Short Answer Questions
1. Primary and Secondary Values
The primary values are the value of records that are derived from the first utilization that lead them to be created. The subset of the fundamental value includes operational, legal, fiscal and administrative value (Douglas, 2017). The secondary values are the significance or usefulness of the records based on the aims other than for what it was initially meant. The subset for the secondary values includes evidential and information value.
The difference between the primary value and the secondary value is that primary value is derived from the purposes for which it was created for initially whereas the secondary value is the value that is founded on the goals and the characteristics beyond which it was established for initially (Ham, 1993). Perceptions of the secondary value evolve whereas for the attitudes of the primary values do not. Whereas the concept of secondary and primary importance has been utilized in the archival appraise, it might have used for the persons as they identify the digital possessions that will be compromised in the digital legacy.
The primary value of the probate court records is for governing the distribution of the property of the deceased persons however the files are invaluable to the historians who study family tastes and wealth and the genealogies nourishing he family tree (Boles, 1982).. The secondary values of the paper are long-lasting and are the primary concern of an archival appraise
2. Types of Archival Repositories
The academic archives preserve the institutional history and are used by the academic community. The archives in universities, colleges and other types of the educational facilities are housed within a library, and the duties are carried out by the archivist. The academic archive contains materials like administration records of an institution, professional and personal papers of former presidents and academicians, memorabilia that is connected to the school activities and organizations and the items that the academic library wants to maintain in the close stack settings like the rare books or copies of the thesis. To access the collections found in the archives are mainly don on appointments only (Eastwood, 2010). Most of the users of the academic archives compromise of the general public, researchers, faculty staff, graduate students and undergraduates. An example of an academic repository is the Charles Sturt University (CSU) repository. I selected it as an example because the CSU repository preserves the institutional history and has records professional and personal papers and also thesis. https://library.csu.edu.au/services/find-books-and-other-resources/online-reference/institutional-repositories
Government repository compromises those that are maintained by the state and local governments plus those that are supported by the federal government. Everyone can utilize the government archive, and the frequent users compromise the historian, writers, genealogists, reporters, and students. Most government repositories are open to the general public, and it requires no appointments for visiting (Boles, 1982). An example of the government repository is the National Archives of the UK. I selected it because it is an official archive for the UK government. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/
Business (for profit)
Business archives are the repositories for the profit institutions that are owned privately by businesses. The examples compromise of the Coca Cola and Motorola. These archives keep historical items and documents that are related to the administration and history of their firms. Business archives help the corporation I the maintenance of control of their brands through retaining of the companies memories. Particularly in the business archives, record management is different from the archives important aspect. Workers in corporate archives might have a combination of degrees and training from the library and historical background (Carmicheal, 2012). The files are not open to the public because it is used by the employee of the company even though some approved visitors may be allowed through appointment. Business archives are most concerned with the maintenance of the company integrity and are thus selective on the utilization of the materials. An example of the business archive is the Coca Cola company archives. I selected this example because Coca Cola is a business which has its archive where the documents and historical items connected to the firm are kept. https://www.coca-colacompany.com/profiles/coke-archives
Jenkison and Schellenberg were the giants of their professions who aimed at establishing firm archival techniques and principles. With the archivists continuing to debate the practices and theories today it is essential to pause and compare the ideas of Schellenberg and Jenkison on the archives nature, the provenance principles and its connection to the description and arrangements, selection and appraisal and archivist education (Danielson, 2010). Even though both of them are known of their critics to one another, the aim of this paper is not to judge but analyses their different approaches to the archives, establish the similarities and differences and concentrate on the continuity and consistency of thoughts that are present in the writings.
Jenkison and Schellenberg viewpoints
The archives definitions formulated by Jenkison and Schellenberg are different. Jenkison thought that the materials that are only preserved for the individual information of the creator and in his custody needed to be deliberated as archival (Duranti, 1994). The quality combined with the natural accumulation creates the authenticity and impartiality basis of the archives. Jenkison believed that impartiality lies on the fact that the end of the research which the archives might be made to serve shall not be the reasons which were created by the individuals whom the Archives were established and preserved.
Additionally, responsible custodian indicates that falsification or forgery of the archives is exceptional altogether hence permitting the authenticity. Plus the primary role of the archivist is to serve the record through progressing the line of the unbroken custody. Jenkison also believed that the enumerated elements in the definition were significant and that the description was applicable universally over time in spite of the variations o the physical form.
