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TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc535470363 \h 2
Discovery PAGEREF _Toc535470364 \h 3
Historical Practices PAGEREF _Toc535470365 \h 3
Discussion PAGEREF _Toc535470366 \h 4
Tobacco; a growing industry PAGEREF _Toc535470367 \h 4
Position of Tobacco Industry PAGEREF _Toc535470368 \h 4
Production of Tobacco in the present time PAGEREF _Toc535470369 \h 5
Domestic Tobacco Production PAGEREF _Toc535470370 \h 5
Major Classes of Tobacco production PAGEREF _Toc535470371 \h 6
Transportation PAGEREF _Toc535470372 \h 6
Imports and Export PAGEREF _Toc535470373 \h 6
Tobacco as a drug PAGEREF _Toc535470374 \h 7
Addiction PAGEREF _Toc535470375 \h 8
Effects of tobacco PAGEREF _Toc535470376 \h 8
Advertisement of tobacco PAGEREF _Toc535470377 \h 9
Retail value-added promotions and the specialty of items PAGEREF _Toc535470378 \h 10
Promotion Allowances PAGEREF _Toc535470379 \h 10
Point of sale advertising showcases PAGEREF _Toc535470380 \h 10
Magazines and newspaper advertising PAGEREF _Toc535470381 \h 11
Consumption of tobacco in different age groups PAGEREF _Toc535470382 \h 11
Tobacco Control Scale PAGEREF _Toc535470383 \h 12
Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc535470384 \h 12
Tobacco is a plant that grows in North and South America, belonging to the family of potato, poisonous nightshade and, pepper. Tobacco has minor attire, with a number of seeds. It is observed that 1 ounce of tobacco has about 300,000 seeds. The growth of tobacco can be traced back in 6000 BC. The use of tobacco was reported in 1 BC, where American Indians were the first to begin the use of tobacco in both religious and medical procedures. Tobacco is treated both as a drug and cure however the medical practices are much appealing and informative such as wound dressing, and pain relief.
The discovery of tobacco is traced on October, 15 in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. He was offered dried tobacco leaves as a gift from the American Indians. After that sailors from America brought tobacco to Europe and then practices were made to grow tobacco in Europe. However, the major reason for the growth of tobacco in Europe was the healing properties. Europeans were of the view that tobacco has the power to cure all types of disease staring form bad breath to cancer. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
In 1571, a Spanish doctor Nicolas Monades wrote a book about the history of different medicinal plants, and he asserted that tobacco could cure 36 health problems. In 1588, Thomas Harriet affirmed that tobacco could be used for the purpose of smoking, taking into account that the most common type of smoking in that time was "through nose" and Harriet died of nose cancer. Actually, the cause of his death was excessive smoke through the nose. During 1600, tobacco was treated “as good as gold”, taking into account the frequent use and popularity. It was the same time period when a certain dangerous impact of tobacco was highlighted. In 1610, Francis Bacon brought into insight that addiction is another aspect of tobacco that is much hard to control. In 1632, revolutions were made regarding the use of tobacco and smoking was prohibited in Massachusetts. However, it is important to note that there were moral beliefs associated with the prohibition of tobacco. The first company for the processing of tobacco was established in “New York’ in 1760, with an aim to make tobacco suitable for snuffing and smoking. Lorillard is one of the oldest tobacco company in the US. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016)
Tobacco; a growing industry
In 1766, During the American revolutionary war, tobacco served as collateral for loans that were borrowed from France. With the passage of time, as more and more scientists started to understand that there are certain chemicals in tobacco, along with the hazards it can have on health, certain efforts were made to categorize the prioritization of tobacco. In 1826, the pure form of Nicotine was discovered taking into account that tobacco was considered as a poison. In 1836, New Englander Samuel Green affirmed that tobacco could also be used as an insecticide as well as a poison that has the potential kill a human being. In 1847, Phillip Morris was established that was known for selling hand-rolled cigarettes. Cigarettes became popular when the Turkish soldiers brought hand rolled tobacco to England from Russia. In 1875, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company was established to produce chewing tobacco. As it was an onset to the popularity of tobacco, a small section of stress on the ban on tobacco was also started. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
Position of Tobacco Industry
