Analysis On Communicating Discipline In Public Schools
The study investigates the effectiveness of communicating discipline to the students in public school. The research is guided by the idea that there are a lot of incidents affirming, sometimes teachers get personal with their students and they use violent attitude to make their students follow required discipline. The research was conducted by using qualitative technique of data analysis where data was collected by interviewing teachers, students and administrators from different public schools in different cities. It is important to note that schools from different cities were chosen to address the attitude issue because there are a lot of students who are moved to another city school because of disciplinary concerns. This research is a detailed insight into the current practices that are used by the teachers to communicate discipline along with proposed recommendations that are based on the results. These recommendations are a practical approach to improve the effectiveness of communication of discipline to students in public school because a large proportion of diverse students are admitted to the public school and one of the notions associated with the violent attitude of the teacher is personal hatred and biases along with irritation by mischievous students. It is found that the system of teaching discipline to students in public schools is not effective and major considerations both, legal and social are required to address this issue.
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc22144106 \h 4
1.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc22144107 \h 5
1.2 Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc22144108 \h 7
1.3 Purpose of the study PAGEREF _Toc22144109 \h 7
1.4 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc22144110 \h 7
1.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc22144111 \h 8
1.6 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc22144112 \h 8
1.7 Limitations of the study PAGEREF _Toc22144113 \h 8
1.8 Definition of the significant terms PAGEREF _Toc22144114 \h 9
1.9 Organization of the study PAGEREF _Toc22144115 \h 9
CHAPTER 2 PAGEREF _Toc22144116 \h 11
2.1 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc22144117 \h 12
2.1.1 Modes used in order to communicate discipline to students PAGEREF _Toc22144118 \h 13
2.1.2 Factors influencing Choosing the Right Channel of Communication PAGEREF _Toc22144119 \h 15
2.1.3 The concept of discipline PAGEREF _Toc22144120 \h 16
2.1.4 Conditions hindering the effective communication of student’s discipline PAGEREF _Toc22144121 \h 18
Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc22144122 \h 27
3.1 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc22144123 \h 28
3.1.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc22144124 \h 28
3.1.2 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc22144125 \h 29
3.1.3 Sample Procedure PAGEREF _Toc22144126 \h 29
3.1.4 Research instrument PAGEREF _Toc22144127 \h 29
3.1.5 Validity of the instrument PAGEREF _Toc22144128 \h 30
CHAPTER 4 PAGEREF _Toc22144129 \h 31
4.1 Data collection procedure PAGEREF _Toc22144130 \h 32
4.2 Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc22144131 \h 32
4.2.1 Response time PAGEREF _Toc22144132 \h 33
4.2.2 Demographic data PAGEREF _Toc22144133 \h 33
Table 1: Demographic details of the teachers PAGEREF _Toc22144134 \h 33
Table II The demographic details of the students PAGEREF _Toc22144135 \h 34
Table 3: Demography of Administrators PAGEREF _Toc22144136 \h 34
CHAPTER 5 PAGEREF _Toc22144137 \h 36
5.1 Results PAGEREF _Toc22144138 \h 37
5.1.1 Strategies used for communicating discipline PAGEREF _Toc22144139 \h 37
5.1.2 Oral strategies PAGEREF _Toc22144140 \h 38
5.1.3 Written strategies PAGEREF _Toc22144141 \h 40
5.1.4 Attitude of teachers towards students while communicating discipline PAGEREF _Toc22144142 \h 41
5.1.5 Awareness about policies regarding teaching students PAGEREF _Toc22144143 \h 43
5.1.6 Approach of school in facilitating the communication of discipline PAGEREF _Toc22144144 \h 44
5.1.7 The ratio of incident happenings as a result of discipline issues PAGEREF _Toc22144145 \h 45
Collation of the responses PAGEREF _Toc22144146 \h 46
Figure 1 Percentage review of observation PAGEREF _Toc22144147 \h 47
Figure 2 Graphical representation of data PAGEREF _Toc22144148 \h 48
Chapter 6 PAGEREF _Toc22144149 \h 49
6.1 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc22144150 \h 50
6.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc22144151 \h 52
6.2.1 Universal school approach PAGEREF _Toc22144152 \h 52
6.2.2 Analyzing policies and bringing them into practice PAGEREF _Toc22144153 \h 52
6.2.3 Create plans for teachers to follow PAGEREF _Toc22144154 \h 53
6.2.4 Incorporating fair play PAGEREF _Toc22144155 \h 53
6.2.5 Physical Activities PAGEREF _Toc22144156 \h 53
CHAPTER 7 PAGEREF _Toc22144157 \h 55
7.1 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc22144158 \h 56
References PAGEREF _Toc22144159 \h 57
Appendices PAGEREF _Toc22144160 \h 59
Research Question for students PAGEREF _Toc22144161 \h 59
Research questions for teachers PAGEREF _Toc22144162 \h 59
Research questions for administrative PAGEREF _Toc22144163 \h 59
Communication is defined as a process of sharing information and meaning. It is evident that communication is not possible without the involvement of two or more people who are willing to share their ideas and information. Communication is one of the tools that has positioned cavemen to a respectable and no doubt a supreme position of this world. It infers that society and its departments cannot proceed and progress without effective communication. According to Witherperspoon and Wholert (2006), communication is one of the modes that can bring about a change. This change can either be social, moral, ethical or something that is associated with the decorum of a place. The same research asserts that the success of any change is highly dependent on the essence and stance of the modes that are used for conveying information. In educational institutions, communication is one of the tools to incorporate progress in numerous academic activities (Hardy, et al. 2015). It is with effective communication that teachers can motivate and bring a careless and dull student to the position of high achievers. It is through communication that teachers can modify a class of naughty students to the most disciplined batch of the school. According to Pandey and Garnett (2006), communication can modify perceptions and opinions, it can bring a shift in a generation by adhering to positivity. Communication is used for the management of the students and maintaining discipline (Milne, et al. 2017). According to Okumbe, (2007), discipline is termed as an action that is usually taken by the management sometimes by the employees such as teachers and the coordinators to enforce the organizational standards. Within an educational