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Mental Health among Children and Adolescent
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Mental Health among Children and Adolescent
Mental health issues and psychological intricacies are the significant contributors in the burden of disease on a global level. Unluckily, the populace of children and adolescents are not protected from such devastation and more that 23 of overall American children and young adults are suffering from mental health complications (Chun et al, 2016). The reported statistics falsify the generalized concept that childhood is the most carefree and blissful era of a humans life. According to a myriad of studies the mental complications in youngsters and kids emerge as hyperbole or deformation of emotions and behaviors that should be otherwise normal and controlled. Nevertheless, in early years children depict certain sort of inclination toward some particularly demeanors that label them as shy, confident, convivial, introvert or extrovert etcetera but any excessive notion of any gesture or behavior is a precise sign of some mental intricacies. For instance, some kids seem coy in presenting their project in front of their class fellows and teacher but abnormal level of avoidance and associated distress in such cases will be asserted as a symptom of mental health issue.
Throughout the span of childhood and adolescence most of the mental health issue can be classified into various well determined categories. Such divisions include anxiety disorder, mood and stress disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant, attention-deficit or hyperactivity, or disruptive behavioral disorders. In some cases the symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders may also be observed (Elia, 2019).
Prevalence In the year 2005-2015, the underlying assistance of childrens mental health services played an integral role in addressing the problematic aspects of childrens mental complications. In due course, The National Institute of Mental Health generated research funding, and a considerable reduction of 42 was noted in juvenile mental health cases (Hoagwood et al., 2018). However, according to the recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO), internationally, more than 10-20 percent of youngsters and children are experiencing mental health complications.
It is asserted that the majority of such cases start emerging by the age of 14 or mid of the 20s. Studies pinpointed neuropsychiatric implications as the leading culprit in augmenting the mental complications among young adults. Moreover, it is also reminded to seek a cure for such problems because the elevation of mental health issues impacts the overall educational, developmental, social, physical, and intellectual potencies to an exacerbated extent. WHO emphasizes dejecting the aspects of discriminations, isolations, and stigma while treating mental health issues altogether (WHO, 2019).Consequences Childhood and adolescence is the most critical period that determines the efficacy and prospects of an individuals life. The possibility of any mental trauma or related psychological issue can tarnish all the facades of a promising life, including education, profession, physical health, relationships, and social and self-esteem. Mental issues in young adults snatch their chance to bloom, and they feel outcast any attempt to solicit a cure for the complications creates an impediment in the form of stigma and socially discriminated attitudes. Consequently, children and adolescents suffer identity issues as well as stress, trauma, and some times become prone to criminal offenses. In some severe cases and in the absence of adequate and timely help, youngsters may also commit suicide.Risk Protective Factors The new dynamic age poses a myriad of threats in exacerbating mental illnesses among children and young adults, but the conventional practices play their part along. However, some mental disorders are genetics and are inherited by ancestors such complications include bipolar and schizophrenia. On the other hand, various other external and internal causes such as traumatic experiences, abuses, family dysfunctions, stress, and poverty or identity issues are also imperative in this regard. Mental issues have different tendencies in males and females and different age groups (Mclean, 2013).
Furthermore, substance abuse, as well as second-hand smoking, accelerate the psychological and biological mechanism of an individual, and worsen the mental health consequences (Bandiera, 2011). Similarly, the exposure of violence either through practical incidents or via movies or video game paves the path for mental disturbance among immature young adults and kids. According to Kaspar (2016), more than fifty percent of students who encounter violence at schools develop nervous and psychological impairments. Regardless of demographic attributes and socioeconomic characteristics, the violence in educational institutes is deemed as a prevalent predictor of mental health intricacies (Kaspar, 2016).
The sense of identity is eminent dimension, and aboriginal children and adolescents become the victim of social ethnicity and racial stereotyping. Native kids lack social and justice facilities, and confront poverty and unstable domestic environment, confound issues in access, and implementation of services that impact their health and mental peace order (Williamson et al., 2010).Evidence-Based Programs and/or Policies Mental health problems in children and adolescents can be mitigated or treated by implementing both evidence-based programs and policies alternatively. Children and young adults spend most of their time in educational institutes and schools, and therefore teachers could observe the significant and minor behavioral abnormalities. Attitude difficulties in children and teenagers can be anticipated and comprehended through observing attention problems, hyperactivity, aggressiveness, and delinquent tendencies, and lack of focus (Honkanen et al., 2014).