The tobacco industry is referred to as an industry that is involved in the manufacturing of tobacco products. The manufactured products of tobacco include cigarettes, cigar, snuff, and pipe. China National Tobacco Cooperation is termed as the world’s largest tobacco company by volume. The acquisition activity and the extension manager in the 1990s and 2000s were four times dominating than the international market. By 1990, there was a massive increase in the tobacco industry, taking into account that the lawsuits claimed tobacco as a cancer-causing agent. The lawsuit was settled with a large sum of money that was laid by the tobacco companies to the states, asserting that such suits will continue to occur for long. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
Production of Tobacco in the present time
In the present time, about 100 countries produce tobacco; however, the major producers are Turkey, China, India, Zimbabwe, and Malawi, contributing to the 80% production of tobacco. It is important to note that China alone is producing tobacco for about 35% of the world population. According to the latest information, about 7.1 million tons of tobacco was produced in 2010, and the production is 20% greater than the 1998 production. The other aspect of the record reveals that the production of tobacco is assumed to decline by after 2010, taking into account that the overall production adheres to 5.9 million tons of dry weight tobacco. The overall paradigm of production is inferred to expand in Malawi, India, Brazil, and Zimbabwe. The overall production of tobacco has reduced by 2 million pounds from 197 to 629 million pounds in 2016. In 2016, tobacco was grown on about 319 thousand acres while the yield per acre averaged to 1967 pounds that is reduced to 221 pounds from 2015. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
Domestic Tobacco Production
Keeping industries aside, tobacco is also produced in homes by the germination of seeds under greenhouse effect and some major strict disease and environmental controls. The seedlings are then transplanted into a field where they are heavily fertilized, monitored and treated for the damage against disease and insects. It would not be wrong to say that a labor estimate of tobacco production is termed as “highly labor intensive”. It takes about 200 hours/acre for the cutting of tobacco. Tobacco has a unique harvesting and cutting requirements. Tobacco meant for cigar is grown under covers in order to prevent it from insects and improve the texture of the leaf. The flue-cured and cigar tobacco leaves are harvested individually, starting from the bottom of the stalk to the top. This procedure is adopted to adjust with the suitability of the crop also because of the multiple trips of the crops through the field. The entire stalk of the air and fire-cured tobacco is then harvested along with the leaves. There are several factors that affect tobacco crop such as humidity, harvesting, and temperature, adhering to the crop's final quality. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
Major Classes of Tobacco production
The six major sections for the production of tobacco are air cured, flue-cured, cigar filler, cigar wrapper, and cigar binder. Flue-cured tobacco accounts for 58% of tobacco products in the year 2011 while air-cured burley tobacco accounts for about 29% production. The majority of tobacco in the United States is used for cigarettes. Flue-cured tobacco is basically used for cigarettes production. The fire-cured tobacco is dark leafed tobacco mainly used in chewing tobacco and in processing snuff. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
The transportation of tobacco includes both, imports and exports.
Imports and Export
The international import ratio of tobacco cigarettes is counted as the US $ 26.1 billion in 2017. The overall value of the tobacco cigarettes exports is recorded with a significant raise, i.e. 0.2% for all the importing countries. By 2013, the international purchase of the tobacco cigarettes was valued at $ 26 billion while the yearly imported record is appreciated by 14.6%. The continental perspective infers that the Asian Countries are accounted for the highest dollar worth associated with the exporting of tobacco cigarettes. In 2017, the overall purchase of tobacco was valued at $13.2 billion or 50.7% of the global total. In Africa, the total import was 5.7%, in Oceania, the export was 3.1% led by Australia, and in New Zealand. America is 2% excluding Mexico, but the inclusion of Caribbean made the sum of export as 1.7% in America. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
According to the media reports, the cigarette manufacturers have imported an ample amount of un-manufactured and unprocessed tobacco in the last few years with the applicable minimum rate of about 5%. The different cigarette manufacturers import several million kilograms of the un-manufactured tobacco. Hundreds of such consignments were imported by major industries of tobacco with the lowest recorded slab of 5 percent duty. It has been highlighted that Virginia tobacco has been considered as a cash crop mainly for the growers of the Asian countries, paving the way of employment for about 1.13 million people and generating a wide ratio of money in the form of Federal Excise Tax. It has been recorded that the rate of imports of tobacco in Sirilanka is 75%, India has an import record of 35 %, Bangladesh has an import record of 48% while Vietnam has 100% import rate. (Hitsman, et, al. 2016).