The inflexibility is reasonable in context with a career of Jenkinson. The work he did with the medieval legal records appeared to have influenced his concept of archives nature whereas the impartiality might apply to the old records; it is not realistic to extend the characteristics to the modern records. Even though definition by Jenkison can be challenged, it remains s relevant (Cook, 2001). Schellenberg was concerned with the records disposition since the archival functions were established by how the records were handled while in the present usage. He accordingly devoted the whole section o the m\modern Archives to the record management topic. Like Jenkinson who relied on the old records, has the definite requirement to change the archives in the manner that suited its records. He feared the acceptance widespread of the idea of Schellenberg's approach would be the global communication between the archivists.
Schellenberg was critical on the definition of archives made by Jenkison. He debated that in connection with the natural accumulation, the second most essential archives characteristics is the preservation for the reasons of other than what it was accumulated or created. In his definition, he emphasized the research and reference use. He discounted the stand made by Jenkison on custody on the basis that the unexpected development, complex origins, and volume of the modern records created the futile attempts in controlling the personal documents. Schellenberg never supported the inflexible definition claiming instead that the perceptions varied from one county to the other and from different times (Brown, 2013). Correctly, he explained that the modern archivist contrary to the archivists like Jenkison who relied on the old records has the definite requirement to change the archives in the manner that suited its records. He feared the acceptance widespread of the idea of Schellenberg's plan would be the global communication between the archivists. Schellenberg was criticized for failure to accept the archives final decision however his approach was understandable readily.
Schellenberg explained that similarly to the process employed here, that every archival concept was influenced by the situations whereby it had been developed. Naturally, Schellenberg needs to have stressed the archives usability deliberating the attitude of the Americana that the records of the public are public property. Maybe his progressed training in the history assisted in the increasing furthers his concern on research. Presently the usability is the critical concern to the archivists as the researcher's community has developed beyond the record of the creator and the handful archaeologists and historians (Carmicheal, 2012). Whereas the approach of Schellenberg appears to lack the permanence and substance of the Jenkinson toward the archives nature, it needs to be seen as the realistic attempt in dealing with the terrifying accumulation of the records of the modern government. Even if Schellenberg emphasized on the usability and Jenkinson stressed duty the history, both of them never denied the significance of the other activity.
Both Jenkison and Schellenberg felt that the description of the archival should reflect the arrangements and the real descriptive factors that are regarded significantly the same. It is also believed in the probability of the organization of the national finding aid systems. The dissimilarities nevertheless were concentrated around the inspiration of the implementation of the descriptive programs. Jenkinson put concentration on the fists purpose of establishing the aids to permit the archivist in gaining control of his holdings and then the subsidies to be available to the academician (Brickley & James, 1987). Schellenberg debated that the archivist required to control the materials before the provisions could have been made for the researcher. However, he emphasized strongly on secondary activity. The servicing activity doubled the significant of all the operations that were performed by the archivist. It ranges from furnishing the archives, archives reproduction, or the information about and from archives to the administration and Schellenberg additionally opposed that the principles that directed the description and the arrangement could be applied to the manuscripts. The issue was irrelevant to the experience of the American whereby the historical documents different from the government records were housed mostly in the historical societies and libraries. It was common for the British institutions to accommodate both the private and the public material and Jenkinson was concerned.
Both Jenkison and Schellenberg expressed the different opinions concerning the appraisal subject, and the differences are traced to their viewpoint of the archives generally. Essentially Jenkison assumed that because the archives through definition preserved the own use of the creator, it was the responsibility of the creator to make the decisions on which of the records should be kept. Usually, every history are preserved while the archivist would be the passive recipient. Scehhenberge definition stressed on the user access believed that is the duty of the archivist to be actively involved in the appraisal arena. It was also a practical way of lowering the record volume. Jenkinson discussed the destruction question with the medieval records assessment and surprisingly concluded that there was no basis for the destruction. In modern records, because he never approved the involvement of the archivist in the appraisal, Jenkison promoted treating the symptoms before developing to an illness. At the other end, Schellenberg engaged in the archives appraisals, and it was never a coincidence of the risk disposal schedules records (Boles, 1982). He viewed the assessment as the opportunity of reducing the record volume and to serve the scholarship needs. Schellenberg was concerned with the records disposition since the archival functions were established by how the records were handled while in the present usage. He accordingly devoted the whole section o the m\modern Archives to the record management topic.
