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Humans have been indulging in evil doings and illegal activities since the very beginning of time. Every individual has an instinct of good and evil in them. Crime or a criminal activity refers to an error or act that constitutes an offense and is usually punishable by law. There are multiple punishments for different kinds of crimes depending upon the nature of the criminal activity. The severity of punishment depends upon the severity of the crime, the more severe the crime, the stricter will be the punishment. The nature of punishment also varies from region to region.
A kind of punishment that is considered legal and acceptable in one region is considered illegal in some other area. It highly depends upon the culture of the region and the thinking of the people living in that area. This thinking is greatly influenced and shaped up by the religion that is being followed in that area. Sometimes the nature of the punishment even becomes highly controversial and even the lawmakers start avoiding that kind of sentencing to the criminals. One of the prominent examples of such a kind of punishment is capital punishment.
Capital punishment, more commonly known as the death penalty, is a practice that is being sanctioned by the government in which an individual is killed as a punishment against a crime. The act of punishing someone by sentencing the individual to death is known as a death sentence, and the act of carrying on this kind of sentence is known as execution (Brugger, 2014). Capital punishment has always been a matter of controversy not only in a particular country or region but all over the world. It has been a controversial issue since a very long time, in fact since it was suggested that a person should be killed as punishment. In the United States of America, capital punishment is also an issue of great controversy in the whole United States of America. Many states consider it totally immoral and unethical to inflict such a harsh punishment upon anyone, and demand to place a permanent ban on it whereas, in some states, it is considered totally ok to sentence a criminal to death, especially if they have done something really cruel and grave. One of such states is Texas.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, both in terms of population and area. Situated in the South Central region of the country, Texas has a population of 28.7 million, with a crime rate of 433.8 incidents per 100000 resident. This crime rate takes into account the most violent crimes like murder, rape, assault, manslaughter, robbery, and extortion. This crime rate came down minutely from 433.9 incidents per 100000 individuals to 433.8 incidents and still, there is a lot of improvement being made. The capital punishment is a legal penalty in the state of Texas.
It is one of the most extensively practiced government-sanctioned practice or penalty that is implied all over the state. Death penalty or capital Punishment is only sentenced to those criminals who have been found guilty of involvement in a very serious crime like murder or drug trafficking (Sarat, 2018). There is a long and ongoing debate over the topic of capital punishment in the country, especially in the state of Texas, as the state does not consider the punishments morally or ethically wrong.
Evaluation Paradigm is the kind of assessment or the evaluation that is governed by a particular kind of set beliefs that are usually underpinned by theory. This belief is either implicit or explicit and leave a great impact on the evaluation process in terms of the derivation of results and extracting conclusions out of them. There are four basic types of evaluation paradigms that govern the evaluation of different kinds of results or behaviors in the case of various kinds of societies and populations. These paradigms or schools of thought are used for the explanation of various kinds of behaviors and conducts exhibited by individuals in different kinds of situations. These paradigms are especially helpful in the explanation and prediction of criminal behavior or evil mindset in the case of criminals.
These four fundamental kinds of evaluation paradigms have been listed and explained in detail as under:
Like positivism, post-positivism relies on the linkage of the researchers with the results or the observations. Post-positivism lies its belief on the fact that the results and observations of the research are affected and influenced by the personal beliefs of the researcher. The theory relies on the facts that the results of any research are influenced by the personal beliefs of the researchers and the research may be biased.
The Pragmatic Paradigm or Pragmatic school of thought works on “what first the best” approach rather than relying on what right or what is the actual theory. This school of thought mostly comes in action when there is a combination of theories in effect and all are showing a philosophical inconsistency.
Constructive paradigm or Constructive school of thought builds its foundation on the basis of the understandings and experiences of an individual. It states that the behavior or attitudes of a person are predominantly governed by his or her personal experiences in life. An individual develops his or her perception based on the experiences they had in life and the understanding of the situations they had to face in the surroundings.
Transformative paradigm or Transformative school of thought ties its theories to the experiences of the marginalized communities and the reasons that have led to this marginalization. This theory links the actions and reactions to the research findings and tries to mitigate the disparities that have led to such behaviors.
