REMP Quiz Questions 2019
1. In the 16th century, one more thing was added to the traditional accusations against the Jews of Germany: they were allegedly guilty of the beginning of the Reformation. It was absurd to suspect that the Protestant movement was unleashed by the Jews, but they accused the Jews of using Christian blood for ritual purposes, desecrating Christian shrines and even spying for the Turks. It was also nonsense, slander, but they believed. The new accusation contradicted the obvious facts: The reformation in Germany was carried out by Martin Luther, his supporters and Christian co-religionists. However, there was something that gave the opponents of the Reformation a reason to resent and build a slander on the Jews. In the eyes of others, he looks like a real hero, thanks to whom the preaching of the true Gospel was restored, a champion of biblical truth, a reformer of a decayed and apostate church. But in recent years, there has been an increasing unity of opinion on this issue among Christians of different faiths. The study of the life and work of Luther with greater objectivity prompted both Catholics and Protestants to reconsider their positions, which, in the heat of controversy, they did not take into account historical research. Now, few people doubt Luther’s sincerity, and many Catholic historians recognize the validity of his protest and his correctness on many religious issues.
Luther was an erudite and learned man with simple and even rude manners. Perhaps it was this that helped him to express the deepest theological thoughts in such a form that they would quickly find a response among the masses.
2. Calvin did not reject the monarchy, but gave preference to the republic (the worst of the political regimes was democratic, the best - aristocratic or oligarchic; the right to power could be awarded due to spiritual and moral superiority over other members of the community and state.
The concept of secular government
According to Luther’s, the most important role is assigned to reason, which is placed above the law; the right of citizens to resist the authorities is denied; obedience is required not by an official, but by service; disobedience to the authorities is a sin; humility and humility before the authorities; faith in the state).
Features of the theory
The first to substantiate is the principle of independence of state power in solving the tasks of the socio-economic and political life of society.
The fundamental thesis of Lutheranism (the doctrine of justification by faith) is supplemented by the doctrine of predestination (if only faith can save a person, and it descends on him as a result of God's grace, then without God’s help, a person cannot be saved — a true believer is one who is chosen by God, he can be saved by faith).
Calvinism demanded to devote himself to the cause, profession, to be hardworking, enterprising and zealous master (the basis of Protestant ethics was laid - in combination with individualism is a feature of social life in many Western countries). Calvinism (the cult of labor, enterprise; in it the bourgeoisie found an effective ideological weapon). The historical significance of the Reformation - they prepared the spiritual, moral and legal basis for bourgeois revolutions.
3. According to Hobbes point of view is that the law is more than covenant. A covenant is the term used by Hobbes for a treaty that establishes a sovereign body to signify and manage a people. It seems to me that Hobbes has positive problems with the desire to make a covenant the basis of sovereignty, and then make a covenant less than the sovereignty of the law. According to Hobbes’s, we should differentiate among particular agreements as agreements between citizens and an agreement with which no living person has given explicit consent, that is, an contract to fulfill with laws approved by superior body.
According to Hobbes, the contract is a proposed solution to the problem of the justification of civil society, not the description of a particular type of government. In the works “On Citizen” and “Leviathan”, Thomas Hobbes outlined the concept of civil society arising from the transition from the natural (natural) state of the primordial, unbridled passions, common hostility and fear to an orderly cultural society, whose citizens are punished by the government.
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