On the other hand, the perception regarding acquiring help in certain mental health scenarios is also important. For instance, 88 of people delineate depression as the most dangerous situation that needs immediate help. Children and young adults can seek the assistance of parents, elder siblings, or psychologists to cope with any such complexity. The idea of preferring a way out varied by beliefs, age, and gender to an extensive extent (Marcel et al., 2007). Contemporary intervention tactics for adolescents and children with mental issues comprised of the multifaceted archetype. The planning and implementation of preventive or corrective measures require synchronization among different components of the overall treatment plan for increased and enduring effectiveness (Remschmid Belfer, 2005).
Children and young adults are the building blocks of a social system, and therefore no one can deny imperativeness of their sanity and mental stability. However, the contemporary era poses countless perils for growing ups because, along with conventional factors, modern and technological implications are also partaking in complicating external and internal environments. Nowadays, parents are busier in eking lives, siblings are occupied in their tiresome studies, and in such cases, it becomes almost impossible to identify initial symptoms of mental disorders in children. Kids who fall prey to mental murkiness become fail to attain their educational, developmental, personal, communal, and physical and intellectual objectives. In past decades, the presence of any mental illness used to be mulled over as something ominous, and in due course, people preferred to conceal their flaws instead of being called an outcast. The social stigma is the worsening force and, therefore, is wholly shunned by modern psychologists, educationalists, and citizens simultaneously. In due course, the risk factors, including secondhand smoking, traumas, abusiveness, and stress stimulators, need to be addressed on a higher level. Moreover, teachers and parents or guardians should be trained to observe the regular behavioral inclination of youngsters both in educational and domestic premises. Age, gender, nature of mental disorder, and other implicit and explicit aspects all are indispensable to elaborate while devising treatment techniques for affected younglings.
Bandiera, F. C. (2011, April 1). Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Mental Health Among Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/384510https//jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/384510.
Child and adolescent mental health. (2019). Retrieved 24 November 2019, from https//www.who.int/mental_health/maternal-child/child_adolescent/en/
Chun, T. H., Mace, S. E., Katz, E. R. (2016). Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20161570e20161570. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1570https//doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1570
Elia, J. (2019). Overview of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents - Pediatrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition. Retrieved 24 November 2019, from https//www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents/overview-of-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
Gaete, J., Montero-Marin, J., Valenzuela, D., Rojas-Barahona, C. A., Olivares, E., Araya, R. (2018). Mental health among children and adolescents Construct validity, reliability, and parent-adolescent agreement on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Chile. PLoS ONE, 13(2). Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191809https//doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191809
Hoagwood, K. E., Atkins, M., Kelleher, K., Peth-Pierce, R., Olin, S., Burns, B., Horwitz, S. M. (2018). Trends in Childrens Mental Health Services Research Funding by the National Institute of Mental Health From 2005 to 2015 A 42 Reduction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(1), 1013. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.433https//doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.433
Honkanen, M., Mtt, H., Hurtig, T., Ebeling, H., Taanila, A., Koivumaa-Honkanen, H. (2014). Teachers Assessments of Childrens Mental Problems With Respect to Adolescents Subsequent Self-Reported Mental Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(1), 8187. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.041https//doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.041
Kaspar, V. (2013). Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments Protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders. Social Science Medicine, 81, 7078. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.12.011https//doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.12.011
MacLean, A., Hunt, K., Sweeting, H. (2013). Symptoms of Mental Health Problems Childrens and Adolescents Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking. Children Society, 27(3), 161173. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00406.xhttps//doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00406.x
Marcell, A. V., Halpern-Felsher, B. L. (2007, April 19). Adolescents Beliefs about Preferred Resources for Help Vary Depending on the Health Issue. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07000973https//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07000973.
Remschmidt, H., Belfer, M. (2005). Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide a review. World psychiatry official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 4(3), 147153.
Williamson, A., Raphael, B., Redman, S., Daniels, J., Eades, S., Mayers, N. (2010). Emerging themes in Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health findings from a qualitative study in Sydney, New South Wales. Medical Journal Of Australia, 192(10), 603-605. doi 10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03649.x
Mental Health among Children and Adolescent
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