Write A Critical Review Of Recent Literature On University Student Attitudes Towards Crime. You Are Expected To Conduct Your Own Independent Literature Research.
University Student Attitudes towards Crime.
Name of the Writer
Name of the University
University Student Attitudes towards Crime.
According to a report by the Australian Institute of Criminology, details regarding the homicide rate show a decreasing trend from 2012 to 2018 (Walklate, et al, 2019). This incident rate is the lowest since the past twenty-five years. Crime is one of the main reasons for the cause of distress within any country and its citizens. Now due to increased globalization, there has been increased movement of people from one side of the globe to the other. This has led to an influx of students and other international and national individuals in countries such as Australia (De Wit, 2017). This report tries to analyse the attitude of the students regarding crime. This analysis would be done in the form of a literature review and will comprise of the work of several authors. This will allow us to gain an understanding of what student's attitude is towards crime.
To conduct a literature view, the major focus for literature was done on published articles as well as news articles from reputable news agencies (Bramer, et al, 2018). The literature from these sources will focus on different aspects of crime and how students in different regions around the world are reacting to it. To search for related literature regarding the topic, different search terms were used. These search terms revolved around crime, crime, and students, the effect of crime on students, rate of crime in different student areas and the relationship between crime and students (Vom Brocke, et al, 2015). The use of these search terms provided articles over a constricted year (in this case till 2014).
According to the work done by Jacobsen (2017), the Clerry Act passed in the year 1998 required institutions to increases notice and awareness regarding crime prevention techniques among the on-campus living community. Furthermore, it was a requirement that they spread information regarding crime prevention programs being practiced on campus. This study tried to analyse the effectiveness of the university’s information dissemination regarding crime prevention. They found that universities with a higher male population and higher security measures had more crime occurring. What this study didn't consider in its analysis is the fact that many behavioural and environmental factors also increase the level of crime such as family background, racism, and other factors. Taking decision just on gender and number of personnel is not evidence of anything.
Another study was done by Bennett and Holloway, (2018), which analyses the relationship between and drug and alcohol-related crimes with university students. To find this, they analysed the drug prevalence techniques related to the students within seven selected universities in the United Kingdom. A further focus was on substance users who offended and substance users who had no offender history. Their research was more of a qualitative nature and revealed that the same percentage users of drugs and alcohol have committed substance related crimes. Most of these offenders were males and used to go to parties off-campus and had poor mental and physical health. This article has based its research very substantially but the fact is that the research is limited to a very small and controlled group of universities. This makes the result not a real representation of the current trends regarding the students' attitude towards crime.
Another research was done by Tandoğan and Topçu, (2018), focused on the fear, the university students had regarding crimes. This is a positive aspect of this research as fears regarding crime are an integral part of the social and political debate. Furthermore, this research focuses on female students especially for their increased risk of being sexually assaulted. This is important because female sexual victimization has a four times more likely chance of occurrence than anything else. The study further focuses on Namik Kamil University in Turkey, with a quantitative approach involving face to face interviews, and other randomly selected institutions and schools. This is another plus point of this research that they have used a bigger pool of data to get a true view of how high is the level of sexual victimization faced by female students. The major limitation of this research is that it has not mentioned the social, political or religious reasons why only women are victimized and furthermore, why the focus is only on women victimization when there is an increase in sexual victimization against binary and non-binary genders as well.
According to a book written Forbes-Mewett, et al, (2017), the main focus on the rise of internationalization and the rise in crime associated with this rise. This book considers the factor that for international students, safe studying destinations are an important aspect of the decisions regarding which place to study. This is an important point to consider because most of these international students come from far off countries to complete their studies and become so much more than what they currently are. So, it is very important for them to choose a place where their views, practices, and presence won't be judged and persecuted. There has been a plethora of qualitative research done in this book to ascertain whether how many international students face criminal behaviour against them or even perpetrate criminal behaviour. The only limitation is that this research is focused mainly on three major countries Britain, Australia and the United States of America when there is a huge influx of foreign students in other notable places in the world such as Asian countries such as China and other countries such as Turkey.
Mancini, et al, (2016), keeping with the trend with the above article, focused their research on the mandatory policies in higher education. They further based their research on the attitude of college students regarding the laws formed in order to reduce the chance of sexual assault occurring. The laws that were introduced were new and had a high number of controversial elements to them. This research’s positive nature is seen from its intense analysis of the laws and how they are impacting the victims and the perpetrators at the same time. Furthermore, the research has concluded that there is overwhelming support for mandatory reporting and there is increased belief in the benefits of the laws regarding increasing accountability in university.
