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The scope of this paper covers a comparison between two leading News media personalities of Fox News. Fox News is one of the biggest media groups in America and with their different personalities, both of them play a role in highlighting issues and educating people about it. Though their styles are massively different, their shows can sometimes both be hilarious and heated with arguments. Through their similarities and differences, we will be looking at Are Television context and social media context being different or do they create differences (Media Ecology).
The first journalist under our consideration is Christ Wallace, who is a well renowned media personality and host on Fox News. He had previously worked on ABC News and NBC as well from mid 70s to early 2000s. In total, he has served more than 50 years in the media. Hosting Fox News Sunday means that he is the only person to have hosted two Sunday political talk shows, his other show was Meet the Press and also, he previously worked as chief correspondent of White house and senior correspondent for NBC and ABC respectively ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDPjeqWoIX,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220Chris Wallace Avoid Relying On Planninguc0u8212Business Insider,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(Chris Wallace Avoid Relying On PlanningBusiness Insider, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/ZitF1PY5,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/S23QY77B,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/S23QY77B,itemDataid88,typewebpage,titleChris Wallace Avoid Relying On Planning - Business Insider,URLhttps//www.businessinsider.com/chris-wallace-avoid-relying-on-planning-2014-12,accesseddate-parts2019,10,28,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Chris Wallace Avoid Relying On PlanningBusiness Insider, n.d.).
The other person we will be comparing with Christ Wallace is Tucker Carlson, who is also a well-known political commentator who hosts the night show at Fox News i.e. Tucker Carlson tonight. In his program, he presents insightful analysis and thoughtful debates with guests from all across American political culture. Twitter Storm and Campus Craziness are the two famous segments of his show. He previously worked at CNN as co-host of The Spin Room and Cross Fire, and became CNNs youngest host ever ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDoVO59iiG,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220Tucker Carlson Fox News,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(Tucker Carlson Fox News, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/s339ptId,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/QC4BF4BS,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/QC4BF4BS,itemDataid90,typewebpage,titleTucker Carlson Fox News,URLhttps//www.foxnews.com/person/c/tucker-carlson.html,accesseddate-parts2019,10,28,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Tucker Carlson Fox News, n.d.). He is also the author of two books Politicians, Partisans and parasites My adventure in cable News and Ship of fools How a ruling class is bringing America to the brink of Revolution.
Their specialty is using social media as means to convey their message to everyone, including those who cant access their shows which is our prime goal and the problem we are dealing with. Carlson is considered a conservative media personality because of his previous connections with The Daily Caller and alignment with Right Wing Populism.
The study of Media Ecology was first presented by Marshal McLuhan as the study of media sources, the incorporation of technology in it and how it effects human life and their surroundings ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDsP44ZLqL,propertiesformattedCitation(West Turner, 2018),plainCitation(West Turner, 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/fn3WzJnB,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LDNHJ366,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/LDNHJ366,itemDataid92,typebook,titleIntroducing Communication Theory Analysis And Appliaction,publisherMcGraw-Hill Education,,ISBN1-259-87032-4,authorfamilyWest,givenRichard,familyTurner,givenLynn H.,issueddate-parts2018,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (West Turner, 2018). Media Ecology means using a communication medium in a specified environment and then studying its affects on society. Its effects may include studying the change of human nature, their thinking, feelings and behavior and how it effects a society as a complex communication system. It is an analysis of the entire environment in which we exist and it can be in the form of books, Radio, Newspaper, Television or any other modern-day technological instrument used for communication and conveyance of message. Media works through our senses and the effect of television as a message is independent of programs. Its effect on human life is in general very large as compared to a small topic on a TV program. McLuhan focus was on Medium is the Message. Media ecology theory means that medium and the message is inseparable and the medium itself is an integral part of the communication or message that is being carried out. This also means that the changes that occur in the medium will also affect our environment. The introduction of Modern-day social media and advancement in digital technology have once again brought focus of many people towards Media ecology. With the increasing technologization of our life, the study of media ecology is becoming more and more integral. With the ever-decreasing gap between media personnel and audiences through the profession of journalism have come under the microscopic context of Media Ecology. The use of such media types encourages different habits and engages different senses.
In the past age of tribal villages, humans were much more dependent on hearing, touch, taste and smell. Then after the age of literacy and the invention of the alphabets, human beings were able to turn sounds into visible objects. This drastically changed our symbolic environment and brought humans into the age of literacy. The need for committing information to memory reduced because human was able to write and store the required information. Humans multi-sensory dependence were changed into visual dependence and the act of hearing was changed to reading, making it a more individual aspect instead of a group. This also changed our perception of receiving information and written statements and literature started to feel more authentic than spoken one. This meant that whoever had the power to read and write became more superior to those who couldnt read and write. Later with the introduction of printing presses, literacy became more and more common but also more dependent and concentrated on the sources that were being provided. The sharing of information through fixed provided services meant that a mass media context give rise to fixed national languages and more concentrated nationalist societies. With the advent of electronic communication systems, our symbolic communication environment was changed once again. The age of literacy was dividing us into individuals, but with advent of digital media services, we were once again connected and became a large connected tribe.
