Module 3 Discussion
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Module 3 Discussion
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Module 3 Discussion
Classified information can be defined as content that is deemed as sensitive information by authoritative government entities, and due to fragile status, such information is essential to be protected (Weaver, 2017). In this context, general access to classified information is restricted by the regulations and law, and only a particular cluster of individuals are allowed to access the information under mandatory security clearance procedurals. Moreover, such individuals have to consider the consequences of mishandling the data, and in any case of negligence, they can encounter severe criminal penalties.
In some exceptional cases, the classified information is subject to become relevant for the prosecution of a criminal or civil suit, or in other circumstances, Congress can request for accessing certain information in documents. In such exceptional situations, the government practices two methods to exempt the classified and terrorism-related information from release to the public in criminal prosecution. The methods include
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA)
The Freedom of Information Act sustains that any individual has legal rights to request for accessing the records of a federal agency or any other information. In this regard, an exception of extent implied, that includes the documents that are protected from any nine of the exempted disclosures such disclosures are defined by the particular law enforcements law of exclusion. The nine mentioned categories of exemptions that empower governmental entities to withhold information comprised of the following factors (Bruce, 1985).
Classified information that pertains to foreign policies or national defense.
Practices and rules of internal personnel
All such information and data that is subject to be exempted by other laws and acts
Confidential and covert trading and business data
All the files regarding personnel and additional medical-related information
Memoranda and letters of intra or inter agencies that are subject to be protected for legal privileges.
Information and sensitive records of law enforcement
Banking supervision information
Information regarding geophysical and geological faade.
FOIA also provides the facility of exclusions through the devising of three underlying narrowed categories that protect the records acknowledged as exclusions.
On the other hand, chronologically, it is delineated that in past eras, the executive branch used to confront dichotomy during certain criminal trails in such circumstances determining between the dejection to violation of prosecution of law and disclosure of sensitive content was a tough decision to be taken. However, it was 1980 when Congress established the act of the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA) the act was observed in proffering sources to disclosure or dismissing decision in the early stages (Eig, 1989). To put it briefly, CIPA proposes that defense should notify prosecutors and the relevant court regarding any classified proofs that intend to be introduced. Afterward, courts necessitate the determination of the admissibility of classified evidence. If so, the governmental authorities are entitled to devise an unclassified alternative that does not engross the notion of classified information. Nevertheless, in several cases, the court may find the unclassified substitution ineffective in preserving the right of the defendant during a fair legal trial. And in such instances, the attorney general can question the disclosure of the classified version, and consequently, the indictment becomes subject to be dismissed. The underlying imposition of CIPA protects the rights of defendants while securing the classified information during criminal trails in a crosscurrent manner. Contrarily, the civil trails do not practice any comparable procedurals. In several civil trails, the government may summon the secret dispensations of state and may impede the utilization of classified pieces of evidence.
Bruce E. Fein (1985), Access to Classified Information Constitutional and Statutory Dimensions, 26 Wm. Mary L., HYPERLINK http//scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmlr/vol26/iss5/8 http//scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmlr/vol26/iss5/8
Eig, L. (2019). Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA) An Overview. HYPERLINK https//apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540196 https//apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540196
The Freedom of Information Act U.S. Department of State - Freedom of Information Act. (2019). HYPERLINK https//foia.state.gov/learn/foia.aspx https//foia.state.gov/learn/foia.aspx
Weaver, J. (2017). Security of classified information one standard or many. International Journal Of Public Leadership, 13(1), 9-12. doi 10.1108/ijpl-07- 2016-0028
Module 3 Discussion
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