institution, there are some codes of conduct and code of behaviors that are taught to teachers to convey to the students to maintain discipline. Issues occur when teachers take discipline a module rather than motivation and reinforcement that can maximize learning and it results in a negative attitude towards a particular student due to continuous disobedience. Also, teachers use the same strategies (punishments and threat) for students to maintain discipline that result in a distorted environment (Hess, et al. 2016). According to Kabandize (2006), effective communication is one of the strategies that can help to manage student’s discipline by facilitating sharing of views between administers as well as students. According to the research by the Annual Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitude towards the public school, “lack of discipline” is termed as one of the most serious problems that are faced by the educational system nowadays. It is found that every month about 3% of teachers is either abused or physically robbed by students either due to personal hatred or a great imposition of brutality in terms of strictness. Moreover, every year 17,000 student are experiencing a physical injury because of the brutal approach of the teachers to make students abide by discipline (Farrell, et al. 2016). However, the most critical point is, the cases of teacher’s attack that are the product of personalization of discipline by teachers rather than adopting a general behavior towards students. According to Nasibi (2005), teachers can play a primary role in controlling the behavior of the students by creating an environment of teamwork, respect for individuals along with a sense of expression and making students role models for each other. The issue of student discipline is one of the global concerns and a major educational problem that is distorting the educational framework. It is found that the use of communication strategies for influencing and communicating student discipline is not adequate and it is one of the reasons that the issues regarding school management are increasing. They are deteriorating teacher morale along with educational attributes (Gan, et al. 2019).
1.2 Statement of the problem
According to Kindiki, (2010), communication of discipline in public school is one of the contemporary problems that is assumed to be turned into a dilemma that is left unresolved. Discipline is something that can be reinforced and turned negative attitude into positive behavior by the use of some strategies that can not only help students but it can ensure a positive learning environment because peace is something that is necessary to incorporate effective learning. It is not possible to address and curb discipline issues until effective strategies for the communication of discipline are used. This issue seek attention towards the analysis of current strategies that are used by teachers for communicating discipline.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to analyze the strategies that are used by teachers or employees in school for communicating discipline because usually, teachers take discipline as something "personal" rather than an attribute and a quality that can ensure positive learning environment. There are a lot of gaps in the strategies and methodologies that are used by teachers and it results in negative attitude of the students not only towards each other but towards the teachers that may result in obstacles in positive learning and growing environment. Research has proven that there is a dire need to improve the modes as well as the mediums that are used by teachers to communicate discipline.
1.4 Objectives of the study
Following are the objectives of the study
Analyze current practices that are used for communicating discipline to the students of public school
Analyzing teacher and students view in terms of communicating discipline
Determining strategies that can be used by teachers for emphasizing and bring positive disciplinary actions
1.5 Research Questions
This research paper addresses the following research questions
What are the strategies that can be used by the teachers for communicating discipline?
To what extent the communication strategies for teaching discipline are effective enough to bring about a positive learning environment?
1.6 Significance of the study
The findings of the study can be of great use to determine and formulate the platform and strategies that can help to communicate discipline to students by maintaining a positive framework. It is observed that discipline is one of the most ignored yet significant issues that can either formulate or destroy the learning environment. There are a lot of cases in which students are found accustomed to harming each other because they see teachers as targeting them. Moreover, a lot of teachers are failed to incorporate a positive attitude towards the communication of strategies and it results in a negative approach to the students who are failed to follow the set code. As a result, teachers target or address specific student that creates misunderstanding and negativity towards teachers as well as institution. The findings of this study will help to address all discipline issues by analyzing the current strategies and propose methodologies and practices that can ensure a positive approach towards discipline.
1.7 Limitations of the study
There are some major limitations of this study that are content-oriented. It is assumed that the teachers might not have shared the strategies that they are actually using and how they are maintaining discipline. It is found that the teachers might not have shared their negative side because of unacceptability associated with it. Moreover, the methods that are used in private schools cannot be used in public school so there were limitations in terms of organizational approach. As this study is limited to the public schools and teachers only, there might be misstated information.
1.8 Definition of the significant terms
Communication strategy refers to a method that is used for presenting information in an understandable way
Discipline refers to the actions that are taken by the management of chosen place or any other place in order to enforce and practice the code of conduct. It includes doing the right thing, in the right manner and right place
Nonverbal communication refers to the process that is used for conveying a message without using a compact model
Student refers to a learner who is attending an educational institution
Teachers refer to a person who is providing education to a learner or a student
1.9 Organization of the study
There are seven chapters of this research that would be explaining the main idea of the research and highlights the effectiveness of the communication strategies that are used by teachers for dictating and communicating discipline, taking into account that usually teachers get personal rather than being generic.
