Reflective Paper I
Reflection Paper 1
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Reflection paper 1
In criminology, the behavior of any criminal or evil-doer is interpreted and explained by the various parameters. These parameters are known as the evaluation paradigms or behavioral paradigms and they assist in understanding the nature, extent and the possible reasons behind the occurrence of any criminal activity. Behavioral studies have always been a main point of focus for the experts in philosophy, sociology and criminology hence, five major paradigms have been developed in order to explain the behavior of any individual.
The idea of post-positivism revolves around the concept that the theories, background and the perceptions of a researcher affect the quality of research regarding any subject. According to the school of post-positivism, the subject under observation and the results of the research are significantly affected by the biasness of the researcher. In fact, the results may be totally opposite to what they actually should be, just due to the mindset of the researcher (Mertens, & Wilson, 2018). One of the major strengths of this paradigm is that it is more focused and concrete, based on the scientific data, social facts, and quantitative data, and whereas one of the major weaknesses found in this approach is that it lacks depth.
Pragmatic Evaluation Paradigm or the Pragmatic school of thought is a very important and prevailing concept in philosophy. This concept was introduced in the late 19th century and went through various stages of development in the early 20th century. The most prominent aspect of the concept is that it considers the real event and practical consequences to be an integral part of the meaning and truth, and it is also the biggest strength of this school of thought. Although the concept of pragmatism is very much flexible and is adaptable to change in the normal world, it is not in coherence with many of the fields, like education, which poses to be a serious drawback in the area of pragmatic research.
Constructive school of thought in philosophy and psychology is based on the learning and experiences of a person. The paradigm indicates that the behavior exhibited by an individual in any kind of circumstances especially in the case of criminal activity is under the influence of the knowledge that he or she got as a result of their learning and personal experiences. One of the biggest strengths of the constructive school of thought is that is taken into account the bigger picture of the society, however, the paradigm is not completely free of flaws. One of the major weaknesses of this paradigm is that it lacks structure.
Transformative evaluation paradigm is a research framework of a school of thought that enables the idea of social inclusion. It lays the focus on experience of marginalized communities and tries to find the factors that have led to this marginalization. This type of evaluation keeps a close check and then analyzes various factors like differentials in the power so that these reasons could be eliminated. Transformative evaluation paradigm creates bonding between the research finding and the implementation of the actions. The best aspect of this approach is that it does not consider the old-school approaches while researching and evaluating the results, which focused more on problems and deficiencies. The transformative school of thought depends on the approaches of modernism and postmodernism to access various areas.
Compare and Contrast Each Evaluation Paradigm
Although every evaluation approach is unique in its nature and carries specific benefits for the explanation of various criminal behaviors and aspects, there are certain drawbacks as well, which need to be taken into consideration before the application of these approaches. The post-positivistic approach is more of a rigid approach while the pragmatic and transformative approaches are comparatively flexible in nature. Moreover, the Transformative school of thought is a more advanced and modern version of rationalizing behavior as compared to other approaches.
Which Paradigm Is Better For The Evaluations In Criminal Justice System?
Criminal Justice System is a vast field and it has always been challenging to evaluate and analyze the behavior of any specific criminal in the case of any criminal activity. Every incident of criminal activity is unique and demands different and new ways or dimensions to think, from the lawmakers and evaluators. Experts have been using various approaches regarding psychology, sociology, and philosophy to find an explanation of various patterns of behaviors exhibited by different types of criminals. All the approaches or schools of thoughts have proved to be successful in their specific areas of specialization but the most appropriate and successful approach has been found to be Transformative Evaluative Paradigm. The reason that why this approach is the most befitting method to explain and analyze any criminal’s behavior is that the Transformative approach is quite flexible and considers the modern aspects of rationalization while developing the results.
Mertens, D. M., & Wilson, A. T. (2018). Program evaluation theory and practice. Guilford Publications.
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