Scholarly Book Review
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Out of Control Criminal Justice
Daniel P Mears wrote a book, “Out of control Criminal Justice: The Systems Improvement Solution for more safety, justice accountability, and efficiency is a detailed account of broken criminal justice system. As title infers, it has been brought into insight that there are two paradigms associated with criminal justice system, the apparent aspects infer the tarnished and broken stance of a system and other aspect infers section of improvement that can place the broken systems back to its place. The author affirms that a research-based strategy is required, taking into account that the strategy should be relying on the strong basis of people who are a part of that system or affected by the impacts of the system. Only research based strategy has the potential to address the required evaluation and improvement so that a spectrum can be formed with "perfection." The aim of such strategy is to mitigate the negative aspects and pave the way for positive spectrums. The book is a collection of strategies that are meant for the improvement of the criminal justice system, taking into account that the framework of institutionalization adheres to the evaluation of hierarchy that is focused on the theory, needs, implementation, and the criminal justice operations.
An exegetical analysis reveals that critical analysis is mandatory to sort out the ties that hamper the crux of system by compromising the set limits and procedures. The author has examined the reasons for mass incarnation and identified the consequences of unexpected growth in terms of prisoners. It has been highlighted that there are no systematic proceedings, because of lack of institutionalizes processes that contribute to the attainment and creation of information in real time. Daniel has profoundly brought the attention of readers towards the problems of a system that is not the part of the criminal justice system, taking into account the policy arena concerned with education, a war on terrorism, health care and environmental protection. An important thing to know is different system related problem is identified along with systematic problems such as the flow of decisions from misprioritzation leading to processing pressures. (Snedker, et, al. 2018, pp. 263-292) In a nutshell, a stance of analysis of understanding and responding to the scenario by improving the overall outcome has been inferred. It is brought into insight that lack of such understanding can make individuals void of initiatives to introduce policy changes at both major and minor levels that can improve society. In a simplified way, the author introduced a platform that set the stage for anticipating certain core arguments that can improve the system.
A major aspect to note is, the stance of argument is followed by the analysis of term “system”, and other spectrums associated with it such as, dynamics, core dimensions and the outcomes of a situation that can have an impact of the overall framework of system (Mears, Daniel, 2017). It would not be wrong to say that the author inferred the role of theory in determining the stance of criminal justice system. Without adherence to the "core" principles of system that are already set, there would be no existence of states and a system that can address the needs of those residing in an area. Critical analysis reveals that the author brought two different things in a streamline, the importance of theory in addressing improvement and the importance of situations that depict reflection of the implementation of theory. (Mears, Daniel, 2017). It would not be wrong to say that the framework of systems and the implications of theoretical frameworks are strategies that reconcile "crime and justice" into the framework of system. Without this coordination, the overall understanding of the concept would have been left behind, taking into account that a single system comprises of several subsystems and policies, accompanied by practices, programs and the decision making processes.
In a nutshell, Daniel added into the origination of the factors that are making criminal justice system out of control. (Mears, Daniel, 2017). The features of this system such as, probation, lawmaking, parole, law enforcement, prison, and courts affirm the outline of actions that were previously defined as the subjects to improvement. A major point to note is, there is a systematic proceeding to the facts and figures, starting from dynamics and leading to the parts and subparts. Here the question is what if a connection between parts and subparts is aligned by the theoretical framework? There would be a better conception of hampering and amendments to be done. In a nutshell, the crux of the sentences lies in the analysis of “doings” under the inspection of “what to do." (Mears, Daniel, 2017). However the author profoundly described the backdrop of central premise that helps to understand the prime factors and then the initiatives to reduce crimes either by practicing "what is expected of justice system to do" or the "systems that can bring reformation in the crime trends”. However, it has been clearly entailed that failure to address any prime concerns will lead to gaps in improving state and ultimately justice. (Helbing & Dirk, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-72).