Chapter one comprises of introduction to the study. It includes a descriptive account on communication, how communication can be used in teaching discipline and what is the present overview of communicating discipline. Chapter two contains a literature review that includes prior research that is conducted in teaching and communicating discipline to the students. What are the available modes and what are the platforms and strategies that are currently in practice? Chapter three comprises the methodology that is used for collecting relevant data. Chapter four comprises the procedure of data collection, the choice of the participant and how data was collected. Chapter five entails the analysis of data in order to show the results. Chapter six includes a concise, to the point discussion of the results along with recommendations that can be used to rectify the gaps that student-teacher relationships and help teachers to use positive and outcome-oriented strategies in the school for communicating discipline. Chapter seven would be a brief and conclusive ending to the research paper which will be a flashback to the research and the obtained results.
2.1 Literature Review
In terms of a group or an individual, communication can be thought of as a medium for transmitting information and meaning. Researchers have seen communication as a process through which meaning is exchanged. They have also stated that communication is more of a method of exchanging information between two or more individuals (Milne, et al. 2017). Furthermore, this exchange of information is done with the idea of influencing and motivating behavior. Also, communication has been known as a process that is interactive in nature and this would lead to action. One form of communication is internal communication which is usually conducted within an organization and is usually conducted in a formal or informal way (Milne, et al. 2017). Communication is an important aspect of the management process and is considered one of the basic ingredients that make organization possible. in order to play an effective part within an organization such as schools, communication must be effective. Now effectiveness in communication can be defined as a sort of initiated behavior done by the sender through which desired messages are sent to the receiver (Hardy, et al. 2015). This is done in order to extract a behavioral response from the sender. Furthermore, another important aspect of effective communication is feedback. This is considered as a response from someone that has just received a message. (Hess, et al. 2016)
Moreover, the use of effective communication is very helpful in minimizing cases related to discipline within schools. Teachers can use effective communication to control the behavior of their students. This can be done when communication allows for the induction of teachers into the plethora of regulations within their employment. Communication can also be helpful in letting students know the outcomes of their deviant behavior. Furthermore, communication can play a beneficial role in increasing motivation among both teachers and students. This can be done by informing the subjects what they need to do, how well they are working and how their current process can be improved further (Gan, et al. 2019).
According to research done by Hardy, (2015) communication within schools can be defined in four ways. These are persuading, integrating, regulating and informing. Teachers need to be very well that communication is the only way to achieve success while communicating discipline to students and that it should not be taken for granted. Most of the times teachers ignore the communication process and resort to other methods in order to implement discipline within students, even when they are aware of how important communication can be to teachers in terms of promoting effectiveness and efficiency in school activities (Hess, et al. 2016). This is because communication is the only method that can hold together each and every function, individuals, processes, and group together. So, schools need to pay special attention to the important role that communication plays in communicating discipline to students (Hardy, et al. 2015).
2.1.1 Modes used in order to communicate discipline to students
There are several modes of communication available to teachers in order to communicate discipline to their students. The most prominent methods are Written communication, Nonverbal communication, and Oral communication. Oral mode of communication is conducted through the use of the spoken word and be used to effectively inform, praise, please, satisfy, criticize and inquire. This form of communication is advantageous in such a way that it is quick in sending messages, less formal and instant relaying of feedback. According to the research done by Henderson, (2015), the message sent by oral communication many times can be misunderstood. This is because it requires a speaker that is fluent and good else it will have no meaning and will completely lack meaning. Oral communication is the go-to method for teachers in order to maintain discipline within students and adherence to school rules and regulations. This is beneficial in one way as there is immediate feedback on oral communication. This feedback can be swiftly analyzed by teachers or reactions that can be noted once an issue related to discipline is brought forward. (Henderson, et al. 2015)
The second form of communication is Written communication. Now, written communication in the form of communication that is expressed in the form of writing. These include things such as letters, fax transmission, notices placed on bullet boards, memos, electronic mail, and institutional periodicals. This form of communication has an advantage in the sense that it cannot be misunderstood and if there are any facts these could be easily removed by reading the text again (Henderson, et al. 2015). Through written communication a permanent record of all the communication ever done can be preserved for a considerable number of years. Within institutions, written communication is a great way of conveying messages to students regarding how their behavior should be through suggestion boxes and notices. Through written form of communication school rules are usually expressed to students who are just joining secondary schools. However, there are also certain limits to this form of communication. This form of communication is slow and is very much time-consuming. Furthermore, it has no instant feedback and is only useful for people who are literate (Gan, et al. 2019).
Lastly comes Nonverbal communication and this is the process through which a message is conveyed to the receiver without any inclusion of speaking or writing. According to research done by Gan, (2019) the most common form of communication used other than verbal and written communication is nonverbal and is used immensely amongst individuals. Nonverbal communication constitutes human behaviors of a wide range such as body movements, gestures and facial expressions. On the other hand, the presence of nonverbal communication is not only seen in written or unspoken words. In some cases, nonverbal elements of communication can also send a different message than the one that is meant to be conveyed to the other person (Gan, et al. 2019). This makes body behaviors very important and people need to pay extra attention to these body behaviors. While observing body behaviors one needs to be aware of the communication these behaviors portray them. Whereas, it is important to understand that every culture has its non-verbal cues and they differ from culture to culture (Gan, et al. 2019).
