Module 1 Discussion
The definitions of domestic and international terrorism are explained in the section 18 U.S.C. § 2331. The law claims that international terrorism involve violation of the criminal laws of America or any other country. Common crimes include use of coercion on the people, participation in any activity which leads to mass destruction, kidnaping or assassination. The basic different of international terrorism is that it is not limited to any one boundary. The groups may commit crimes from any country or in any state. Sub-section c states that the engagement of individual in act of war is also recognized as international terrorism CITATION Cor191 \l 1033 (Cornell, 2019). The conditions include declaring war, armed conflict between nations or military forces. Domestic level terrorism states violation of the criminal law which in US territory. This offense only occurs in the boundary of United States. This indicates the use of force or coercions on civil population within the boundaries of the country. The central difference of domestic terrorism is that it exists within the territorial jurisdiction.
Criminal penalties are highlighted in the section 18 U.S.C. § 2332. Penalties are defined according to the nature of crime such as the punishment for murder in section 1111(a) is ten years imprisonment or death. Penalty for voluntary manslaughter is defined in section 1112(a) and is ten years imprisonment or death. Involuntary manslaughter defined in 1112 (a) is three years imprisonment. Conspiracy with respect to homicide is also considered as a terrorist act and states that someone who attempts to kill someone will also be punished by facing imprisonment of 20 years or less. The involvement of two persons in conspiracy will result in 10 years imprisonment for both. This law also states that the people involved in causing serious bodily injury will be entitled to receive punishment of 10 years.
Terrorist organization is defined in section 8 U.S.C. § 1189. It states that the organization can be declared as a terrorist organization if any foreign organization is involved in a terrorist activity. The organization having the capacity of engaging in some terrorist activity is also considered as terrorist organization. The third condition states that the organization must pose threats to the national security of United States. The stature explains the measures which are taken to mitigate the risks such as it states that it is appropriate to freeze the assets of these organizations. It is also legal to stop them from engaging in any financial transactions. Section c states that the secretary must classify information and share it whenever it’s needed CITATION USC19 \l 1033 (USCode, 2019). General Secretary is given the right in section a to take any action for investigating the activities of such terrorist organizations and also allowed to keep a vigilant eye on them. It also states that the Secretary must maintain record of the organization.
The petition period section (B) mentions that these organizations are given right to file revocation petition after the designation. This requires that the foreign organizations must be able to provide sufficient evidence for proving their innocence. Revocation can only be determined within the period of 180 days and no later then that. Section C states that the results of the review can be published by the Secretary for informing the concerned parties. Judicial review of the designation is also explained in section 4 and its conditions. National security is also defined in the section (2) which involve the economic interest, national defense and foreign relations. The purpose of the stature is to prevent foreign terrorist organizations from creating unrest or instability by engaging in terrorist activity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Cornell. (2019). U.S. Code § 2331.Definitions . Retrieved 10 17, 2019, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/2331
USCode. (2019). §1189. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations . Retrieved 10 17, 2019, from https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title8-section1189&num=0&edition=prelim
Perry, N. J. (2004). The Numerous Federal Legal Definitions of Terrorism: The Problem of too Many Grails. Journal of Legislation , 30 (2).
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