Research Final Paper
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Self-Determination Theory (SDT) deals with the Personality and motivations of an individual. Applications of the SDT can enhance the performance of individuals in a learning environment.
Misbehavior of the students can be managed by specific tools and techniques used by teachers (Tsouloupas, Carson & MacGregor, 2014).
It is usually intricate to originate practical directions from correlational studies, specifically when such correlations are on the lower side (Müller & Louw, 2004).
When social contexts back self-determined motivation, circumstances are optimum for fine-quality learning (Rigby, Deci, Patrick & Ryan, 1992).
In intricate and complex environments, people with self-determination are motivated to determine ambiguity by self-determination (London, Smither, 1999).
Intrinsic motivation was improved and heightened when students professed they were competent as well as when their performances were under their control (Young, 2005).
Intricate nature of the motivation of online learner and its dynamic relationships amid several derivatives and antecedents (Chen &Jang, 2010).
Applications of STD are helpful in every kind of learning environment and they can be a powerful way to enhance, advance and elevate the learning level of the student of different kind of behaviors.
Tsouloupas, C. N., Carson, R. L., & MacGregor, S. K. (2014). The development of high school teachers’ efficacy in handling student misbehavior (TEHSM). The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 230-240.
According to this article future research on the teachers’ efficacy in handling students’ misbehavior can assist in guiding the content and design of workshops of professional development which assist teachers to have specific tools and realistic expectations to manage misbehavior of students. Information like this may deliver practitioners with the buoyancy to efficiently handle misbehavior of students rather removing students from their classrooms or simply ignoring them. Thus, the emotional drainage which is mostly related to the dealings of teachers with behaviors of students might be improved. Those teachers who get emotionally exhausted may cultivate a sense of scantiness and may feel that to interact with complex students, they do not have an emotional reserve, slowly become more unconcerned toward students and lose the motivation and interest to endow their time on students. So, lessening emotional drainage at work is precarious. For this study, theorizing, synthesizing comprehension of the data revealed three themes associated with the advancement of TEHSM. If teachers are provided with explicit training tools and effective resources of learning related with high beliefs of efficacy which enhance the chance of well-managed classes can be decisive in upholding positive behaviors of students and improving the overall climate of learning.
Müller, F. H., & Louw, J. (2004). The learning environment, motivation, and interest: Perspectives on self-determination theory. South African Journal of Psychology, 34(2), 169-190.
The objective of this research in the article was to evaluate the quality of learning motivation and to associate it with the traits of the learning environment and teaching. Questionnaires were used for this method of research. According to the study in this journal, it was found that most of the students showed intrinsic and recognized learning motivation, and ranked greatly on the study interest. Some of the students wholly extrinsically motivated or amotivaed. It is usually intricate to originate practical directions from correlational studies, specifically when such correlations are on the lower side. Moreover, dynamic interaction should be assumed between environment and motivation. To validate the practical influence of environment’s analyzed aspects it is necessary to conduct ecological experiments. In other words, it will be required to form learning and teaching environments rendering to the theoretical assumptions (constructivist learning environments and basic needs), and then scrutinize their impacts on motivation.
Rigby, C. S., Deci, E. L., Patrick, B. C., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Beyond the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning. Motivation and Emotion, 16(3), 165-185.
Research in this article highlights that learning extensively to involve effective, relational and cognitive dimensions and inspecting learning as a procedure which is assisted by contexts which support relatedness, competence, and autonomy of individuals, permits for a discussion which exceeds the traditional and academic moral setting and permit a focus on entirely related ambient contexts. This kind of focus involves workplace, classroom, and home, in short, any general social environment. For the conduction of research in this article, the authors focused on the practices of integration and internalization to deliver extrinsic motivation's differentiated conception and to describe that specific method of differentiated conceptions combined with intrinsic motivation establish the foundation for the functioning of self-determination. Studies have progressively shown that when social contexts back self-determined motivation, circumstances are optimum for fine-quality learning.
London, M., & Smither, J. W. (1999). Empowered self‐development and continuous learning. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 38(1), 3-15.
Table II of this article summarizes the central elements necessary for continuous learning and empowered self-development. This articles reflect that in the organization of today, workers should take responsibility for their learning and identifying that learning is a long process in career. This knowledge involves recognizing how to pursue feedback, associating response to current and future expectations of performance, tracking progress and setting goals of performance. Individuals that are self-determined, are highly motivated to increase their performance. Even if they are already better in their performance they will tend to do more good next time. In intricate and complex environments, such people are motivated to determine ambiguity by self-determination. Individuals who are high in need for uncertainty orientation, control, and self-efficacy are more likely to use and pursue feedback as a way of determining to gain control and uncertainty. In the end, research of this article concludes that self-determined behavior might be induced and learned, hence it increases the positive impacts of an empowering environment of work on the self-development.
Young, M. R. (2005). The motivational effects of the classroom environment in facilitating self-regulated learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 27(1), 25-40.