2.1.2 Factors influencing Choosing the Right Channel of Communication
According to the research done by Farrell, (2016) which illustrated a number of channels that teachers can use in order to communicate with their students. One factor of influence that research has found is the influence of media. The richness of the media lies in the fact that it can carry large amounts of data and that data conveys some sort of meaning. One way of determining the richness of the channel is by determining the path it took to give its viewers substantial understanding and while doing so it reduces the ambiguity in its message (Farrell, et al. 2016). This is why oral communication is considered a better option in comparison to written communication as it can carry a large amount of information and how it can instantly clearly any ambiguity in the message. In terms of teachers, they choose the most appropriate channel that aligns with the content of their message, the communication task and the requirement of the communication (Farrell, et al. 2016).
The second factor that is able to influence the choice of communication channel is the influence of society. Social influence is important because all meaning and understandings are based and constructed through societal lenses. According to the research done by Jacks, (2019), there is a sort of subjective rationalization in the effect of social influence on the use and choice of communication media. So maximum efficiency is not always guaranteed through communication but can also be used for the creation and preserving of ambiguity when it comes to strategic ends (Jacks, et al. 2019).
Another influence is gender on the choosing of a communication channel. This has led to the emergence of choices that are systematic in nature and related to the expectation and the norms of the process of communication (Hardy, et al. 2015). The structure of the school plays a vital role in the process of strategy implementation and communication. the shaping of the formal communication channels that an organization adopts may be influenced by the structure and can affect the way discipline is communicated to students. It is the structure of the school that can either facilitate or creates a barrier in communication between teachers and students. It can have both positive and negative effects on the behavior of the students (Hardy, et al. 2015).
2.1.3 The concept of discipline
As per the American Heritage Dictionary, the word discipline means to train that results in a specific pattern of behavior or creation of the specified character. According to Wapedia (2009), punishment is termed as a consequence of breaking any rule in educational institutions particularly in schools. Students in schools are trained about the discipline being implemented in a school. According to the research of Okumbe (2005), principles of the discipline could be divided into seven categories that include prior knowledge regarding the rules and regulations of the school, application of the disciplinary actions right after the infraction, consistency applied, and disciplinary action needed to be impersonal, objectivity, avoiding entrapment and allowing filing the appeal. One of the main things in all these principles is teacher communication if the desired results are to be realized. Mostly two types of disciplines are famous preventive and corrective (Henderson, et al. 2015). Preventive discipline means the action taken by the administration for encouraging the members to follow the rules and regulations being made in order to avoid infractions as well stimulating the spirit in students to come up to the expected mark. Corrective discipline points towards the action being taken by the administration following the infraction of the rules and regulations for discouraging further infringement of the rules (Hardy, et al. 2015).
One of the main goals of the school discipline is to ensure the safety of both students and teachers for creating a conducive and healthy environment for teaching and learning. In order to achieve these goals, teacher communication regarding discipline must be effective. According to Okumbe (2005), there are two opposing views of the discipline one is known as Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Theory X assumptions view discipline in a negative sense and points towards those educational managers for whom discipline is limited to punishment only and it is used in both retributive and deterrence of the offenders. On the other hand, Theory Y views discipline is taken in a positive sense and encourages the workers to adopt ethical and polite way for moving uniformly toward the meeting of the educational goals and objectives by aiming to inculcate voluntary self-discipline among all the members (Hardy, et al. 2015).
According to the research work of Cotton (2016), punishment can prove effective only if it commensurate with that of offense. Preventions actions are taken for preventing the situations for mitigating the misconduct of the students. This method needs teacher's attention and participation for avoiding and resolving the disruptions in the very first place. Behavior modification method is used for providing reinforcement such as observing and praising positive behavior (Burke, et al. 2016).
2.1.4 Conditions hindering the effective communication of student’s discipline
The very first step for making communication effective is through the recognition of the prevailing conditions and barriers that may hinder the ways of communication of effective discipline. Communication barriers means anything that filters, distort or blocks the message or cause an interruption in the message during the time of encoding-sending-decoding. There could be found various barriers that affect effective communication. Language is one of the most common and important barriers in the way of teaching effective discipline as language differs in the delivering of the message (Jacks, et al. 2019). In our world, words and meaning matter a lot so it is important for the teachers not to take language for granted; teachers must not treat language as something simple and uncritical. Another major factor that hinders the way of effective communication is the change of perception, and how a language and messages are perceived. Environment of the school will be perceived differently by students and they would be reacting differently towards messages communicated to them depending upon their perception. It is important for the sender to pay full attention toward the message and information that he/she may be communicating (Hess, et al. 2016).
Okumbe (2005) believes that distortion, filtering, selective perception, omission, language and timeliness are some of the barriers to communication. In any educational institution, distortion takes place when the message got altered when it passes from one to the other person. It arises as a result of the imprecise language, social distance between both the sender and the receiver and misinterpretation of the message being communicated (Hardy, et al. 2015). Filtering occur when the sender manipulated the information so that the message that would be receiving message would favor the receiver more. In some of the cases, people intentionally omit some of the detail of the message for avoiding the unwanted consequences or maybe sometimes they omit some of the detail of the message because they could not understand it well, this kind of omission is known as the distortion. The next major factor is a selective perception that occurs when the receiver receives information on the basis of his/her needs, experience, motivation and background while timeliness distortion occurs when the message is not transmitted timely (Hardy, et al. 2015).
