31 July 2019
Rome was exacerbated by the calculating policies that focused on strengthening the government and institutes by preventing common people from becoming powerful. Government took important decisions about the city, economy and development. Roman leaders were good at ruling large territories. The patriarchy of Rome also gave power to the male who controlled the family. This was an important step taken by the leaders for maintaining order in the society. Women lacked power and followed the orders of their husbands. They also lacked women citizenship or right to vote. Their husbands were chosen by their fathers for the economic or political reasons CITATION BBC12 \l 1033 (BBC). Education remained another important aspects in Roman history as children were exposed to Greek literature and culture. The children of aristocrats were made to learn about Greek and Latin cultures. They were trained under highly experienced Greek teachers.
Military tactics allowed Romans to integrate technology along with leadership qualities that helped in building a strong empire. State’s policy on military was to pay Roman army for improving their productivity and performance. Training was offered to the young people who joined army and encouraged them to learn rapid ways of fighting. Rome adopted a practical framework in creation of powerful army that consisted of foot soldiers, staff officers and commissioned officers. The harsh and brutal training prepared army men to fight in a disciplined and effective manner. Roman policy encouraged women of the city to give birth to many children for supporting the manpower needs of army.
Roman policy of spending infrastructure was another reason for its success. The emperors emphasized on building monumental structures and roads that transformed the city entirely. Roman policy on city development stressed on increasing land holdings through draining techniques of engineers CITATION Gre091 \l 1033 (Aldrete). The Pantheon is one of the Roman monument that reveals astonishing architectural and engineering works of Roman artists. The creation of the building involved huge debts and the construction provided exemplary model for rest of the empires. The front side was the temple raised portico, apparent as a triangular pediment. Roman architectures introduced ways of building strong buildings by using concrete.
Rome was hindered by its own success such as the dangerous of the tunnels and streets caused significant destruction. The engineering techniques allowed Rome to build ancient tunnels. They were built for assuring they could stand without any support. leveling instrument was introduced by Roman engineers for the first time for measuring sticks and strings that translated landscape into imaginary steps. The distance between step and ground was recorded for while the vertical and horizontal measurements that created accurate picture of mountain and tunnels located at portals. In the construction of tunnels solid rocks were used that provided immense support CITATION Mac00 \l 1033 (Macaulay). Tunnels were created deep beneath the buildings and streets for the passageways. The reason for creating tunnels was to offer secret passageways for hiding during wars. The leaders focused on creating safe passageways by neglected the outcomes such as volcanic eruptions. The Claudius tunnel caused excavation of al least 30,000 men.
The factors that contributed to the fall of Rome include the invasion of the barbarian tribes, economic troubles, the resistance of slave labor and military overspending. Increased spending on the army raised debt while the oppressive taxation system separated rich and poor. The resistance of slave labor against unfair laws declined agricultural produce causing economic unrest. The military power allowed Rome to stretch to the Atlantic ocean to the Euphrates River that resulted in it downfall. The army failed to control local rebellion or resist outside attacks.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldrete, Gregory S. Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia. University of Oklahoma Press, 2009.
BBC. "The Dangerous Streets Of Ancient Rome." BBC Magazine (2012).
Macaulay, David. Building Big. Houghton Miflin Company, 2000.
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