participate in terms of all issues, whether public and private. On the other hand, it is the right of the chosen authorities to give an ear to issues of public, taking into account that democracy works by equal anticipation of both the parties. Independent and non-government organizations also play an equally important role in maintaining the platform of balance between rulings and ruled over. The concept of “civil society” also plays a major role in determining the roles at both ends. It is significant to note that the participation of civic group should be voluntary; none of the parties would be enforced to join any organization. It is highlighted that the power of democracy is dependent on the participation of the general public. None of the political party has the right to threaten others, in any of the social or political aspects. The individuality of citizens highlight, “Rights of citizens”.
Democracy is termed as one of the most effective and prevalent forms of government because every individual has an equal right to practice its will. There are a number of freedoms that are associated with democratic government ranging from “freedom of thought and religion to the freedom of actions”. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100). There is no stress or imposition in terms of any obligation, asserting a limitless framework in which “man exists”. It is significant to note that democracy also imparts and infer certain limits taking into account that "it is a system of rules by laws rather than by individual”. Although democracy is a bit twisted concept still it is significant to note that an individual is free within itself bound by certain limits that prevent an individual from posing or creating harms of others. In a simplified form, democracy has entailed certain rules that are mandatory for each of the individuals, taking into account that none of the entity would be imprisoned, exiled and arrested arbitrarily. If someone is detained or threatened there must be a clear logic behind with an equal approach to justification. It would not be wrong to say that democracy doesn’t welcome brutality and harshness.
Democracy is a two-way relationship where two social paradigms are connected to each other, taking into account that democracy requires compromise. The population at both ends has to compromise somewhere in order to ensure stability and adequate working. It would not be wrong to say that democracy is a platform where everyone wins something but over the course of time. (Corcoran & P, 2019, pp. 1-21). The stance of “will” refers to freedom, taking into account that it is termed as one of the major attributes that are associated with democracy. Liberty and freedom is a quest of discussion for a number of political leaders and philosophers. According to Plato, different stages of governance predicts the stance that people long for liberty and freedom, as a tool that can let them live without a threat form authorities.
The Republic has incorporated detailed analysis of freedom and liberty by creating a distinction between necessary and unnecessary desires. According to him, the desires that are a result of “fascination “are actually an influx of liberty because freedom is more like a drug that when tasted is hard to drink that off. Plato asserts that people are always freedom demanding, they are in a continues struggle got freedom because freedom is more like a trance. (Hyland, et, al. 2019). When an individual becomes obsessed with freedom, there is no way out to keep social order in practice. In the present time, an imitation of Plato’s idea can be found because people are striving for freedom that could liberate from the actual stance of social setting. It would not be wrong to say that freedom and liberty are interchanging used terms, one transit over the other. It is the essence of unconstraint that has attracted a lot of attention, taking into account that man is not liberated and free of constraints because there are certain and prevalent natural constraints that can never be mitigated.
Nature is one of the major aspects that constraints an individual because natural laws can neither be challenged nor be neglected. It paves the way for the stance that there are certain limitations and constraints that are imposed on both, individual liberty and authority of government, although both the paradigms are free, and still they are chained in limits. An individual cannot work and live without adhering to certain limits, taking into account that these appropriate limits are formulated both, intentionally and intentionally. In accordance with government authorities, appropriate limits refer to the implication of "honesty” taking into account that none of the authority should misuse and exploit power. On the same stance, accountability and a balance of desires is also an appropriate limit because inappropriate and excessive use of resources and accomplishment of desires can make authorities became a slave to their desires that can create certain problems in society by distorting social order. (Hyland, et, al. 2019).
On the other hand, there are certain appropriate limits imposed on individual liberty, asserting that an individual should think about self as something superior to animals where each individual is responsible for her/his actions and duties. It is important to note that “control of desires” and “ethical and moral obligations” are major and appropriate limits for an individual because any distortion of these limits can hamper the social order by creating barriers in the actual moral and ethical proceedings of the society. It is important to note that accountability and reflection of actions is also a stance that highlights appropriate limits for individual, taking into account that self-analysis is one of the major attributes that can guide society towards morality and keep law and order enact.
The concept of appropriate limits can be understood by analyzing the liberty principles of John Stuart Mill. His essay “On liberty” elaborates how much control society has in terms of allowing or preventing certain actions of people. (Acemoglu, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-100). It is affirmative to highlight that John Stuart has incorporated a basic approach to social order by asserting that only those actions are prevented that are assumed or observed to impart harm or negative impact. He asserted that an individual has complete freedom of practicing his will until his actions are not threatening others. He incorporated the "principle of utility” that states that people should only do those things that can spread happiness and welfare in society. The propositions of John Stuart are highly applicable, taking into account that society is a group of people who are interrelated with each other through certain abstractions and these abstractions should be maintained in order to keep social law and order in touch. It is evident that the opposite of utility is harm that will tarnish the stance of law and order. The principle of utility highlights an equal approach towards the applicability of “appropriate limits” highlighting that an individual should try to avoid harm because it is a negative connotation that could hurt not only the sentiments but also impact the lives of other human beings.
It is significant to note that Mill was influenced by Alex de Tocqueville whose work, “Democracy in America” made Mill infer and reflect through democracy as an approach that can expose an individual to new dangers. It would not be wrong to say that democracy was viewed as a stance of both “prosperity” and “danger” referring to the constraints that are imposed at both ends. (Hyland, et, al. 2019). He asserted that democracy, when left without constraints, can act as a serious threat to both social security and the set of rules, affirming that Mill laws are highly applicable and relatable. An understanding of harm and offense is one of the subject matter that elaborated the perception associated with morality and ethics.
An exegetical analysis reveals that democracy is a political framework that paves the way for social prosperity by adhering to facts and figures. Although Plato was against democracy, still, it is assertive that democracy is equally prospering and destructive, adhering to the implication of constraints and restrictions. In accordance with the basic elements of democracy, it can be highlighted that a positive approach towards the democratic principle can pave the way for a balanced paradigm that will work with mutual coordination of both society and rules. Side by side, democracy can also bring about destruction when practiced beyond limits. In a nutshell, constraints are necessary to bring all the aspect of social and political life together.
Acemoglu, D., Naidu, S., Restrepo, P., & Robinson, J. A. (2019). Democracy does cause growth. Journal of Political Economy, 127(1), 47-100.
Corcoran, P. (2019). John Stuart Mill’s Political Pessimism. The European Legacy, 1-21.
Hyland, D. A. (2019). From Democracy to Oligarchy to Tyranny. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy.
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