According to Nzuve (2009), insufficient communication could be looked upon as another major barrier that may hinder effective communication. This type of barrier occurs when the sender or the receiver may not show any interest in the communication or may not pay attention to the intended audience. A paper that has been submitted to the Bureau of Educational Research Seminar, Wanga because of the poor communication 30% strikes take place. This, in turn, leads to a drastic effect on the performance as it becomes the reason for wastage of time, confusion and mistakes (Farrell, et al. 2016). According to the study done by Castuita (2015) at the training level in the secondary school’s principals reveal that competence of the headteacher matters a lot in the open staff communication for the whole of the school management. The same thing would be applied to the teachers when they would be dealing with discipline related issues, it would be their communication competence that matters the most (Farrell, et al. 2016).
As per the research work of O Relly and Pondy (2002), there are four factors that influence interpersonal communication. These four factors are sender trust on the receiver, sender mobility, influence of the receiver over the sender, aspiration, and norms as well as sanctions to which the sender or the receiver belongs. Another expert Chege (2012) carried out a study on communication barriers and their possible effects on the performance of the school students. According to this research, communication barriers hinder the way of attaining the success of both students and teachers. Communication barriers waste time of the students and teachers in accomplishing the set objectives. However, in this study, the researcher only considered the barriers but this study does not discuss the influence of these barriers on the teacher's communication strategies on the discipline of the students (Brugar, et al. 2016).
School discipline is not a new phenomenon. According to researchers, the notion of ineffective discipline practices can be traced back to the beginning of United States Schooling during the beginning of colonialism (Brugar, et al. 2016). Education has never been a smooth task. Although there are different reasons behind it, still each of the reasons has been effective enough to question the main idea of education to reform and bring prosperity both moral and materialistic. According to Hardy, (2015) in every year, there have been significant examples of unruly and destructive school frameworks. The researcher Farrell, (2016) asserted that a shift has been observed in the school practices at the beginning of 19 century, where the school reformer Horace Mann (2013) has reported that he has seen 328 floggings in a single school in one week only. Moreover, there are a lot of cases of corporal punishment of students that were upheld in 1977 but not completely stopped. It is asserted that problems related to practices and disciplines are not just an abstraction, or they not only exist in a vacuum, in fact, they are the part of developing the sociological landscape (Song, et al. 2018). By 20 century, discipline and positive disciplinary methods and strategies were the prime focus, and it was a reaction to the growing violence among young people especially in the schools (Sabas, et al. 2017). It is also critical to note that school violence is not much highlighted to be considered as one of the epidemic issues, still it is causing huge destruction to the students by reducing attention towards education and increased negative and rebellious attitude towards teachers that have faced violence several times, resulting in physical attacks as well (Sabas, et al. 2017). Moreover, teachers are not giving any attention to the positive means of communicating discipline that make students feel targeted and it empowers the feeling of hatred towards the school and teachers (Milne, et al. 2017).
Hardy, (2015) in his research highlighted, either discipline is concerned with the prevention of misconduct or is it something that is associated with punishment. After an insight, it was concluded that the American Heritage Dictionary of the English language infers both preventions as well as remediation. Under this essence, discipline is both, a product of training that is given to the teachers and meant to reduce the specified patterns of behavior or a controlled behavior that would result as a product of teacher training of communicating behavior (Hardy, et al. 2015). According to Johannes, (2019), discipline is not termed as something that is just a paradigm of positive environment, in fact it is the collection of rules that are formulated to facilitate learning, however educators have failed to understand the real meaning and displacing and they consider it as an approach that is an irritating intrusion into the school life and which is not treated with significance. The scenario is completely changed when it comes to public school because there are a lot of students and a lack of teachers who are trained to address the current requirements and status of student expectation in terms of behavior and attitude (Gan, et al. 2019).
Lael and Wayson (2005) conducted a comparative analysis between private and public schools, addressing approaches for communicating discipline and it was found that there is a vast gap. In public school, there are both internal and external issues that are enforcing students to use negative approach towards students for communicating discipline, while in private school it is the threat or a fear of losing position that motivates teachers to be as harsh as they can but only inside the classroom so that they can prove the efficiency of private school as compared to the public school (Hess, et al. 2016). Although there are a lot of programs that are designed to address discipline issues still they have not proved effective enough to attain the set goals (Burke, et al. 2016).
According to Burke, (2016) today, school discipline is a more tough problem than it was ever because of the increased ratio of distorted families and diverse kids. It is asserted that a lot of public schools are localized in the inner city where there are students who have a violent personality because the environment of the school is formed by the type of people who are living in the surroundings (Burke, et al. 2016). The researcher, Gan, (2019) continued this assertion by sharing the results of a research that was conveyed in a public school that was located in the inner city and it highlighted that there are a 20-25 student who have electronic ankle bracelets, showing them as criminals and it is impossible to control the school environment by staying polite when you have growing criminal minds around. According to Farrell, (2016), it is brought into insight that today's' principals lack the tools that are used for dealing with the unruly kids. Usually, a positive gesture is to call parents and inform them about the attire of their children and it is not always working so teachers have to expel the students from a school that is also termed as a negative approach (Farrell, et al. 2016). However, the policies don’t allow a permanent expel from school so a teacher recognizes the student which takes the form of targeted behavior because a teacher is responsible for the class and the learning that are taking from the school. Another strategy that is brought into practice is, moving a student from one school to another that is again a clear depiction of the distorted and tangled personality book that makes a child-targeted and it is one of the faults of the teacher or administration because a single child can distract the whole decorum of school, turning a school into wrestling ring (Airey, et al. 2017).
