Social changes are associated with the industrial revolution apparent in population increase and mass urbanization. Revolution attracted a large population from rural areas to urban regions. It was the first time when a huge population moved to urban areas in search of employment and with the aim of improving standards of living. During this era, a class of industrialists were acquiring most of the wealth and investing in a business. The working class had to survival on minimum wages, which reflected a clear class gap between the rich and the poor. They were confined to low-level jobs such as labor. Although they provided numerous benefits to the farm owners including high productivity and profits but they continued to live in segregation.
The richness of aristocracy remained the dominant aspects of Victoria Britain after the industrial revolution. The wealth of aristocracy was based on lands and many new businessmen emerged to increase their wealth. During the reign of Queen Victoria, the populace was primarily rural. However, the explosion of industrial revolution encouraged the migration of people from rural to urban lands. This accelerated movement caused a shortage of housing and people had to live in slumps or crowded houses. The poor were living the inner city while the rich were settled in the core city. The rich class enjoyed numerous benefits because the availability of excessive labor allowed them to increase productivity CITATION Chr173 \l 1033 (Baker, 2017).
Industrialization is linked to dramatic changes in aspects of Victorian life. Growth in commercial entertainment can be seen as a visible impact of industrialization. This era is also linked with the change in popular culture as lives were regulated by the different cycle of seasons. Day rituals included harvesting by until the end of the growing season. More textile industries opened that encouraged women, men and children to join the workforce. Everyone was inclined to earn for improving living standards. This period is linked with the creation of a third class, the middle-class. The society was divided into different strata according to wealth and status CITATION Chr173 \l 1033 (Baker, 2017).
Historians the concept of industrialization and development and dependence on industrial technologies of other countries. Britain developed a strong connection between manufacturing and development. Government's intervention in the manufacturing sector depicts the need for an effective control mechanism, and her theory demonstrates the principle of reciprocity. The concept of reciprocity depicts the dependence of the industry's performance on government's support CITATION Jam14 \l 1033 (Cypher, 2014). the state stressed on the connection between qualified professionals and firm controls that lead to massive developments. The tactics that lead to high imports include elevation of equity stakes.
Negative trends were promoted by the industrial revolution because for the first time labor was working between 6 am to 9 pm. They were working extra hours but only managed to earn meagre wages CITATION Chr173 \l 1033 (Baker, 2017). The industrial revolution did not change the status of the poor. Minority groups found work only in agrarian communities. Revolution impacted blacks negatively. With the increase in competition, the environment became more hostile for the working class. Attacks towards minority population also increased. Many firms hired black workers as cheap labor. There was a clear line was drawn between the dominant and inferior class. Rich British earned supernormal profits and attained the advantage of cheap labor. While on the other hand blacks struggled for basic necessities. Segregation was apparent in every aspect of Victorian life such as schooling and work. The kids of working-class lacked access to education that affected their futures. The chapter also highlights gender inequality.
Women in Britain experienced gender discrimination in work. They had fewer opportunities for growth compared to males. Similarly, they were paid low salaries and remained at middle-positions. Males on the other hand enjoyed wider benefits and pay scale. Although it was the first time that women were hired by factories but they faced gender inequality that was apparent in pay gaps.
Victorian Britain identified the importance of technological interventions and needs to construct institutions that lead to high productivity. Components of development include an effective control mechanism, low- interest loan, performance-based support that links to employment, investment and technological diffusion. The strategy of the state reflects the significance of administrative guidance that results from the central control mechanism and formulation of policy guidelines. The concept of integrationists relates to countries like Mexico that approached other countries for technological integration. This resulted in development theory also highlight the connections between nationalist altering systems and knowledge-based skills. Development banking depends on the ability of the nation to overcome failures of the state through the adoption of effective control mechanisms. The inductive theory is another contribution that discusses industrial expansion and growth. The concept of elite development economists and economic entropy reflects the influences over international trade. Reciprocity illustrates the dependence of development on profitability yields from alternative opportunities. The important contributions involve her arguments on concepts of the skewed income distribution, agro- mineral exports, and concentration of raw materials. History reveals that development of country's economy depends on the economic policy that that state formulates CITATION Jam14 \l 1033 (Cypher, 2014).
Historians portray associate industrial revolution with a modern society that lacked morality and values. This was the period of the industrial revolution that changed the human approach and living patterns of Victorian British. People cared more about wealth and status than relationships and values. The materialistic world resulted in self- destruction and societal damages. The period after revolution played a significant role in disillusioning people and focusing on individualism. People lacked consciousness to think about their wrong attitudes and immoral acts. Sociologists use modernism to relate it with destruction and lack of purposeful life CITATION Sch141 \l 1033 (Schlicke, 2014). Modernism changed the concept of living for the people and focused more on changing their status. In Victoria, the society didn't care about social norms. The society became more materialistic that is apparent in the fact that children were forced to work in factories. The brutal treatment of factory supervisor was to raise productivity. People also forgot their family values in the race of making money. Prior to the revolution, women stayed home to taking care of their children CITATION Pat111 \l 1033 (Hudson, 2011). After the revolution, the majority of the working-class women joined the workforce for making money. This deteriorated the family system and cultural traditions.
History indicates that the demand for new goods fueled the industry that offered secured earning to the Victorian people. People with specialized skills such as engineering and technology managed to raise their level of incomes. These people attained the status of middle-class. Population explosion posed a significant challenge of managing resources and land for the people CITATION Pat111 \l 1033 (Hudson, 2011). The Victorian boom of the nineteenth century provided markets for selling talents to the people. The period also promoted free trade that allowed the economy to progress.
The analysis of the history of the industrial revolution depicts that the era contributed to the expansion of businesses. But it also promoted negative trends such as the increased division between the rich and the poor class. This gave birth to the laissez-faire capitalism that suppressed the poor. The poor working conditions, low wages and greed for more profits are negative impacts of the industrial revolution. The society lost its traditional values as the women entered factories.
Baker, C. (2017). The Industrial Revolution in Victorian England. Retrieved 12 01, 2019, from https://www.hartfordstage.org/stagenotes/acc15/industrial-revolution
Cypher, J. M. (2014). The Process of Economic Development, Edition 4. Routledge.
Hudson, P. (2011). The Workshop of the World. Retrieved 12 01, 2019, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/workshop_of_the_world_01.shtml
Schlicke, P. (2014). Popular culture and the impact of industrialisation. Retrieved 12 01, 2019, from https://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/popular-culture-and-the-impact-of-industrialisation
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