With the digital age, the internet is not only common in our house hold but many of us have a constant access through smart devices. People can now be connected more than they ever could have. This also changes the perception that corporate media is the gatekeeper of information that we are accessing. In his book Technopoly Neil Postman emphasized on three basic questions that to what problem does this technology offers a solution, whose problem is it and what other problems does this create ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDdyAClN6V,propertiesformattedCitation(Postman, 2011),plainCitation(Postman, 2011),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/PqJqeeKp,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/F4Z4FTPF,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/F4Z4FTPF,itemDataid94,typebook,titleTechnopoly The surrender of culture to technology,publisherVintage,ISBN0-307-79735-X,authorfamilyPostman,givenNeil,issueddate-parts2011,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Postman, 2011). The advent of social media communication methods has resulted in less face to face communication and made it more on screen. This have also resulted in better technological use for children at a very less age, but the points of McLuhan and Postman can still be valid as there are not any proper steps that can define progress. So, the learning curve in these technological advancements can still be defined as simple changes and not progress. McLuhan have received a lot of criticism and questions for his media ecology theory because of his approach to the problem in question. McLuhan didnt give any quantitative measures to support his objection, as his ideas and arguments are subjective in nature.
Now a days the medium of message is as important as the message itself. For example, if we have urgent message that we want to deliver to a friend for a class assignment at 12 mid night, the mean or way that we are going to use will define the importance of our message. Supposedly we email our urgent work through email the importance of it will diminish very quickly, similarly a text as well will not hold such importance and effect which a call can have.
One such crack investigation by Tripp (2014) on San Jose Mercury news studied the transition of information sharing from print to digital. The study found out that the convergence of audiences is subjected to the broader view of media ecology, while at the same time incorporating the technological advancement of media ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDyvX3Q3Im,propertiesformattedCitation(Simpson, 2017),plainCitation(Simpson, 2017),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/ETLajM5p,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/CKLFY6GU,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/CKLFY6GU,itemDataid95,typearticle-journal,titleJumping platforms The ecology of converged news audiences,container-titleExplorations in Media Ecology,page39-55,volume16,issue1,authorfamilySimpson,givenEdgar,issueddate-parts2017,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Simpson, 2017). The audience was a media agency itself so it was both consumer and provider of the news at the same time. The individuals that were interviewed made very little distinction between what the traditional sources of information was provided and what the audience conveyed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDjmkWR3QD,propertiesformattedCitation(Simpson, 2017),plainCitation(Simpson, 2017),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/ETLajM5p,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/CKLFY6GU,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/CKLFY6GU,itemDataid95,typearticle-journal,titleJumping platforms The ecology of converged news audiences,container-titleExplorations in Media Ecology,page39-55,volume16,issue1,authorfamilySimpson,givenEdgar,issueddate-parts2017,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Simpson, 2017).
When Members of the wider society starts sharing information with each other through a narrower channel of technologies it is named as Social Media. The space of social media has helped in evolving reporting practices and have similarly posed challenges to the current way of reporting. The unique characteristics of social media have also allowed people to experience raw and refined forms of news at the same time. The details are simply now a click away from not only browsing a news but also analyzing it. It also has a negative impact on the society in terms of undermining the detail analysis and influence of old media personalities and individuals. This subsequently means that traditional audiences and media personals are playing more important role in the consumptions and supply of news through advanced social media channels. The association of Twitter with journalism has been on its rise since its inception. Twitter have evolved the concept of journalism, now a days even before writing an article or doing a mainstream program a journalist can connect with his audience through a short tweet. Different programs can use a hashtag and spread it on social media to promote its content. This is particularly helpful as the attention from traditional media forms is changing towards social media usage. Social media gives a higher degree of confidence to users about the information as they receive it directly from their favorite media personnel and political figures.
The marketing of News programs has changed significantly over the past decade and half. This has forced broadcasters to develop new strategies to connect with their audiences on a global scale. Social media has empowered the viewers and influencers to connect with each other and share their opportunity directly with that specific person. Through the use of social media Users can also provide their responses almost immediately, which is evident from the increased involvement of crossovers between mainstream Media programs and social media.