Further research done by Burdick-Will, (2016), revealed the effect of early experiences of neighbourhood violent crimes in the academic, economic and social success of students. This study is very prudent in the fact that it focuses on the behavioural and psychological effects and early exposure to violent crimes can have in the academic growth of students. Furthermore, the study is more focused on violent neighbourhoods of Chicago but the fact is that there are much worse places that the study could focus on. Places where the loss of human life and collateral damage is very high. Analysing the academic growth of students in such areas and the result of such a study would have had a more profound effect.
Moreover, Sherman, et al, (2016), researched the basis of an assessment of threats of college students as the dangers within their childhood environments. In this research, they realize that humans at a every age internalize the risk of mortality and that forms their perceptions regarding their future encounters. This research took account of the environmental factors affecting and forming how their attitude would be against crimes committed. Furthermore, this research had included a diverse pool of data with individuals from different neighbourhoods. This allowed them to decrease any sort of uncertainty risk by increasing the data pool. But this research is limited in the sense that their measure of early crime is not the true representation of exposure to crime at early childhood. This is because there was limited historical data regarding a crime committed during several of the candidates' childhood.
More research conducted by Schildkraut, et al, (2015), focuses on the rise of moral panic regarding school shootings and how it is raising the fear regarding crime in college students. School shootings have been on the rise recently, with the news filled with such incidences in different places. This research of positive nature is emitted from the fact that a topic has been chosen which has a huge debate behind it. To do analysis, this research used a quantitative approach and tried to link different forms of crime with Good and Ben-Yehuda's model of moral panic. The fact is that the limitation of this study again is that it was only conducted within only one university. This makes its results, not a clear representation of how crime is associated with moral panic. This makes the data and its results very generalized and should also have included the views of the staff and faculty as well.
Taking into account research done by several prominent researchers, it would not be wrong to say that crime rates are continuously increasing in universities. Furthermore, there has been a variety of different reactions that have been obtained through research regarding different crimes. Their reactions and attitudes are either based on their childhood experiences on their use of alcohol or drugs. These reasons have led to a variety of attitude from different students. Where some students consider one crime heinous and the others count it as the college experience.
Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2018). Drug and alcohol-related crime among university students. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 62(14), 4489-4509.
Bramer, W. M., Rethlefsen, M. L., Mast, F., & Kleijnen, J. (2018). Evaluation of a new method for librarian‐mediated literature searches for systematic reviews. Research synthesis methods, 9(4), 510-520.
Burdick-Will, J. (2016). Neighbourhood violent crime and academic growth in Chicago: lasting effects of early exposure. Social forces, 95(1), 133-158.
De Wit, H. (2017). Global: Internationalization of Higher Education: Nine Misconceptions: International Higher Education, Summer 2011, Number 64. In Understanding higher education internationalization (pp. 9-12). Brill Sense.
Forbes-Mewett, H., McCulloch, J., & Nyland, C. (2015). International students and crime. Springer.
Jacobsen, S. K. (2017). Examining crime on campus: The influence of institutional factors on reports of crime at colleges and universities. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 28(4), 559-579.
Mancini, C., Pickett, J. T., Call, C., & Roche, S. P. (2016). Mandatory reporting (MR) in higher education: College students’ perceptions of laws designed to reduce campus sexual assault. Criminal justice review, 41(2), 219-235.
Schildkraut, J., Elsass, H. J., & Stafford, M. C. (2015). Could it happen here? Moral panic, school shootings, and fear of crime among college students. Crime, Law and Social Change, 63(1-2), 91-110.
Sherman, A. K., Minich, S. H., Langen, T. A., Skufca, J., & Wilke, A. (2016). Are college students’ assessments of threat shaped by the dangers of their childhood environment?. Journal of interpersonal violence, 31(11), 2006-2025.
Tandoğan, O., & Topçu, B. (2018). Fear of crime among university students: A research in Namik Kemal University.
Vom Brocke, J., Simons, A., Riemer, K., Niehaves, B., Plattfaut, R., & Cleven, A. (2015). Standing on the shoulders of giants: challenges and recommendations of literature search in information systems research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37(1), 9.
Walklate, S., McCulloch, J., Fitz-Gibbon, K., & Maher, J. (2019). Criminology, gender and security in the Australian context: Making women’s lives matter. Theoretical Criminology, 23(1), 60-77.
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