According to Chapter 6 of Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council has the authority to resolve any disputes among different parties. Security Council has the authority to call upon different parties to the dispute when it considers necessary according to Article 33 of the Charter. Security Council has the authority to interfere when it suspects that any dispute can lead to the deterioration of international peace and security according to Article 34. According to Article 36 Security Council has the authority to implement any plan of action to resolve the disputes and party to the disputes are binding according to law. Security Council also enjoys the right to make recommendations to parties with due consultation. According to Chapter 7 Security Council is the authority which determines any sort of aggression, breach or any threat to peace and security. There are two measures mentioned in Chapter 7 and it includes the use of armed force and unarmed forces. Through consulting the members of the United Nations, The Security Council may take measures to isolate the party through breaking diplomatic, economic and other relations. In case of using armed forces to settle disputes, the Security Council may call upon members for agreement and through those agreements, the members shall provide forces, provide passage and other form of assistance required by the security council and according to law. There are numerous advantages of using armed forces in disputed areas which the United Nations has been doing since 1948. Armed forces ensure the protection of people in disputed areas, monitor intrusions alongside borders, and ensure the security of the people living in conflict zones and on special occasions like elections where masses of people get together. The role of armed forces also includes military support and training to the national forces of the country. Whereas the disadvantages of armed forces are that it violates the sovereignty of the state and sometimes also results in innocent killings which happened in Iraq and Afghanistan. While sanctions prove to be helpful in achieving the targeted goals whereas in achieving those goals a marginalized segment of the population is affected the most
Global environment governance incorporates a range of organizations, financial mechanisms, policies, rules and regulations which have been incorporated together to ensure global environment protection. The effectiveness of global governance depends on the policy implementations on national level. Global warming is one of the serious concerns of Global environment concerns. The main cause of global warming has been ozone layer depletion. With the depletion of the ozone layer, certain harmful ultraviolet layers hit earth thus causing the rise in temperature and certain other effects. Since the 1970's the Ozone layer depletion has been put into concern. Given the issue, global environmental governance has initiated conventions on climate change.
The first UN convention on climate change established at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 named as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Negotiation happened among countries and the developed countries were given more responsibility to tackle environmental issues. The result of these conferences led to significant postponement on environment talks by the UN. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol was signed with countries agreeing on 5% further reduction in carbon emissions by 2012 as compared to 1990. The treaty could not be brought into effect as the US has been the major emitter refused to participate until 2004. The Kyoto protocol did not, however, incorporate countries like China and Mexico. The given targets of this protocol from 2012-2021 were refused by US. Canada pulled out of the conference. Japan, New Zealand, and Russian refused to agree with the set targets. The US, China, and India have refused to bind to carbon emission targets. Some of the countries heavily rely on fossil fuels Given the condition, climate change conferences have not been able to accomplish set targets. However, some of the positive outcomes have been in the form of global concern and check and balance on emissions being set. Climate change has the most consequences for third world countries. developed countries are equipped with resources and technology to tackle those issues. However, the underdeveloped world although being a less contributor suffers more from those issues.
Human development is an approach which aims at improving the living conditions of individuals. Historically human development was equated with economic development. Human development does not assume that economic development will automatically lead to the development of everyone. It is a mean not but not an end. Human development is about providing individuals with opportunities and freedom to live and develop their lives. It is about developing the abilities so it will result in their development. For example, education for girls, job opportunities, and health care facilities. And the knowledge to be able to access and utilize resources for a better life. Human development index is measured through various dimensions. 1. Long and healthy life and the indicators for that are life expectancy at birth and life expectancy index. 2. Knowledge of the indicators for which are expected years of schooling, mean years of school and measured by education index. 3. A decent standard of living which is indicated by GNI per capita and GNI index. UN through Millennium development programs has been working to promote Human development. The MDGs was followed by many third world countries funded by the UN aimed at promoting the living standards for individuals. But many countries due to economic constraints and poverty would not be able to accomplish the MDGs. Giving the conditions the UN has further introduced sustainable development programs. The World Bank has a key role in promoting human development in underdeveloped countries. World Bank provides technical and financial support to the developing countries in certain sectors in order to improve their living standards. World bank has a wide range of projects from building schools, electricity, sanitation system to health aids. The world bank is a major contributor in meeting the MDGs. The international community through funding to the UN project, and also independent programs like USAID, and USAID have major contributions in Human development.
BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Austerese, S. (2019). Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2018-12-11/crisis-peacekeeping
Flaherty, L. O. (2015). The Global Governance of Climate Change. University College London.
United Nations. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.UN.org: https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/
United Nations Peace Keeping. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/military
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