However, differences have also arisen from the fake news phenomenon and people usually gets confused between an authentic news and fake news. The data from Pew Research shows that the dependence on social media has increased significantly over the past decade and almost 45 percent of adults use Facebook for news and half of them solely depends on it for their information ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDSazD3sJp,propertiesformattedCitation(NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-a),plainCitation(NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-a),noteIndex0,citationItemsidD29Jb8DQ/iD8ESmOq,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/PMGTRWQ8,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/cYhHNKoU/items/PMGTRWQ8,itemDataid96,typepost-weblog,titleMore in U.S. getting news from multiple social media sites,container-titlePew Research Center,abstractAbout a quarter of all U.S. adults get news from two or more social media sites, up from 15 in 2013 and 18 in 2016.,URLhttps//www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/02/more-americans-are-turning-to-multiple-social-media-sites-for-news/,languageen-US,authorfamilyNW,given1615 L. St,familySuite 800Washington,given,familyInquiries,givenDC 20036USA202-419-4300 Main202-857-8562 Fax202-419-4372 Media,accesseddate-parts2019,10,28,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-a). The reach and target audience of social media is great but it has no proper policy or prevention methods from which someone can prevent a fake news from spreading.
ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDgCH8jSCG,propertiesformattedCitation(NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-b),plainCitation(NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-b),noteIndex0,citationItemsid139,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/NQDY9MC5,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/NQDY9MC5,itemDataid139,typepost-weblog,titleMore in U.S. getting news from multiple social media sites,container-titlePew Research Center,abstractAbout a quarter of all U.S. adults get news from two or more social media sites, up from 15 in 2013 and 18 in 2016.,URLhttps//www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/02/more-americans-are-turning-to-multiple-social-media-sites-for-news/,languageen-US,authorfamilyNW,given1615 L. St,familySuite 800Washington,given,familyInquiries,givenDC 20036USA202-419-4300 Main202-857-8562 Fax202-419-4372 Media,accesseddate-parts2019,10,28,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (NW, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, n.d.-b)
Traditional media news was a loose canon and its message was such that producers hoped that it would hit anyone who will listen to it. The target audience was too big to specify a news to relate to it. On the other hand, social media has the ability to target your audience with precision. Social media has also broadened the concept of journalism. Until the last two decades journalism was defined as the power that was truly at the mercy of traditional news organizations. However, now a days anyone who can deliver or share a news can be considered a journalist, it doesnt matter if he is connected to any news outlet or not. The availability of multiple platforms means there are new opportunities that are accessible for people to comfort their diverse needs for new information ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID7CYKrozX,propertiesformattedCitation(Zhao, Lampe, Ellison, 2016),plainCitation(Zhao, Lampe, Ellison, 2016),noteIndex0,citationItemsid141,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/ZS6ZJH5W,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/KfR9yuY2/items/ZS6ZJH5W,itemDataid141,typepaper-conference,titleThe social media ecology User perceptions, strategies and challenges,container-titleProceedings of the 2016 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems,publisherACM,page89-100,ISBN1-4503-3362-1,authorfamilyZhao,givenXuan,familyLampe,givenCliff,familyEllison,givenNicole B.,issueddate-parts2016,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Zhao, Lampe, Ellison, 2016).
Different streams of social media information are strongly becoming part of News programs. Different broadcasters have engaged viewers by letting them ask questions on Twitter and the integrating them in mainstream programs. Twitter have also released certain strategies for broadcasters on how to involve people into programs. YouTube is also becoming one of the major media partners for many companies. One standout example is the YouTube Channel of Vice Media known as Vice News. In the new media ecological system, different companies like Google and Facebook have apparently changed the way we look at media. These brands have made people a test subjects of their inventions, they create their new systems and offer it us in Beta version. This modern Ecology of media have made us dependent on fashionable software connected society. The internet of things will definitely mean that new strategies to develop our society and continue its progression are required.
