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Difference between Criminology and Criminal Justice
There has always been immense confusion regarding the meanings of criminal justice and criminology. Most of the time people have confused themselves regarding the meanings of these two terminologies. The truth of the matter is that both these terminologies are quite different and should not be used as an alternative for the other. Even when students studying to become police officers were asked what their course was, their answer will show the confusion that most of us individuals have regarding the meaning of these two terms. These two terminologies serve the same public entity but have completely different roles. The differences between the two are as follows (Robert and McMilan, 2017).
Primarily criminology can be characterized as the study of the nature of the crime by focusing on what its causes are, its effects and what it costs to commit the crime. Whereas, criminal justice is the whole system that has been established in relation to dealing and detection of crime, while also focusing on the detention of criminals leading to their prosecution and finally sentencing them for crimes committed. Criminal justice deals with the processing of criminals, so it has a direct relation with the enforcement of law. If anyone were to pursue criminal justice as a career then his or her focus would be on laws regarding criminal justice, criminal justice components and the enforcement of law systems in place. Whereas, whoever pursues criminology as a career would have to focus on the pattern of behavior, societal effects, and the behavior of criminals.
Dark Net the Deep Net and TOR
The world nowadays is totally connected globally and this high level of connection is accredited to the rise in technology and the use of the web. Even with so much high traffic on the web, research has found that most people’s access to the web is limited to a number of websites, but the reality is that the internet is an enormous being that has different parts and components to it with over billion of websites being run through servers all around the world. Two terms come to mind when thinking about the enormity of the web. These terms are the deep web and the dark net.
These two terminologies are interrelated with each other but have their own specific identities. The deep web is sort of like the websites that are not indexed by a search engine. This means that the content and the websites that cannot be accessed by any search engine is known as the deep web. So there are some places on the web that are not accessible by the general public until and unless an address to a site is available to someone. On the other hand, the dark web is a part of the deep web, and are those sites and their content cannot be accessed by anyone. The dark web is notoriously known as a paradise for hackers as most of the online illicit and illegal activities are done here (Rudesill, et al, 2015).
Furthermore, The Onion Router as it is formerly known TOP can be used to stop traffic analysis. This type of software is open source and provides protection to its user's privacy from any sort of Internet-based surveillance.
Origin of Policing in Canada
The earliest form of policing can be based on the model of policing presented by England and France. Quebec, a Canadian city, adopted the model of the French cities. This model was the earliest form of policing and comprised of a watchmen system. This system was established in Quebec around 1651. Ontario, formerly known as Upper Canada mostly based their policing system on the English system which comprised of a constabulary and system known as watch and ward. This system was established in 1835. Toronto used England Metropolitan Police Act as a guiding model and based their police department on this model in 1835. In keeping with this tradition, Quebec and Montreal joined and established the same system in 1838 and 1840. For policing of the enormous rural areas still in development in Canada, a provincial police system was established in 1867.
In order to police the western plains of Canada, the North West Mounted Police was created. This policy was later renamed as Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In order to mount an offense against whiskey trading Americans, this policing force was created. Originally it had 300 officers whose job was to eliminate any such Americans that were performing violent actuates regarding Native Canadian Indians. The formation of the Canadian mounted police shows a movement of Canadian policing from the Anglo-Saxon type of policing. They worked and operated more like a military-style organization rather than a policing force. They shared this similarity with Ireland and France.
Two Primary Divisions of Law
Law is a complex entity with a variety of components that come together to make it a whole system. As it has many components, these components can be divided into two main branches of law. These are known as criminal law and civil law
Criminal law is defined as the law that relates to not just the crimes committed but also their punishments. So in a sense criminal law can be understood as the behavior and activity of an individual or an organization that can be considered as offensive by being against the state, society and the public. The examples of criminal violations can include, assault, drunken driving, theft, and murder. Cases coming under criminal law can be brought about by the state or the federal government. The outcome of these cases is mostly decided by a jury. This jury in accordance with the charge placed on the defendant decides what the penalty of the crime should be.
Civil law is the law that governs and protects the laws and rights of normal everyday citizens. In mere small words, civil law is defined as the entity that resolves issues between one individual and corporation with another. Under this law, cases can be initiated by parties of private and public nature. The cases under this law are decided by a judge and the penalty is most of the time in monetary form rather than any prison time.
Technology Facilitated Crime and Second Technology Revolution
The term technology facilitated crime refers to any crime that uses technology as a mode of activity or distribution. These comprise of a variant of different crimes that have been committed by using any form of technology. Examples of technology-facilitated crimes involve technology-facilitated sexual violence, child grooming, sextortion, revenge porn, and cyber stalking. All these crimes are widely known in our society as they have seen a rise with the rise in technology. Out of these crimes, the phrase sextortion refers to sexual information of incriminating nature are used against a person in order to get sexual favors further in the future.
The second technological revolution was the phrase coined to refer to the second industrial revolution. This time period saw a rise in industrialization between the period of the early 20th century and the 19th century. This time period witnessed a revolution in technology and saw the development of new technologies that were never seen before. These included electricity and telephones.
Roberts, P., & McMillan, N. (2017). For criminology in international criminal justice. The Criminology of War (pp. 3-26). Routledge.
Rudesill, D. S., Caverlee, J., & Sui, D. (2015). The deep web and the darknet: A look inside the internet's massive black box. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, STIP, 3.
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