Epidemiolgy Methodology Study -- Fibromyalgia Population
Epidemiology Methodology study
EPIDEMIOLOGY METHODOLOGY STUDY
Fibromyalgia is a common disease amongst populations. It is, however, a combination of complex symptoms, which are difficult to diagnose and often overlap with symptoms of other diseases. It is regarded as one of the most costly public health issues to treat. This disease can affect all within a population at any time including children. Fibromyalgia is most commonly diagnosed during the middle ages (30 -50 years of age) and it is probable that people may be diagnosed with the disease as they grow older. It has been estimated that around millions of adults in the United States are suffering from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is considered syndrome whereby the pain eventually spreads throughout the body. The pain caused by the disease is directly related to the abnormality observed in the nervous system, which is due to the release of certain chemicals that cause pain and make it difficult for the nervous processes to send messages to different parts of the body CITATION DBo18 \l 1033 (Bouhassira, 2018). It is regarded as a long term disease which makes the muscles tender and increases the sensitivity amongst the patient along with pain, fatigue, sleeping difficulties, headaches, digestion problems and issues with memory and concentration. Although the precise cause of the disease is unknown, it is, however, narrowed down to be developed through an injury, an operation, giving birth or psychological issues like loss of a loved one or end of a relationship. The healthcare issue is a common public health problem and is medically addressed through the use of antidepressants, cognitive psychological behavior therapies, and lifestyle changes. Fibromyalgia is a common disease, it is estimated by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention that every 1 person out of 20 carries the disease. Hence the issue carries depths in the public health, for the healthcare institutions.
The paper tends to explore the epidemiology methodological study on the public health issue of fibromyalgia within the population, with reference to the disease and its impact on women and children. The study comprehensively evaluates research articles which identify fibromyalgia amongst the United States population.
Fibromyalgia in women and Children
Fibromyalgia is a common disease that can affect anyone, however; it affects women more than men. The women who have been diagnosed with the trauma previously are most likely to develop symptoms of fibromyalgia. The women who suffer fibromyalgia have once in their lifetime experienced physical or emotional abuse during their lifetime CITATION VSe15 \l 1033 (Carbonell‐Baeza, 2015). It can also affect children. The impact of the disease in children is equally observable. Research states that fibromyalgia affects children and adolescents equally it suggests around 2 to 6 percent of children especially young school going girls aged 13- 15 years have been diagnosed by fibromyalgia CITATION Juv19 \l 1033 (Juvenile fibromyalgia). The syndrome is observed amongst children due to many conditions such as weak immune system, endocrine, genetic, emotional and psychological issues CITATION Car16 \l 1033 (Cara M. Hoffart, 2016). The symptoms differ in women and men, women tend to observe severe abdominal and backaches before or during the menstrual cycle, making women with fibromyalgia more vulnerable to Premenstrual syndrome and Dysmenorrhea CITATION Ter15 \l 1033 (Terzi R, 2015). While children are said to show pain in certain tender points like below the neck and backaches.
The initial findings of the American College of Rheumatology presented a particular set of diagnoses and symptoms that lead to the identification of tender points that develop fibromyalgia. The comprehensiveness of the research leads to the creation of polysymptomatic distress scale, which could measure the severity of fibromyalgia. Moreover, under epidemiological studies, the PDS can be easily used to identify the level of the syndrome. Using the data from clinics, general surveys, interviews, pharmaceutical trials and observation it was concluded that fibromyalgia was a syndrome found specifically in middle-aged women in the United States. The epidemiological studies based on the population suggest that the disease was dominated by the women by a ratio of 3:1. In 2012, a National Health Interview Survey suggested different criteria for studying fibromyalgia. This study incorporated all the necessary qualities required to study the disease. The interviews provided a clear and personalized account of the patients which led to a better understanding of the health issue. The results were concluded through statistical analyses achieved through different strata in a population.
Relation to Public Health
Elimination of pain is considered one of the goals of the Healthy People 2020 initiative by the World Health Organization. The fibromyalgia is considered as one of the most painful conditions whereby women experience more chronic pain and fatigue as compared to their male counterparts. Around 10 million people suffer from the fibromyalgia in just the United States according to a CNN report. Therefore elimination and recognition of such chronic diseases is a matter of prime importance for the health institutions in order to reduce the risk. The healthy people initiative actively seeks to reduce joint pain that is inclusive of fibromyalgia and psychological distress amongst the people.
Fibromyalgia in United States Population
The case study under review in this paper is that of the National Health Interview survey that leads to the epidemiological study on the presence of fibromyalgia in the United States population. The research collected the information for the fibromyalgia amongst 225,726,257 adults in the United States. The criteria for identification of the disease was founded through this research. They developed criteria of the polysymptomatic distress scale (PDS). The criteria were later, further developed through the research conducted by the American College of Rheumatology CITATION Bri16 \l 1033 (Brian Walitt, 2016). This measure analyzed and compared the results between those who had fibromyalgia and those who did not have the disease.
The results of the NIHS research concluded that around 1.78% of people amongst the population met the criteria for the clinical diagnoses for fibromyalgia while 73.5% did not meet the criteria defined under the NIHS research. The research estimated that around 1.3% of the syndrome is related to the PDS and was characterized by sleeping issues and widespread pain in the body. The results showed that women irrespective of their race and color showed more symptoms of fibromyalgia inclusive of the work and marital status and were signs predicting positive fibromyalgia amongst them CITATION Bri16 \l 1033 (Brian Walitt, 2016).
Fibromyalgia is a treatable disease. The treatment, with the help of healthcare professionals, can significantly reduce the risk of its escalation and severity. Although it is a chronic disease, the pain can be reduced with the help of medicine and therapy. The condition is by large are not limited to any particular cure many people seek improvement through medicines while others through changes in lifestyles and therapeutic sessions. Fibromyalgia is a disease however it does not damage muscles or is progressive. The results from the research also represent that the clinically diagnosed cases amongst the population in the United States do not reach the level of the severity due to timely diagnoses, it is also concluded that irrespective of the symptoms the demographic and social factors also add to the development of such diseases CITATION Bri16 \l 1033 (Brian Walitt, 2016). More comprehensive research on the issue creates hope for treatment of the disease, while there is still time for a definite cure, the disease can be averted with the help of healthy life choices.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bouhassira, D. (2018). Noninvasive Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome–Related Pain. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Brian Walitt, R. S. (2016). Three-Quarters of Persons in the US Population Reporting a Clinical Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Do Not Satisfy Fibromyalgia Criteria: The 2012 National Health Interview Survey.
Cara M. Hoffart, D. D. (2016). Fibromyalgia—Toward a Definition in Children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 9-10.
Carbonell‐Baeza, V. S.‐J.‐P.‐M.‐G.‐L.‐F. (2015). The association of total and central body fat with pain, fatigue and the impact of fibromyalgia in women; the role of physical fitness. European Journal of Pain.
Juvenile fibromyalgia. (n.d.). Retrieved 2019, from Mayo Clinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/juvenile-fibromyalgia/symptoms-causes/syc-20374053
Terzi R, T. H. (2015). Evaluating the relation of premenstrual syndrome and primary dysmenorrhea in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Rev Bras Rheumatol. , 334-9.
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