If Chris Wallace made arguments like these on his own program on Fox News, he would pave the paths of his own destruction. Wallace, host of an outstanding program Fox News Sunday, had an interview with New York Times Michael M. Greenbaum. He objected the decisions taken by the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Tom Perez that the Fox News be stiffed off for its 12 primary debates that are due in 2020 presidential cycle. According to an article written by New Yorkers Jane Maye, Perez had critical remarks about the decision. He stated that as per the New Yorkers current reporting on the opposite relationships among President Trump and his administration at the Fox News has made it imperative to take such a decision and identify that this network is not the right situation in order to host a neutral and unbiased debates for our candidates. Thus, Fox News will step back as a media partner for conducting 2020 democratic primary debates. (Wemple)
The 8pm slot on the Fox News Channel was taken by Tucker Carlson as he already knew that he got the ultimate support of the regular viewers of the cable news networks. Though, he did not receive the old support from the huge chip advertisers. Tucker Carlson Tonight was broadcasted on the Fox News and it only featured for advertisement breaks and a small number of huge national commercials. Instead, they relied on the direct response advertisements along with sundry promotions for remaining Fox News shows and content surfaced by 21st Century Fox which is its parent company. The show depicted a very resilient prologue by its host and he replied back on the television for the first time in response to the disclosure by the Media Matters which is a liberal advocacy group. Carlson made bothersome comments a few years ago over a radio talk show regarding celebrities and the cult leader who had been notoriously known to have planned certain marriages among his adult male fans and the underage girls. (Steinberg)
President Donald Trump had a visit to Helsinki along with President of Russia Vladimir Putin. On his way, he tweeted that it did not matter to him how well he did, eventually he would come back to the critical point that it was not good enough. He also restated one of his favorite blames that majority of our news media was primarily the most dangerous enemy of our people. He needs to understand that responsible journalism of a nation is not the enemy of its people. After the completion of the summit, the media personnel from Trumps most favorite network Fox News provided the public with the outstanding examples of true journalism and how it differs from the media coverage based on opinions. Chris Wallace had a meeting with the Russian president and he pursued him regarding his track record and the statements that he had made during his news conference with President Trump and why most of his critics had no worth. Wallace remained insistent all the while the questioning things that most of the U.S public officials had been trying hard to get answers from Trump. It was a tough and uneasy but example of a responsible journalism. Significantly, Wallace avoided being part of the commentary by adopting the traditional journalistic process (Kaster).
Tucker Carlson is quite awkward himself. The Tuesdays bombastic New York Times report had the cable news all over it as the news broke out that President Trump had pressurized the FBI Director James Comey and told him to drop the agencys investigations into Michael Flynn. He was the national security advisor and allegedly had contacts with the Russian intelligence. However, Tucker Carlson, the Primetime host of the Fox News has done one exceptionally downplayed tactic about spreading the graphics on news related to the Russia Hysteria and the Liberal in Meltdown Mode. According to Mediadite, Carlson stated for his viewers that this world is a very complicated and unexpected place, especially Washington. He said that what seems to be happening does not really happen.
The study of media ecology in general and then its change due to introduction of social media have led us to the changing effects of news media on the environment of humanity. The research and development of media ecology of some of the popular news anchors of Fox News that were under our consideration, have helped us to understand the motives behind political biasness and personal agendas in Media. The first thing that we observed during this study was that Chris Wallace use the Fox News as a platform to represent Republican agenda while Tucker Carlson do the same thing for Democrats. The approaches are different but the media and platform they use are the same to affect the Ecology of media in general. The way of speaking is however different of both the personalities. Mr. Wallace uses a well calculated approach and tries to keep the essence of journalism intact, while Mr. Tucker usually say what he likes to say.
When it comes the debate over a TV context and social media context, TV programs are well mannered and orchestrated for a family audience while social media context is irregular and sometimes below the belt. The participation in social media is unlimited and down to a lay man which is a positive thing but on the other hand, there is also a problem of filters and authenticity of the news. There is proper censoring and blurring effect on Mainstream media which is a good thing but on the other hand, it can also affect the legitimacy of the news and the viewer may not see it as a complete truth. On the other hand, there is no censoring on social media so the information is available to the viewers without any interruptions and delays. Once something is out on any social media site, it can be viewed and shared by millions before even being reported.
ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Chris Wallace Avoid Relying On PlanningBusiness Insider. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2019, from https//www.businessinsider.com/chris-wallace-avoid-relying-on-planning-2014-12
NW, 1615 L. St, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, D. 20036USA202-419-4300 M.-857-8562 F.-419-4372 M. (n.d.-a). More in U.S. getting news from multiple social media sites. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from Pew Research Center website https//www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/02/more-americans-are-turning-to-multiple-social-media-sites-for-news/
NW, 1615 L. St, Suite 800Washington, Inquiries, D. 20036USA202-419-4300 M.-857-8562 F.-419-4372 M. (n.d.-b). More in U.S. getting news from multiple social media sites. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from Pew Research Center website https//www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/02/more-americans-are-turning-to-multiple-social-media-sites-for-news/
Postman, N. (2011). Technopoly The surrender of culture to technology. Vintage.
Simpson, E. (2017). Jumping platforms The ecology of converged news audiences. Explorations in Media Ecology, 16(1), 3955.
Tucker Carlson Fox News. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2019, from https//www.foxnews.com/person/c/tucker-carlson.html
West, R., Turner, L. H. (2018). Introducing Communication Theory Analysis And Appliaction. McGraw-Hill Education,.
Zhao, X., Lampe, C., Ellison, N. B. (2016). The social media ecology User perceptions, strategies and challenges. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 89100. ACM.
MEDIA ECOLOGY PAGE MERGEFORMAT 1
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