Evaluation Design and Meta-Evaluation
The prominent people getting affected by this study are those that are directly related to the field of crime and criminology. These people are mostly in the criminal justice system. The employees in the police department, the judges, the prosecutors, the law makers, and the legislators are all affected by this study.
The evaluation of various issues can be divided into various types but there are three major types that can be used to explain the evaluation of the processes. These three types are Planning, Formative, and Summative.
Planning Evaluation is the type of analysis or evaluation that is performed before the development of a given task or program. Hence it forms an essential part of the development process.
This type of evaluation takes place during the development of the project or the exhibit. This sets the correct direction for the project and lets the developers and researchers know whether the programs being developed in the correct manner or not.
Data Collection Strategies
The collection of data for this study is a medium level hard task. Some parts of the collection of the data may be very easy as they can be collected through different sources like newspapers and magazines. This information can easily be collected from past research papers, libraries, and newspapers dumpsters. Other parts of the information can be collected through previous case files and judicial records. This part is a little tricky and hard to get as this kind of information is kept confidential and difficult to grab (Moritsugu, Vera, Wong, & Duffy, 2015). This will be collected from getting police records and judicial records by obtaining a permit to do so.
The image of criminal justice and the criminal society has
The results of this study can be compiled in the form of report starting from the definition of crime and the types of crime that come under the category of seriously offensive crime and less-severe cases. Moving ahead the report can include that in what cases the capital punishment is valid and what are the cases in which capital punishment is should be considered.
The results of this study have significantly benefitted the criminal justice system and the social structures in society. The results of this study can be published in various journals and research magazines, especially pertaining to the field of crime and criminology. It can serve as a guiding light for devising of various kind of laws and legislation related to the punishments of the major crimes.
Meta-Evaluation can be used in the various forms of evaluation especially in the case of formative and summative evaluations to come up with better results.
Project management is a practice that is carried on to achieve a specific goal in a specific period of time. Basically, it is carried on to initiate, plan, execute, control, and close the task in the allotted time. The tasks may be carried on by either a team or a single individual. The most prominent aspect of project management is time, as the team has to complete the task in a limited time with the maximum level of accuracy and efficiency.
There are a number of projects that are being carried out in the field of business on a daily basis. Project management has become a common practice nowadays and most of the businesses practice it as they want their task completed in an appropriate time, which is why they allow a specific time to the teams to complete the task. Many organizations or businesses even hire or outsource a team from the outside of the company to complete the tasks for them. These teams are hired for a specific period of time just for the completion of that specific project and then they are released of their duties.
In the case of evaluation of criminal behavior, especially in terms of capital punishment, a number of lawmakers, lawyers, judges, politicians and the members of parliament and Senate have presented their views regarding the issue from time to time (Paternoster,1991). Various committees have been formed from time to time to evaluate the validity of the death penalty or capital cupnishment (McCafferty, 2017). These committees or juries presented different arguments according to their own understanding and pieces of research but no valid conclusions could be drawn and these bodies were dissolved after gaining no results.
In a nutshell, it can be concluded that the decision of capital punishment or death penalty should be maintained in the State of Texas. There are a number of reasons behind this proposition, which have been proved valid through many research articles, newspapers articles, social experiments, and psychological approaches. There are a number of opinionated pieces of research on the said topic as well that have a strong backing of psychological experiments and philosophy. This opinion has been benefitted the criminal justice system a lot and brought a lot of improvement in the social structure regarding the outlook of the crime and criminal system.
Brugger, E. C. (2014). Capital punishment and Roman Catholic moral tradition.
McCafferty, J. A. (2017). Capital punishment. Routledge.
Moritsugu, J., Vera, E., Wong, F. Y., & Duffy, K. G. (2015). Community psychology. Psychology Press.
Paternoster, R. (1991). Capital punishment in America (p. 20). New York: Lexington Books.
Sarat, A. (2018). When the state kills: Capital punishment and the American condition. Princeton University Press.
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