Tobacco as a drug
Tobacco is also used as a drug. Nicotine is a major chemical in tobacco; it is a stimulant drug that accelerates the transfer of messages between the body and brain. Nicotine can be more addictive than heroin. Nicotine causes a rush of adrenaline in the major bloodstream when it is smoked through cigarettes. Nicotine triggers dopamine; sometimes it is referred to as the brain’s happy chemical. Dopamine is responsible for stimulating the area of the brain that is associated with reward and pleasure. The use of tobacco over time can cause physical and psychological addiction. When tobacco is burnt, carbon monoxide and tar are released, referring to tobacco smoking. The center for disease control and prevention estimated that tobacco could cause 6 million deaths per year. (WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2015).
There are several term factors associated with the consumption of tobacco. Continuous exposure to tobacco may result in addiction. Addiction is defined as a stance referring to the failure to quit use of tobacco. Whenever any addict tries to fend off tobacco, there are several withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, trouble in sleeping, powerful cravings for tobacco, increased appetite and problem in paying attention to the work. (WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2015).
Effects of tobacco
The effect of tobacco is highly devastating; cigarette smoking harms every organ of the human body, smoking is one of the leading cause of premature deaths in the United States. According to the recorded information, the rate of smoking has declined in the past few years, however about 480,000 deaths are estimated as a result of smoking. The smokers of age 60 or older than that are assumed to have a two-fold increase in the mortality rate as compared to those who have never smoked mortality rate within the last six years. It is important to note that there are immediate benefits associated with the quitting of smoking, side by side, ratio of reduced life expectancy can be traced depending on the age of the person who is trying to quit smoking. (WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2015).
Although there is no direct association of tobacco with cancer, however, about 69 chemicals in the tobacco smoke are carcinogens, i.e. cancer-causing. It has been recorded that about 30% of the deaths related to cancer are caused because of smoking. The overall record of the death from cancer is twice in smokers as compared to the non-smokers. The heavy smokers are four times at risk of dying because of cancer as compared to that of non-smokers. Lung cancer is another highlighted concept that is associated with tobacco smoking. About 80 to 90 percent of the cases of cancer are associated with smoking. In heavy smokers, the risk of lung cancer increase from five to ten percent. Smoking is also associated with cancer of pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, cervix bladder and kidney. (WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2015).
In addition to cancer, smoking can also cause an increased rate of heart disease including vascular disease, stroke, heart attack, and aneurysm. Smoking can cause heart disease; it is also a leading cause of death in the United States. It is significant to note that cardiovascular disease is responsible for about 40% of the smoking-related disease. Smoking is linked with many health conditions such as inflammation, diabetes, impaired immune system, and arthritis. Many of the young smokers aging from 46 to 41 years are assumed to have a reduced health quality of life when compared with the non-smoking peers. (WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2015).