The data collection method is used for the research of this article. In this article, it was hypothesized that students who are extrinsically motivated will use strategies of superficial learning, and students who are intrinsically motivated will use strategies of metacognitive and deep cognitive. For the theoretical relationships that are between and within self-regulated learning strategies, achievement goal theory, and cognitive evaluation theory, in the context of the classroom, results of this research provided empirical support. Strategies of superficial learning for this research were associated with extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, intrinsic motivation resolute metacognitive and deep cognitive strategy usage. According to cognitive evaluation theory, intrinsic motivation was improved and heightened when students professed they were competent as well as when their performances were under their control.
Chen, K. C., & Jang, S. J. (2010). Motivation in online learning: Testing a model of self-determination theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 741-752.
Data collection method was used for the research of this article. Relative Autonomy Index was calculated to signify online students. Study of this article functions as one of the initial research which tests a model of the self-determination theory in the context of online learning. Information obtained by the research in this article has delivered inferences for the support of online learners. Moreover, research of this article also increases the information base regarding the intricate nature of the motivation of online learner and its dynamic relationships amid several derivatives and antecedents. According to the authors, it is expected that their this research will inspire more self-determination based studies to deliberate and discuss the motivations, contextual support, and needs of learners, and on its basis motivating and vibrant online environments of learning can be flourished.
Essay Self-Determination Theory deals with the personality and motivation which discusses three universal psychological and innate needs: autonomy, competence and psychological relatedness (Deci, Ryan, 2004). This research paper is about Self-determination theory and its applications in the learning environment. It will address the present motivational level of students. Furthermore, it will be discussed how the motivation of these students can be improved using the suggestions self-determination theory proposes (Garn, Matthews, & Jolly, 2010).
In recent years motivation in the context of school has been illuminated in various studies. The main objective is to seek ways which can influence students to enhance their involvement in activities of learning (Reeve, 2012). Motivation of students is considered as stimulating energy in the learning and teaching process which infuses all standards of education, both in association with the number of time students devote to studying, and in their academic achievements, and performances contribute significantly to the accomplishment of satisfaction in their lives (malaise versus wellbeing) (Reeve, Deci, Ryan, Jang, 2008). Motivation is a psychological phenomenon in which the traits of personality, (for instance, reasons, perspectives, interests, skills, motives, and expectations) interact with professed characteristics of the environment (Cate, Kusurkar, Williams, 2011). This directs that the motivation of the student can be affected by variations within the personality of the student as well in their school culture or learning environment. In this respect, the SDT, self-determination theory, has been broadly deliberated in the platform of motivation in learning in school (Sørebø, Halvari, Kristiansen, 2009). Moreover, various research has revealed that motivation can influence on the performance and learning of the students and contrariwise, that learning can impact on motivation as well (Vansteenkiste, Lens & Deci, 2006). Principles of the Self-determination theory state that motivation of individuals differs, being driven and determined by the contexts which back psychological requirements which manifest themselves in various conducts, making motivation of the student for learning a multi-determined and complex process that can only be contingent by observing the behavior, whether by self-reporting or in real situations of performance (Kusurkar, Croiset & Cate, 2011). If the social context supports self-determined motivation, conditions are optimum fine-quality learning (Rigby, Deci, Patrick & Ryan, 1992).
The environment where students learn greatly impacts on the learning of the students. But even if it is complicated, students who have self-determination are motivated to determine ambiguities and complexities by self-determination (London, Smither, 1999). Moreover, it was seen that when students were given a competent environment, their intrinsic motivation as well as progress were enhanced and were under control (Young, 2005). Today, as e-learning is on the rise, online learner’s intricate kind of motivation and its dynamic relationships amid several derivatives and antecedents functions just like any other environment of learning (Chen &Jang, 2010).
It is necessary for every general education program to motivate each student of the classroom to get good in learning (Tsouloupas, Carson & MacGregor, 2014). Even though there are many students who misbehave and are hard to deal with but there are tools and techniques which can be used by teachers to enhance their interest in learning (Glynn, Aultman & Owen, 2005). It has been shown from the data of recent and past studies that applications of self-determination theory are helpful in every kind of learning environment and they can be a powerful way to enhance, advance and elevate the learning level of the student of different kind of behaviors.
References Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-determination research. University of Rochester Press.
Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 149-172). Springer, Boston, MA.
Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2008).Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications, 223-244.
Sørebø, Ø., Halvari, H., Gulli, V. F., & Kristiansen, R. (2009). The role of self-determination theory in explaining teachers’ motivation to continue to use e-learning technology. Computers & Education, 53(4), 1177-1187.
Garn, A. C., Matthews, M. S., & Jolly, J. L. (2010). Parental influences on the academic motivation of gifted students: A self-determination theory perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54(4), 263-272.
Kusurkar, R. A., Croiset, G., & Ten Cate, O. T. J. (2011). Twelve tips to stimulate intrinsic motivation in students through autonomy-supportive classroom teaching derived from self-determination theory. Medical Teacher, 33(12), 978-982.
Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational psychologist, 41(1), 19-31.
ten Cate, O. T. J., Kusurkar, R. A., & Williams, G. C. (2011). How self-determination theory can assist our understanding of the teaching and learning processes in medical education. AMEE guide No. 59. Medical teacher, 33(12), 961-973.
Glynn, S. M., Aultman, L. P., & Owens, A. M. (2005). Motivation to learn in general education programs. The Journal of General Education, 54(2), 150-170.
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