Theunissen, (2015), brought another vision that is associated with the communication of discipline to the students, taking into account that students are very well aware of the fact that if a school official will do something wrong they have the right to sue him and at least threaten to do so. It is one of the dilemmas that negate the idea of “teachers targeting students” because they are looking for safe sides (Theunissen, et al. 2015). One of the examples that were quoted by the researcher was of local teacher Jeffrey Gerstel’ who pulled a student out of the class as the student was threatening him to kill him. The boy got collided with the bookcase that was lying by his side and got his back cut (Theunissen, et al. 2015). As a result of this incident the teacher had to face complains and the idea of using him, where the most critical point is the evidence that was presented by the impaired student as victim of this act to be committed by the teacher. Although the case got settled for a year, the teacher has to listen from the student that, “I am going to bring up my mother and she will bring you up on charges” (Theunissen, et al. 2015).
According to the research that was conducted by Staples, (2016) it is asserted that students are not always on the wrong side, in fact, students are targeted by their teachers and it is very devastating. The researcher shared the data from the US Department of Education, the Office of Civil Rights, it is revealed that there is a great difference in the attitude of the teacher towards student when it comes to communicating discipline. According to the UCA Civil Rights Project, about 3.3 million students were issued with school suspension charges and all of them were African American students (Staples, et al. 2016). A general approach towards the communication of discipline highlighted that there is a complete shift in the methodology and strategies that are used by the teachers. Black students are treated more badly as compared to the white students, there is a great ratio of complaints of disruptive behavior against black students as compared to the white students. Moreover, there are 1 in 13 Latinos who are regularly or directly or indirectly addressed and criticized by their teachers because of their inability to adhere to the disciplinary code of conduct (Staples, et al. 2016).
According to Sabas, (2017), the discipline has taken the shape of dilemma in the present time where teachers define it as their ability to scare a student by the pressure of their violent and rude looks. In the systematic flow of these negative emotions and feelings, a teacher is no more a teacher but a jailor who is trying to keep all the persons on the same board without knowing that a classroom comprises of student with different mental abilities and capabilities. They don’t have the same approach to understand the measure of negativity that is released by the teachers. There are a lot of students who find it hard to address while others find it as something opposite to their nature and they try to address it with a more negative approach. While dealing with students, it is somewhere forgotten that a student has self-esteem and a strict or more negative approach can make a student rebellious as such attitude can be an attack on the personality of the students (Sabas, et al. 2017). As a reaction to such attitude, some of the students are left behind in the walk of life while others become rebellious and they try to disturb teacher by their rigidness. This stubborn behavior can make them a targeted population of the class who are considered responsible for any mishap and every disruption in the class.
The researchers, Song, (2018) Sabas (2017) associated discipline and communicating discipline as an approach that is the measure of social and economic background that a student belongs to. It is observed that a student is treated fair if he has a good racial background and a financially stable family that can address all the needs of the child, because any harsh attitude of the teacher may invite a concern from parents (Sabas, et al. 2017). On the other hand, are the students who are either migrated or they belong to some lower class so they are treated badly because there is a general approach of ignorance, negativity and narrowed approach of life associated with the people of different racial backgrounds especially Black. There is another major dimension that is highlighted by Sabas, (2017), according to him, the attitude of teachers in public school is the product of training or education that they are given while teaching at school. The researcher asserted, public schools are meant for public and free education is the catch line that make every not acceptable behavior acceptable because the students are not paying something for the education that they are receiving and it makes them available to all types of behaviors (Sabas, et al. 2017). There is a complication of mindset associated with the public schools which assert that only those student study in public schools who have fewer life resources, they are more toward public education because most of them cannot afford private education. It is also asserted that the students at the public school belong to a less educated background so there are rare chances of reaction from the parent side so there is no need to address discipline with positivity. In a nutshell, negativity is the assumed as a code of conduct (Sabas, et al. 2017).
Another notion proposed by Milne, (2017), in terms of communicating discipline highlights that teachers in public schools are the product of their inner self, their knowledge and the necessities only. Public school’s teachers are not trained and taught like a private school, about treating and teaching a child which is one of the reasons that they are least bothered about what students feel (Milne, et al. 2017). It is asserted that the teachers are not trained reading communicating discipline which makes them practice their will There is a lot of strength and the underlying aim of the teacher is to make students read rather than learn which can only be achieved by scaring children (Milne, et al. 2017). This notion, accompanied by lack of training and awareness regarding the use of effective methodologies and strategies for communicating discipline add fuel to the fire of negative behavior and then teachers target students because they can’t afford time to look for the real culprit. A naughty child is always punished for the mistakes and noise in the class. As a result of this dilemma, a student is grown into a violent rather than an educated student (Farrell, et al. 2016). Moreover, a large ratio of the dropout rate of students in public school is also associated with a lack of embracing from the teacher and a narrow approach towards inclusion. Although the government has introduced a code of conduct and policy framework that can bring about a positive change in the learning environment still, there is a much less emphasis on the practice of those framework which result in a narrowed approach towards students, making them passive to teachers (Jacks, et al. 2019). Moreover, lack of adherence to the policy framework has made a teacher more concerned with the reading of students rather than learning which is highly superficial and devastating. It is also asserted that the lack of strategies that can enforce teacher learning regarding discipline communication is also one of the barriers that invite negative student attitudes (Henderson, et al. 2015).