One of the basic attributes of the criminal justice system lies in the analysis of the facts that describe and argue the importance of use of systems for improvement. Daniel has affirmed certain key factors that a state need to address in order to provoke a wave of reformation and solution in state affairs, taking into account that certain subgroups are entailed that are necessary to address. (Helbing & Dirk, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-72). If a critical analysis is made, it can be inferred that if attributes of efficiency, justice, and accountability are brought into practice, it will act as a counterpart to the deliberate decision-making process. It would not be wrong to say that all the happenings and timeline of action in criminal justice system is dependent on the “arena of decision making” because it is the influence of decision making that either highlight or mitigate something such as fear, crime and then the approach to seek justice and bring reformation. (Siegel, et, al. 2018).
The amalgamation of system analysis and evaluation hierarchy is a tool to act as a solution for reformation and improvement of criminal justice system. The author made a comparison to the past, inferring that all the hampering to fair justice system is made by the lack of data and inability of computation. What if the actual stance of present time is depicted by saying that today excess of data and unlimited computation is the cause of all the damage to the criminal justice system? Author has associated past with the hampering to system but it would be much better to infer that the heed to justice and reduced crime is in direct association with modernization because the trends of present time have expanded the framework of criminal justice system.
In contradiction to past where crimes were limited to few paradigms but in present time crimes are associated with social dilemmas and the outcome of over socialization. (Simonson & Jocelyn, et, al. 2019, pp. 249-308). Although it is right to consider that lack of access and information imparts deviation, but excessiveness destruct completely. It is undeniable to ignore that although there are better ways out to deal with crimes, in the same row, evaluation is facilitated at a greater edge, the introduction of better and online systems have brought innovations in the "framework” of criminal justice system. (Snedker, et, al. 2018, pp. 263-292).
The author has profoundly inferred that System of Improvement Solution actually reaches out to the use of evaluation strategies that can empower the justice system by mitigating the criminal influences. The platforms of solutions for the improvement of justice system has been beautified with the inclusion of practitioners and policymakers who can bring about a renaissance in the use of data, either to evaluate or to address the approaching threats taking into account that designing, reviewing and evaluating is more like a necessity to the improvement of the underlying system of justice. (Mears, Daniel, 2017). One of the major and far-reaching things is, the author has inferred and introduced certain solutions, entirely subjective that have the potential to bring about a revolution in the systems that have been hampered far longer in the past.
Three basic activities or steps are proposed in which the overall farenwok of solution is found. The first and universal aspect is research that includes the use of a hierarchy of justice that has the potential to address the gaps in decisionmaking and addressing increasing crime rates. An aspect of system analysis is also involved institutionalized use of evaluation hierarchy, taking into account that greater the ratio of research, greater will be an approach to adjust with the approaching dilemmas of criminal justice system. It would have been a great effort if the two paradigms of “system analysis” are inferred to undergo an analysis to reveal the gaps in the research system, side by side an approach that can help to infer the use of research to comply with the necessities of the criminal justice system itself that is dealing with criminals. (Helbing & Dirk, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-72).
The second aspect refers to the multi-stakeholder process of policy. In a nutshell, it refers to the stakeholders that are appointed to address the basic needs of criminal justice system. The policy process refers to the inclusion of facts and figures that can facilitate the formulation of a code of conduct because policy actually refers to the code of moral conduct. It contributes to the understanding of the undeniable facts that major gaps of the criminal justice system are seen in the liemights of corruption here there is a dire need to include policies that can stress the equality of justice. Another aspect affirms that stakeholders should be made aware of the do’s and don’t in order to overcome the future happening taking into account that there is hardly any example of the scenario in which justice is provided at the first edge, corresponding to the timeline of "stakeholders." (Mears, Daniel, 2017). What if the word analysis is replaced by accountability because the only aspect that can address the consequences of the hampering made at a broader and universal edge belongs to the stakeholders who are void of any accountability and an approach to self-reflection? The third step of a solution refers to the "implementation of evidence-based policies, practices, programs, and decision making." However, it is amazing to know and trust the suitability of the third step, taking into account that there is a lack of evidence-based practices.
