U.S. History Since 1877
US History since 1877
Harry Barnes wrote an article in 1952 by the name “How ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ Trends Threaten American Peace, Freedom, and Prosperity”. This article was, in fact, the final chapter of his classical publication perpetual war for perpetual peace. He associates the decision of the United States of taking part in world wars in 1917 and 1941 with the economics and financial prosperity. Barnes discusses the effects of war and military expansion of the United States in 1920,s and 1930,s responsible for economic instability and employment. The expenses related to maintenance of war and gigantic armaments depending upon the consumer demands could not be met during the war which resulted in financial issues. The expeditions followed afterward were costing more or fewer twenty-five million dollars yearly which was a massive blow for the economy. The economic prospects demand mature political leadership for economic development rather than suggesting military options. These trends are a threat to American freedom, prosperity, and peace.
Barnes describes ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ trends as the driving factor of the American economy where the prosperity of the country since 1940 is based on war. Barnes also argued that court historians and propagandists are fashioning a present based on the inaccurate and falsified telling of the past that was actually designed to meet the desires of the establishment to participate in the world wars. He was the proponent of the idea of revisionism and may be best remembered as the writer of a generally accepted definition of revisionism. Revisionism means making corrections in historical records in the light of a calm political atmosphere and a more complete and authentic collection of historical facts.
The United State’s policies regarding the cold war area also representation of this mindset as said in one of Orwell’s statements. The statement is about depriving the masses of the fruits of ever-expanding technological advancements. The tension between the United States and the Soviets is a source of financial benefits from the perspective of warfare and technology. This is obvious from the historical speech of Winston Churchill in 1945 where he exerted a great emphasis on stopping communism by making an allied force suggesting the importance and significance of the cold war. Communism is in fact not acceptable to the American way of life with respect to both freedom and also from an economic traditions point of view. The best possible defense of the United States against the USSR is economic stability and prosperity. The Soviet plans for propagating communism across the globe are not based on military terms rather it has its roots in intrigue, infiltration, and propaganda. To avoid communism and to take measures against it, a sound and strong ideology are needed rather than just relying upon military strategies.
Barnes suggests that communist threat to American prosperity and freedom cannot be avoided using tradition coercive strategies that we have been using since world wars. There are many military efforts that can be incorporated to undermine communism and its threats but it must be intercepted mainly by rendering communists fight each other. Barnes believes that it would have fairly a simple task if it had started back in 1947 by encouraging patriotic sentiments of the Chinese against Moscow and Chinese communists (Barnes). Even the Chinese communists possess a strong nationalistic feeling and could readily have been moved toward recovering a vast territory from Russian hands. In the end, Barnes showed his concerns about the future aspects of economic importance in war, the result of cold ears and the coercive strategies that can be used to gain supremacy. The attainment of supremacy is directly linked with financial stability and the ability to use coercive framework by virtue of advancement in military technology and a stable economy.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. "How “Nineteen Eighty-Four” Trends Threaten American Peace, Freedom, and Prosperity." Revisionism: A Key to Peace and Other Essays. San Francisco: Cato Institute (1980).
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