An overview and critical analysis of the already published literature highlights that there are a lot of dimensions that are proposed by the researchers regarding communicating discipline taking into account that different domains are highlighted as a reason for an approach towards student behaviors. The point of conflict is, there is no research that directly analyzes the efficiency of the methodologies and techniques that are used for communicating discipline. Taking into account the gaps in the past literature, the aim of this research is to analyze the efficiency of the discipline communication strategies and methodologies that are meant for organizing the behavior of unruly students.
This chapter comprises of research design, the detail of the selected population and, instruments used for research.
3.1.1 Research Design
According to Henderson, (2015) and Jacks (2019), research design is a plan that reflects the problem that is meant to be solved by investigation. This research paper uses qualitative research for collecting data and information in the form of interviews that were taken from the teachers of public schools. Qualitative research is one of the naturalistic inquiry methods that facilitate collecting information within a natural setting (Henderson, et al. 2015) (Jacks, et al. 2019). It is one of the detailed accounts on the facts and figures that are associated with some social problems by highlighting the underlying causes by adhering to “how” rather than “what” factors. In this research qualitative method is used to address all possible “how” in terms of communicating discipline to the students (Hess, et al. 2016). In order to collect the required information regarding the effectiveness of communicating discipline to the students of public schools, interviews are conducted. These interviews helped to collect relative information from the teachers as well as administrative people in order to analyze the communication of discipline. Some of the students are interviewed in order to get an insight into the treatment of teachers towards them while communicating discipline. It is also added that qualitative research is used because it is one of the strategies that can help to get a better insight into the questions and subject by giving the audience an open end to express their opinion and share their views. It is important to note that the students are asked some open-ended questions that can help them to explain what they feel and how their teacher teaches them the discipline.
3.1.2 Target Population
The target population is defined as a group of people or a complex set of individuals who have some common characteristics (Hess, et al. 2016). For this study, the target population was "teachers of public school”, “students” and the “administrators”. These teachers were belonging to the public school in different cities. There were some students as well, both girls and boys belonging to the public school of the same district. There were total of 31 teachers, out of them 20 were available for research, while in students out of 45 students only 38 were willing to take part in the research. However, out of 10 administrators, 5 were willing to take part in the research.
3.1.3 Sample Procedure
Sampling is defined as 10 – 30 % of the population that is chosen for testing or carrying out trial research (Hess, et al. 2016). It is asserted that in order to find an accurate and reliable source of information, it is necessary to undergo some testing and verification in which the participation of the complete population is not required (Hess, et al. 2016). The aim of the sampling procedure is to address the gaps and issues that are faced by the sample is that those gaps can be recovered while addressing the complete target population. In this study, the sample pupation comprises of 3 teachers and 2 students.
3.1.4 Research instrument
The research instrument used in this study was interviews. Interviews are one of the methods of data collection in a qualitative study. It is defined as a procedure of collecting data by getting into conversational style (Jacks, et al. 2019). Usually, an interviewer is either a proactive or a positive environment. Interviews are termed as one of the methods because they can help to get the desired information, as they incorporate both direct and indirect contact (Henderson, et al. 2015). As it was not possible to get to them and meet then, an interview was contacted on the phone. It is asserted that the choice of telephonic interviews was made to overcome the issues and hassle of face to face interviews as well as face time (Henderson, et al. 2015). It is not always possible to go and see the one who is engaged in the face to face interviews.
So, in this study telephonic interviews are used and these interviews were conducted by getting in touch with the teachers and students by making first self-visits of the schools and meeting the teachers, students, and the administrators. Three questionnaires were decided one for the students, one for the administration representatives and the other for the teachers adhering to the need of the hour.
3.1.5 Validity of the instrument
Validity of the instrument is also one of the major concerns, taking into account the role of the efficiency of the instrument for measuring the required results (Henderson, et al. 2015). There will be no future of any of the researches if the instruments would not be arranged and effectively measuring the required results (Henderson, et al. 2015). However, validity can be found through conclusion on the inferences that are made while doing the research. In order to ensure the validity of the instrument, a pilot study was conducted by using 3 teachers and 2 students and 2 administrators by using interviews to get their ideas and views. It is also added that validity is one of the platforms that can be used to notify the existing gaps and make efforts that van help to mitigate concerns and gaps forever (Hess, et al. 2016).
4.1 Data collection procedure
The data collection procedure for the study was both complex and simple spontaneously. In order to select the participants firstly a visit to the public schools in the inner cities as well as other cites was made. In order to improve the credibility of research, it was necessary to collect data from different sources. So, four schools were selected from different cities. From each of the schools, teachers along with one administration representative and students were selected. The administrators, teachers, and students were contacted and they were told about the main idea of the reassert. After that, the participants were finalized and their contact details were taken so as to share the information and ask questions from them. Another important task was the conveyance and awareness of the ethical considerations where everyone of the interviewees selected to stay anonymous. After all the procedures, all the participants, teachers, and students and administrators were provided with a question paper comprising of interviewee questions to reviewed them and jot down their answers so that they can share it over the phone. Moreover, the telephonic calls were recorded to keep a record as well as listen again if required in order to avoid any gap or misunderstanding.