In conclusion, the archives definitions formulated by Jenkison and Schellenberg are different. Jenkison thought that the materials that are only preserved for the individual information of the creator and in his custody needed to be deliberated as archival. Schellenberg was critical on the definition of archives made by Jenkison. He debated that in connection with the natural accumulation, the second most essential archives characteristics is the preservation for the reasons of other than what it was accumulated or created. Both Jenkison and Schellenberg expressed the different opinions concerning the appraisal subject, and the differences are traced to their viewpoint of the archives generally. Essentially Jenkison assumed that because the archives through definition preserved the own use of the creator, it was the responsibility of the creator to make the decisions on which of the records should be kept
Appraisal Exercise Question
1. Administrative History
Nicholls states University
b. Established Date
c. Primary Missions
The mission of the Archives and the Special Collections Department is to serve as the repository for h secondary and primary material that is connected to the cultural, political, historical an geographical uniqueness of the Louisianan to promote the services, research and instructional programs of the university and give the pictorial, oral and written record of the university. Through promotion, the interest of the history of the areas by providing, preserving, organizing and procuring access to the materials documenting the past, the Department of the Archives and Special Collections assist the University and the Library In their commitment in strengthening the cultural and social infrastructure of the region. For the aims of preservation, the entire collection also compromises the non-regional significant and rare monographs and another kind of media from the different disciplines.
d. Not applicable
In 2017 it won the National Medal for the Library and Museum Service from the Institute of Library and Museum Services thus becoming the third academic library to be awarded in 23 years. In 2009 it received the award in the Excellence in the Academic Libraries from the Association of the research and College Libraries, the division of the Library Association of the Americans. The department of Archive Special Collections department at the Nicholls State University compromise of the university records plus the collections connecting to culture and history of southeastern Louisiana. The group includes unique primary documents like correspondence, diaries, maps photographs, ledgers, drawings, scrapbooks, and oral history. It is located on the fists flour of the Ellender Library to the right as one enters the building.
2. Primary Intellectual and Physical Control. Size
100 by 100 by 200 cubic meters
b. Span dates
c. Acquisitions data (when donated/transferred; by whom)
d. Original order and preservation concerns
3. Records Context. What groups are contained in these records?
The groups of the records include Thibodaux Giants, Thibodaux Pilots, and Thibodaux Senators of the Evangeline Baseball League.
What topics are documented in each series?
4 Untitled Scrapbooks with newspaper clippings, photographs, ticket stubs, and drawings related to Thibodaux Giants
1 Scrapbook titled “1954 Season” with newspaper clippings and photographs
3 Autographed Baseballs with fading signatures
1 Baseball labeled “1954” and with signatures
1 Journal with the name “Antonio Nemesio Taylor” and “1954” written on the title page. The contents appear to be a journal of daily experiences throughout the season.
80-100 loose game day programs ranging in dates from 1946-1957
1 Grey wool used Thibodaux Pilots uniform top
1 Pair of used leather cleats
1 used baseball mitt c. 1940s
16 used scorebooks written in pencil (if you are unfamiliar, scorebooks are a collection of scorecards see the midterm supplemental PDF)
3 files of loose newspaper clippings related to the Evangeline Baseball League and Thibodaux in general
34 loose pictures of unknown subjects, c. 1940-1950s
Thibodaux Giants team photographs for 1946-1950
Thibodaux Pilots team photograph for 1954
Thibodaux Senators team photographs for 1956-1957
Crowley Millers team photograph for 1951 and 1956
Unmarked 8mm black and white film
Are there gaps in the series?
Standard Appraisal Information
Do the records have primary value?
What is/was the Administrative value
Archives and the Special Collections Department is the originating department of the Nicholls states University
What is/was the Fiscal value
What is/was the Legal value
Do the records have historical or other secondary value? (Explain)
If looking only at this collection
If placing the collection in the context of other Archives holdings at the Archives and Special Collections at Nicholls State University
What evidential value is contained in the records?
Are any confidential records included? (If yes, which ones?)
___ The potential donation is qualified for acquisition_____________________________________ ______________________________ _______________
Signature of Person Completing Report Date
Boles, F. (1982). Disrespecting original order. The American Archivist, 45(1), 26-32.
Brickley, J. A., & James, C. M. (1987). The takeover market, corporate board composition, and ownership structure: The case of banking. The Journal of Law and Economics, 30(1), 161-180
. Brown, C. (Ed.). (2013). Archives and recordkeeping: theory into practice. Facet Publishing.
Carmicheal, D. W. (2012). Organizing archival records: a practical method of arrangement and description for small archives. AltaMira Press.
Cook, T. (2001). Archival science and postmodernism: new formulations for old concepts. Archival science, 1(1), 3-24.
Danielson, E. S. (2010). The ethical archivist. Society of American Archivists.
Douglas, J. (2017). Origins and beyond: the ongoing evolution of archival ideas about provenance. Currents of archival thinking, 2nd edn. Libraries Unlimited, Santa Barbara, 25-52.
Duranti, L. (1994). The concept of appraisal and archival theory. The american archivist, 57(2), 328-344.
Eastwood, T. (2010). A contested realm: the nature of archives and the orientation of archival science. Currents of archival thinking, 3-21.
Ham, F. G. (1993). Selecting and appraising archives and manuscripts (Vol. 198). Society of Amer Archivists.
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