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Issues of History in International Relations
How China justify its Uyghur policy by using history?
Western China is home to a region called Uyghur, in the Xinjiang province. The Muslims residents of this region share history with Turk speaking Muslims, this is the reason why some Kazakhs have come to this region and are now the habitats of this area. What brought this area into the limelight of international media, is its heavy military and police deployment. The habitats of this region are also detained in majority numbers. Some International relations analysts believe that this is the cultural suppression and the future and history of Uyghur Muslims are at great risk if such military and police deployment are not removed. The Chinese regime attaches such reasons of heavy police deployments with the 9/11 incidentsand also calls it a threat to the Chinese way of living and culture. Such moves are also quoted somewhere as the fight against Islamic radicalism and the Uyghur separatism. Such policies in China has brought some bloodshed with it too. For example, in 2009, deadly riots happened between Uyghurs and Han Chinese. Such moves incited a feeling of separatism among the Uyghur Muslims. This could also be said a starting point. At the end of 2014, such bloodshed had taken another form when Uyghur Muslims initiated some attacks, as that happened on the train station, in which 43 people were killed. Form this point of contemporary history, the Chinese regime has initiated a Chinese version of ‘War on Terror’.
Brief Background of the Issue Includes: Timeline of the Issue,and a brief analysis of the situation
This war between the Chinese Uyghur Muslims and the regime has taken many folds, involving severe criticism from the international world. Interestingly, the countries who eenjoybillion dollar agreements with China has maintained a distance from this crisis. The important timeline of this crisis involves fthe ollowing events
The years between 1940 and 1982, saw a massive increase in the number of Uyghur Muslims, some accounts it as more than five hundred ppercentincrease.
Officials of the Chinese regime started to crush the Muslims gathering in Uyghur.
Such tensions had resulted often in clashes between the Chinese’s paramilitary troops and masked Uyghur Muslims, who were also blamed to be terrorists.
The 2009 riots in Uyghur killed about 200 people, this brought the issue in the limelight in International media.
These clashes are often attached with the historical clash of 1934, which killed more than 8000 Uyghur Muslims.
The East Turkestan Movement, which is the political wing of ththis Uyghur uprisingwhich claims that the Chinese regime is responsible for the moderation among Muslims and the up arrival of Jihadists elements in this crisis.
Another important aspect of this uprising is the drug aspect, which some Muslims of Uyghur claims that his is how such movements generate financial resources for themselves.
Literature Review Includes: Who are the actors, what policy maker missies
Following are some published articles, journal articles and books sources that will make sense of the study, and will also help to sort out the most relevant out of this situation. Considering these sources, we will look on to what the policymakers might be missing in the whole scenario.
The book “Situating the Uyghurs Muslims between China and Central Asia", written by Ildiko Beller- Hann, M Cristina Cesaro and Joanne Smith Finkyprovides thoroughgthe hthe insight of the geographical linkages of the Uyghur Muslims.
The book “The Uyghurs: Strangers in their own land” by Gardner Bovingdon is much important to analyze the domestic situation of what the Uyghur Muslims have been facing throughout their history in this land.
The Foreign Policy article titled “China is violating Uyghur Muslims rights” provides a deep analysis of how the United Statviewsiew these uprisings as a threat to International peace.
The journal article titled “Islam by Smartphone: Reading the Islamic revival of Uyghur” by Rachel Harris provides a thorough insight into the Islamic issues as to what exactly the Uyghur Muslims are facing.
The article published by the Diplomat titled “The Muslim World remains Largely Mute” present what are the underlying responses of the Muslim community throughout the world and mainly what is the global response of other countries toward this crisis.
The Wall Street article titled “The Muslim World looks on” just underlines the perspective of the Muslim community of the world an othe nthe the Uyghur crisis.
The Journal article titled “China’s policy toward Uyghur Nationalism" is much relevant to have a look inhe China's inside rest pertaining to this crisis.
The Middle East Institute’s article “Standing Up to China on Human’s Rights” presents a thorough understanding of what exactly the issue between the Chinese regime and the Uyghur Muslims is.
Research Methodology Includes: General Outline proposal, who is our Audience
The following research will be qualitative in nature, and the available data such as books, journal articles, published articles and many of other news sources will be analyzed. Keeping in view the sensitivity of this research, state authorities’ press releases and some of their policy documents will be analyzed in order to come up with a through new literature that can give a new insight to this issue. Further, this research will be helpful for the students of International Relations and Political sciences, especially when it comes studyingudy the Chinese perspective of religion as a tool of International politics.
The primary research question will be
“How China justify its Uyghur policy by using history?”
This question will be supported by three secondary questions that will help to sort out the most relevant out for this research.
How history supports the Uyghur’s Muslims stance of today?
Why the Chinese regime has remained suppressive upon the Uyghur Muslims?
How the Uyghur crisis remains influential in analyzine China's role ie world politics?
Alim, Samira. "The Muslim World Remains Largely Mute on Uyghurs' Plight." The Diplomat. December 11, 2018. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://thediplomat.com/2018/12/the-muslim-world-remains-largely-mute-on-uyghurs-plight/.
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó. 2007. Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Pub.
Bovingdon, Gardner. The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Chao, Steve. "Exposed: China's Surveillance of Muslim Uighurs." | Al Jazeera. February 01, 2019. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://www.aljazeera.com/blogs/asia/2019/01/exposed-china-surveillance-muslim-uighurs-190130011449217.html.
Fuchs, Michael H., Daniel Benaim, and Blaine Johnson. "China Is Violating Uighurs' Human Rights. The United States Must Act." Foreign Policy. November 28, 2018. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/11/28/china-is-violating-uighurs-human-rights-the-united-states-must-act/.
Harris, Rachel, and Aziz Isa. "Islam by Smartphone: Reading the Uyghur Islamic Revival on WeChat." Central Asian Survey38, no. 1 (2018): 61-80. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1492904.
Hyer, Eric. "China's Policy towards Uighur Nationalism." Taylor and Francis Online, August 3, 2006, 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602000600738731.
Kirby, Jen. "China's Brutal Crackdown on the Uighur Muslim Minority, Explained." Vox. November 07, 2018. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://www.vox.com/2018/8/15/17684226/uighur-china-camps-united-nations.
Rogin, Josh. "Ethnic Cleansing Makes a Comeback - in China." The Washington Post. August 02, 2018. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/global-opinions/ethnic-cleansing-makes-a-comeback--in-china/2018/08/02/55f73fa2-9691-11e8-810c-5fa705927d54_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e764642d7403.
Trofimov, Yaroslav. "The Muslim World Looks On as China Persecutes Its Muslims." The Wall Street Journal. February 21, 2019. Accessed April 01, 2019. https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-muslim-rulers-stay-quiet-over-chinas-assault-on-the-uighurs-11550767403.
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