Advertisement of tobacco
It is a common observation that the children and youth in the United States is exposed to certain attractive and carefully crafted commercial messages that promote the use of tobacco products. The goal of marketing is to increase the acceptability and appeal to the tobacco products as well as to make the products available at first end. There are several strategies associated with tobacco marketing such as, establishment of attitudinal predisposition that can lead a non-user to have an experiment with the tobacco products and to interpret the experience either as positive or negative. Another strategy is to foster the perception that the consumption of tobacco products in both general and particular context. Markets also aim at the minimization of the concerns that are associated with the potential risks of smoking, taking into account the perceptions of safe smoking options. (Swan, et, al. 2018). The marketing strategies also promote certain aggregate tobacco use. Some major forms of tobacco marketing are as follows
Retail value-added promotions and the specialty of items
It refers to the dramatic rise in the retail value of the promotion such as buy one and get one free, cents off coupons and the free key chains or a light blister pack for free. The value-added promotion and coupons comprise of large market expenditures. The special offers and packages act as a special appeal for the smokers. Other specialties are calendars, sporting goods caps, and T-shirts that are distributed by the tobacco industry in order to promote a brand or to attract more consumers. The use of logos such as brands and the celebrity sections are also used as a tool of marketing by the companies. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
It is the second biggest tobacco marketing expenditure that is made by the brands and companies. The companies pay retail price for the promotion of wholesalers and the shelf space. The retailers are then rewarded for stocking a wide variety of brands with very low market demand. A survey in California infers that many of the school students are seen chewing tobacco next to candies and snacks in about 42% of the local stores. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
Point of sale advertising showcases
It refers to the showcase of some appeals that are responsible for the advertisement of particular brands. Point of sale production refers to the involvement of retailers along with a variety of consumers in a brand product. Point of sale advertisement is associated with the national advertisement campaigns that are related to the image building of a specific product. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
Magazines and newspaper advertising
Magazine and newspaper advertisement refers to the 7% of the Marketing expenditures. Magazine ads have a disoriented history in the past, but in the present time, advertisements are combined with the interactive promotional items that are appealing to the children and the youth. The same way, every second newspaper is portraying an appealing ad of a cigarette product or any of the smoking substance. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
Consumption of tobacco in different age groups
According to the Surgeon general report’s, one of the most important and widely cited findings of the consumption of tobacco is comparatively high and shocking at the same time. The report infers that in USA; all smokers begin cigarette smoking before 18 years of age. An examination of the birth cohort asserts that in 2012 NSDUH, the adult smokers range from 30-39 years. The experience of the participants infers that the average age of tobacco smoking was 15.3, but the age of regular smoking was 18 years. (Swan, et, al. 2018). Among the major smokers, who smoke daily, about 86.9% of the smokers tried smoking for the first time when they were 18 years old while an additional record infers that 11.5% of the smokers tried smoking for the first time after 26 years of age. About 2/3 of the adult smokers had tried smoking when they were 18 years old. The youth group of smoker is recorded to have 12-17 years of age having a ratio of 6.6% smokers and the females made up 6.3% of the smokers population. (Swan, et, al. 2018).
Tobacco Control Scale
Tobacco Control Scale was first established in 2006, with an aim to monitor the implementation of the tobacco control policies at the country level. The main objective of the forum is to adhere to the consumption of tobacco and to implement certain relative policies that can control the consumption at a very first hand. The forum collects reports regarding the implementation of the policies; the original TCS reports were meant to bring together all the information and tables on a single website so that an analyst can collect all the relevant information from one site. The researchers review all the information and documentation, taking into account dependent and independent variables, along with other material such as photos and seminars related to the scale. The website has all the information related to the tobacco control community with about 1,600 visitors from all over the world. (Joossens, et, al. 2017).
Tobacco a naturally occurring plant when manipulated can be used to bring about both positive and negative impact on the consumer. It would not be wrong to say that the use of tobacco is highly conditional, side by side judgemental. It is a question of great attention despite all the forfeit tobacco has brought to the present society; still, there is a great variety of different attractive and alluring ads that attract a number of people worldwide. The consequences of tobacco are increasing with the passage of time, taking into account the fact that none of the age group is safe form the side effects. Moreover, there is a great trend of tobacco consumption in the female group as well. The consumption of tobacco by the teenagers is a dilemma that needs special attention because addiction is a direct heed to destruction, and one addict is responsible or bring destruction to a complete society. The other aspect also highlight the ratio of crimes that are associated with the consumption of tobacco, taking into account the use of different immoral activities such as theft and stealing in order to fulfill the cravings of tobacco. Tobacco consumption is a question for all the human being, paving the way for an open choice to adopt and demolish or stay way and construct.
Hitsman, B. (2016). A new blueprint for addressing tobacco use disparities to reduce health disparities: the sociopharmacology theory of tobacco addiction.
Joossens, L., & Raw, M. (2017). The Tobacco Control Scale 2016. 2017.
Swan, G. E. (2018). A brief history of innovation based in science: The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco and its journal, Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. (2015). Advisory note: Waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions for regulators.
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