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The effect of criminology theory in historical and contemporary crime control
The considered sociological concepts in criminology cannot be evaluated unambiguously - either only positively or only negatively. In general, we can say that their positive charge is higher than that of anthropological (biological) theories. Representatives of the sociological school are incomparably closer to the truth in understanding the essence and patterns of crime, its roots and origins. A significant number of their provisions of a constructive nature are thoroughly developed and adopted by the practice of combating crime. Such, for example, are proposals on the need for targeted action on criminal subcultures as a necessary condition for correcting the views, attitudes and behavior of offenders (the concept of anomie); on saving repression, expanding non-punitive and refusing some punitive measures to counter crime (stigma theory); on monitoring reference groups in order to prevent the exchange of criminal experiences (differential association theory) and many others.
A high level of criticality in relation to an apparently prosperous social structure, systematic nature, convincing justification of the significance of a broad and consistent social reformation as the basis for combating crime are characteristic of radical criminology. Humanism, rationalism and great prospects are inherent in victimological theories. Of course, the sociological concepts considered in criminology are not free from shortcomings, sometimes very significant. Some of them suffer from one-sidedness, unjustifiably extend the laws of the private to the general. So, in the theory of differential association, one can note a reassessment of the role of imitation, training in the genesis of illegal behavior.
Psychologists have studied the relationship between personality and criminal behavior in various ways. One approach is to use examples of adolescents diagnosed in the clinic who were placed there for crimes and investigate their criminal behavior. Another most common method is the ability to use standardized tests to trace character traits and then correlate data with the results of evaluating their behavior that violates the law.
The amazing performance of American society determines the nature of its crime. The result of such productivity is both a constant increase in levels of aspiration, and dissatisfaction, the contradictions between hopes and real achievements. If we observe the crime demography of Chicago it fits with in theory of Cohen. Moreover, the dynamism of American society, according to Cohen, is largely based on this dissatisfaction with the present, combined with faith in the future and hope for it. But when faith and hope are deceiving, when the legitimate paths to achieving your goals are closed or when personal data are not enough for this, dissatisfaction can turn into disappointment and the bitter creation of failure. People, as a rule, sooner or later learn to align their hopes with what they can really achieve. A. Cohen for the first time expressed ideas related to the theory of the de-linking subculture. According to Cohen, high crime in poor areas is a protest against the norms of culture of the middle class same is in Chicago. Young people from these areas are very disappointed with their status, so they create gangs and their own subculture that opposes the dominant one. Cohen believed that poor families could not offer their offspring the right strategy to adapt to the norms of the middle class (Cohen, 1966).
Currently/ in modern era the theory of differentiated association best suits according to demographics of Chicago. Edwin Sutherland put forward the theory of "differentiated association." He claims that:
1) they learn criminal behavior in the process of communicating with other people;
2) mainly training takes place in closely related personal relationships groups;
3) training includes the technical side of the matter and the basis of criminal conduct;
4) special motivation is developed depending on the attitude of people significant for adolescents to the law;
5) an individual becomes an offender if the negative assessment of the law by the above people exceeds the positive;
6) an assessment of his behavior in terms of his legitimacy based on experience depends on time and intense interaction with other people;
7) the learning process includes all the elements of learning;
8) criminal behavior is an explanation of the needs and values of ordinary society, and not vice versa. (Sutherland, Cressey & Luckenbill, 1995).
Cohen, A. K. (1966). Deviance and control. Prentice Hall.
Sutherland, E. H., Cressey, D. R., & Luckenbill, D. (1995). The theory of differential
association. Deviance: A symbolic interactionist approach, 64-68.
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