4DQ1 Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens
Jefferson Davis claimed in his memoirs that the primary reason that led the South to fight was their unalienable right to withdraw, which in turn was motivated by economic reasons such as the unequal and unjust operation of a protective tariff CITATION Dav81 \l 1033 (Davis, 1881). In contrast, Alexander Stephens was of the view that their new Government was founded upon the idea that Negro was not equal to the superior White race CITATION Ste68 \l 1033 (Stephens, 1868). The concept of equality of races was not based on philosophical truth, and this is the cause of the current rupture and revolution. The date of when the two speeches were made could influence the opinions, since even if there were other political and economic causes to the war, the issue over race and the rhetoric involved overshadowed the truth. For this purpose, historical documents over disagreements between the North and South, before passionate rhetoric began to be exchanged over slavery, have to be analyzed to determine the actual cause.
Victuals refer to food and other provisions associated with the basic necessities of life. The North enjoyed advantage of enormous industrialization compared to the South, who had only one-ninth of the Union’s capacity CITATION Bon13 \l 1033 (Bonner, 2013). There was improved transportation, manufacturing, urbanization, rail roads and trades. Moreover, a wide majority lived on farms where they had adequate lands for livestock, food crops, and producing food for trade and export CITATION Nus00 \l 1033 (Nusbacher, 2000). Generally, the victuals needed to survive today are the same as they have always been. Access to clean and adequate food, water, shelter and clothing.
5DQ1 Search for Good Society
The women wanted protection for their families and homes, which required them to expand the ‘women’s sphere’ and be more involved in the government and community. They sought a larger life within public affairs along with being social housekeepers, in which they would make community decision about public health, public education and food supply besides making meals and bringing children up. Their major accomplishments included worker’s protections, child labor legislation and equal voting rights. One such inspiring and progressive woman is Michelle Obama. She served as a role model for women and advocated against poverty.
5DQ2 Wilderness and Forest Reserves
John Muir saw the wilderness as a place filled with divine beauty, and places for prayers, inspiration and rest, highlighting its spiritual qualities. This inspired his readers to aid in preservation of large forests and natural areas. Roosevelt also doubled the country’s forest reserves out of his love of the woods, fields and wild animals. For him, the good of the whole people meant making policies that would help everyone regardless of his party’s considerations; which would be secondary.
The people who were slowly emerging out of the dire times of the Depression-era wanted not just entertainment but towards the hope and promise of a better society. Superman embodied the true American ideals and promised hope to the people who had witnessed the idea of the American dream fall. It not only provided escapism but a hope towards a better future, if they too would stick to their ideals like Superman did. However, because Superhero comic books in a way promoted violent crime and vigilante heroes, who would use their abilities to take the law into their own hands, there were fears that it could undermine authority.
6DQ2 World War II Intervention
America had adopted an isolationist policy during the 1930s, however, Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and parts of China’s Northeastern areas led the U.S. to change its policy from neutralism to expressing diplomatic concern over the aggression. Furthermore, the blockage of American ships, outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, and the rise of fascism along with the surprise Pearl Harbor attack changed public opinion from neutrality to limited U.S, aid, which evolved to full scale intervention. The U.S. should still adopt an isolationist strategy until and unless its direct interests with regards to their own citizens and land are threatened. The U.S. instead should use its diplomatic and economic strength to influence outcomes rather than a military intervention, in modern times.
7DQ1 WW2 Integration in American Life
The World War II saw an increasing participation of African-Americans in the war, stepping up to defend what was also their homeland. Moreover, it increased national pride and patriotism and allowed for a greater participation of women in the workforce. The acceptance of innovative new lifestyles and fashion grew and the boost in economy encouraged many to share American ideals.
7DQ2 – Political and Cultural Statements
Post-World War II, various activists and artists have used the body to make political and cultural statements. For instance, nudity has been used to speak out against animal torture, sexism and censorship. Nudity has also been used to promote LGBT rights, body image and challenge sexual regulation, and cultural and beauty standards. Tattoos have been used to indicate affiliation to certain political stances, philosophies or positions.
8DQ1 Vietnam War
President Johnson tried to justify escalation in the Vietnam War by arguing that the U.S. must shun its isolationist policies in face of the many troubles and dangers that are deemed foreign, yet live within them. Moreover, escalating the war would make the Vietnamese ‘come to their sense’. Moreover, the U.S. had to curb communist expansion after the failed plans for Cuban invasion. Additionally, Johnson envisioned the creation of a Great Society that he used to justify intervention in that Area.
The U.S. Strategy consisted of launching a series of limited scale attacks to wear down the locals, and couple that with heavy bombings from the air to prevent them from recovering. In South-Vietnam, ground forces would devastate pro-communist militias followed by air attacks, however, the U.S. would not occupy new territory.
A number of factors were at play. The insects, the weather as well as diseases impacted the soldier’s ability to fight who would often suffer from dehydration. Moreover, the Vietnamese people aided their soldiers with everything within their capacity to fight ‘hostile invaders’.
Besides the heavy casualties in Vietnam, and the high overall collateral damage in Vietnam, there was little ways in which the US government could sell the war to the people. There was growing perception that the government was lying to the public. Moreover, the war was prolonged and was not perceived to be achieving its overall objectives.
I agree with Donald Trump’s stance of pulling back U.S forces from conflict areas. A military intervention further complicates a situation where a number of state and non-state forces are involved, each with their own vested interests. The U.S. is more often than not, unable to prevent civilian casualties and a direct intervention reinforces notions about American Imperialism on pretext of the White man’s burden.
8DQ2 Hunger Strike
Ending a hunger strike with a mass protest or sit-in would reinforce the message. Moreover, a hunger-strike only carries influence when it is done by someone influential or well-known, therefore the protestors need to amplify their voices in order to be heard. The image of a raised closed fist symbolizes support and solidarity, and can be a powerful way to express defiance and resistance from a unified group. These symbols have been frequently adopted by those banking on identity politics. For instance, socialist-democrats and feminists have adopted the symbol to demonstrate a unified resistance to what they perceive as capitalism promoted inequality, class differences, as well as infringement on women’s rights such as abortion.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonner, M. B. (2013). Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War by Andrew F. Smith (review). The Journal of the Civil War Era, 3(1), 146-148. doi:10.1353/cwe.2013.0012
Davis, J. (1881). Slavery Did Not Cause the Civil War. In The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (Vol. 1, pp. 77-80). New York.
Nusbacher, A. J. (2000). Civil Supply in the Civil War: Supply of Victuals to the New Model Army on the Naseby Campaign, 1-14 June 1645. The English Historical Review, 115(460), 145-160. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/579440?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Stephens, A. (1868). Slavery is the Cornerstone: Speech Delivered March 21 1861. In F. Moore (Ed.), The Rebellion Record (Vol. 1, pp. 45-46). Savannah, Georgia.
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