It would not be wrong to say that the past and history is full of incidents that question the existence of adequate criminal justice system. It is also significant that the horizon of wisdom is not limited to this aspect only, the analysis of both major and minor events reveal that not all the timeline of historical account is contaminated; few of the sections are also adequate enough to cater to the approaching gaps in criminal justice system. (Simonson & Jocelyn, et, al. 2019, pp. 249-308). However a broader perspective affirms that these steps can be helpful but "to some extent", this refers to the overwhelming obsession of substance that is a great hurdle in the analysis of actions and the circumstances of actions. Daniel believes these steps can act as a tool kit adequate enough to cater to the increasing gaps in the criminal justice system; however, it is also important to know that complete belief is a half mistake. What if the author could have brought into insights that these steps are just strategies because strategies have another stance in its practical implication? An effective process is the one that is guided, and it is not possible to guide a process without complete knowing and framework of competing knowing can only be found in “theoretical framework," where it is important to note that not all the theoretical frameworks are practices. It is nowhere inferred that the criminal justice system has made use of all the underlying theories. (Snedker, et, al. 2018, pp. 263-292).
One of the major aspects that contributed to the knowledge of criminal justice system is benefits of these steps, how these steps can contribute to the underlying aspect of improvement. Side by side, the author has highlighted that there are certain pitfalls in the passage of implication of these steps as well, taking into account that major benefits are better efficiency, more accountability and greater justice. Other highlighted benefits include the demonstration of the major aspects such as increased public understanding, reduced ethical differences, and lesser disparity. The author has profoundly knitted an account of the pitfalls that are associated with these steps as well such as, “excessive power, and the interference of using a system for personal befits. (Helbing & Dirk, et, al. 2019, pp. 47-72)
It wud not be wrong to say that the author has inferred and highlighted that whatever the time is, theory is an everlasting source to bring out reformation and revolution. In a nutshell, Out of control criminal justice system entails and infers the problems in the criminal justice system, the collection of strategies that can address these problems and then the pitfalls that are persisting with the implication of “strategies to overcome gaps and ensure reformation." (Simonson & Jocelyn, et, al. 2019, pp. 249-308). Daniel rectifies the errors of human understanding by inferring and illuminating the facts what make the system out of control, side by side the implication of tool that can help to restore the control. The implication of evidence-based practice and theoretical framework is a tool that can help to renovate the distorted criminal justice system. (Mears, Daniel, 2017) There are certain questions that still need enlightenment such as, the adherence to the evidence-based practices taking into account that the author has not inferred any specific stance where evidence-based practice has helped to bring about innovation and resolution in the analysis of the case. It is also important to note that after reading the whole text, it is brought into limelight that all the solutions are left at the end of human beings so why not efforts should be introduced that can act as a guide for human being to practice legally, taking into account that it will begin from the implication of the laws from top to bottom spectrum, addressing stakeholders and the policymakers.
Helbing, Dirk. "Societal, economic, ethical and legal challenges of the digital revolution: from big data to deep learning, artificial intelligence, and manipulative technologies." Towards Digital Enlightenment. Springer, Cham, 2019. 47-72.
Koi, Polaris, Susanne Uusitalo, and Jarno Tuominen. "Self-Control in Responsibility Enhancement and Criminal Rehabilitation." Criminal Law and Philosophy 12.2 (2018): 227-244.
Mears, Daniel P. Out-of-control criminal justice: The systems improvement solution for more safety, justice, accountability, and efficiency. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Siegel, Larry J., and John L. Worrall. Essentials of criminal justice. Cengage Learning, 2018.
Simonson, Jocelyn. "THE PLACE OF “THE PEOPLE” IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE." Columbia Law Review 119.1 (2019): 249-308.
Snedker, Karen A. "Conclusion: From Therapeutic Justice to Social Work Criminal Justice." Therapeutic Justice. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. 263-292.
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