Urban sustainability in Vaughan, Canada can be defined according to the environmental, social and economic indicators. Planning and policy of the country have a significant impact on urban sustainability. The sustainability goals of Vaughan stresses on providing healthy, natural environment by building vibrant communities and a strong economy. Awareness and local actions regarding green infrastructure, climate change and energy efficiency projects have direct effects on sustainability. The social factors of sustainability include the population of the area, quality of life and aging. The economic factors include incomes, wealth, jobs and lifestyles. The environmental factors that influence urban sustainability include air pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, global warming, deforestation and use of land resources.
The two economic factors that have influenced urban sustainability of Vaughan include human development and rate of employment. The human development index is based on life expectancy, income, and education. Life expectancy in Vaughan is significantly high that is estimated as 80 years. The population density of Vaughan is 1054 people per square kilometers. Due to high life expectancy, people are living longer lives having a negative impact on resources. It remains one of the fastest developing regions in Canada. The population growth rate between 1996 to 2006 was 80.2 percent. The fast growth rate has a significant correlation with land resources. Population growth has profound impacts on urban planning. The over-utilization of resources is associated with population rise. With population increase, the use of automobiles also increased in the city. Increased dependence on vehicles resulted in excessive use of fossil fuels that contributed to greenhouse gas emission.
The over-utilization of land resources and global warming and two crucial environmental factors having a negative impact on urban sustainability. Faster growth of population depicts competition over resources that will shrink means. More deforestation is caused due to industrialization that again promotes global warming. Overpopulation and high life expectancy have increased the probability of misuse of land resources. deforestation increase the threats of biodiversity and natural disasters that undermines the notion of urban sustainability CITATION Mac96 \l 1033 (Maclaren, 1996).
The social indicators that influence urban development include social well-being and literacy rate. The literacy rate of Vaughan is 11.2 percent compared to the national rate of 14 percent. More literate people will be more aware of urban sustainability. It is possible for the state to provide awareness to the residents about the concept of promoting green projects. More literate people can become part of the community service programs for promoting environmental sustainability. Social well-being is another important factor that affects urban sustainability. It depends on the concept of social inclusion and one’s sense of belonging to the society. People who are socially inclusive will take an interest in community activities such as programs and multicultural activities. In Vaughan the quality of life of majority population is good. This is an important indicator of social well-being. The overall analysis of the economic, social and environmental indicators depicts that it is difficult to attain urban sustainability with fast population growth, high life expectancy, improved lifestyles and incomes.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Maclaren, V. W. (1996). Urban sustainability reporting. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62 (2).
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