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Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky:
John Piaget explained the child's development of the mental model of the world which suggested that the children move through four developmental stages. The theory not just focuses on the mental development of the child but also, understands the intelligence capability of the child. According to him, children play an active part in the learning process, just as the scientists do. There are three components which underlie the basis of theory; Schemas (Knowledge Building Blocks), Adaptation (Transitioning Stage), and the Cognitive Development Stages ( sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and Formal operational)
The theory focused on the role of social interaction in the cognitive development of a child. According to him, the community played a major part in the central cognitive development of a child, and social learning tends to develop cognitive development. He also imposed stress on the language as a role in effective cognitive development.
Ideas that support the cognitive development in children from birth to age two:
At this stage, the children are dependant on their senses and the physical abilities to sense the surroundings of their environment. Since, from birth to the age of two, their only way of interaction is seeing, tasting, hearing and smell, they obtain a perception on the objects through these abilities and develop a cognitive awareness of their own. In this stage, children can develop cognitively through hiding and showing them objects, or showing them partially.
At the age of one, most of the children start to speak in their mother language. This speaking is based on the hearing since their birth. According to Vygotsky, learning is an effective tool which guides the children to speak as the cognitive development arises from the internalization of the language. Thoughts and language are the systems which initiate in the individual from the beginning stages of life.
Stanton, W.R. Stanton, W.R. Current Psychology (1993) 12: 26. 26-45 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02737090 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02737090
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