Four to five interviews were conducted each day and all the responses were noted. The interview session was completed within fifteen days. After that, all the information collected from the interviewees was classified and analyzed by adhering to the themes and some common domains.
4.2 Data analysis
Data analysis is defined as a procedure that is used to analyze the facts and figures that are collected from the information obtained from the participants. There are different departments or aspects of the data analysis such as the attitude of the teacher’s response from the students, approach of the teachers, the response time of the participants and the attitude of the teachers and students (Jacks, et al. 2019). It is asserted that the collection of data and then its analysis was preceded by the critical analysis of the factors that are all relevant to the topic of research (Jacks, et al. 2019). After that, the results were made for representation in an understood form. This research study is analyzed by using a qualitative approach that analyses data on the basis of deferent quality domains and each of the fields are represented in the forms of monologues and quotes.
4.2.1 Response time
Response time refers to the approach of the interviewee toward response to the questions of the research. It is observed that the response time was satisfactory because 90% of the teachers responded quickly and effectively while the response time of the students was 100% as each of the students gave the answer to the required questions in time and with maximum expertise that was highly content oriented. According to Hess (2016), the satisfactory response rate is 50% but in this research response time is above 50% which is an exceptional.
4.2.2 Demographic data
Demographics refers to the demographic details of the participant parties, administration representative students and the teachers.
Table 1: Demographic details of the teachers
Table II The demographic details of the students
Table 3: Demography of Administrators
This demographic reflects the facts and figures that are used as a mode of classification and study while doing the research.
After qualitative analysis of the data that was collected after interviews, the following results are collected
5.1.1 Strategies used for communicating discipline
After interviews, it is highlighted that there are both verbal and nonverbal strategies that are being used by the teachers for communicating discipline. According to a teacher,
“I use both verbal and non-verbal strategies for communicating discipline because discipline is something that cannot be taught by a repetitive approach. For me, discipline is something to practice and as we have diversity in students, there are a lot of students who are very rude and some of them have criminal background so it is very hard to address them. So being very honest I often punish them such as stand on the chair or go outside”
Another teacher said,
“Yes, teaching students discipline is hard because we cannot manage between time and syllabus. There are a lot of students that are the cause of distraction for others because of their attitude so I use both verbal and nonverbal communication. Here verbal communication is the ignorance within a language that can assert to stay quiet while nonverbal modes are pushing them.”
According to another teacher
“Discipline is something very hard to maintain especially when you know that the students are not going to listen to you at once. Within a school environment particularly public school, dealing with student’s attitude is harder than teaching them because teaching is to say what you want to convey while discipline is a complete orientation that is a bit hard to do as we can’t manage to deal with such a massive number of students”
One of the interviewee teachers said,
“Discipline is nothing difficult all you need is to incorporate a positive environment with a positive tribute to the children. I manage my class in a very positive way. I would say that managing students is not the measure of your potential, in fact, it is the measure of your attitude and attention towards students”.
The interview from one of the students,
“Our teachers rarely ask us about how we are feeling and what is our desirable way of learning discipline. Usually, our teacher is in a bad mood and ever someone makes any kind of noise they just ignore us or scold us”
These interviews highlight that there are a large number of teachers who find discipline as something that is external to the school environment and curriculum. Moreover, teachers are not seen as being positive towards discipline, as discipline is not as an addition or compulsion to the course. A passive approach to discipline is one of the signs that indicate that the communication of discipline is not very effective.
5.1.2 Oral strategies
In order to analyze the efficiency of communication of discipline, it is necessary to analyze the oral strategies that are used by a teacher for communicating discipline. Usually and verily, communication begins with speaking (Gan, et al. 2019). It is important to note that the communication of discipline in a positive tone is one of the symptoms of effectiveness. However, the analyses of interviews are bit deferent
According to a teacher serving in public school
“While communicating discipline to the students in public schools, the most difficult thing is guide students through language because we have so many students that it is not sure that the one sitting at the last is listening or not. I say quotes and phrases such as no withering and no taking etc.”
According to an interviewee
“Discipline is something optional for me, yes I can say that it is something very important if I have to lie about my skills and abilities. However, being honest I can say that there I have never sued oral communication to teach discipline because teaching requires time. You shout once, and everyone is silent. This is all sufficient to get the learn everything that is required of them. Moreover, I don’t see myself as someone who can actually incorporate communicating discipline because there is always a clash between the course that is to be taught and the disciplinary communication that is totally a different thing”.
One of the teachers said,
“I do use oral communication to communicate discipline because I think if they are mentally stable and they are learning in a peaceful environment, they can easily understand what is taught to them. education is not just about teaching what is course oriented but it also includes an insight into what is being taught to the students in terms of their moral and ethical grooming. It is also important to note that being a teacher, it is my responsibility to synchronize the goals and objectives that are related to displacing along with a special reference to the use of positive attitude in the teaching discipline."
After analyzing these responses, it can be concluded that discipline is something that is not taken seriously by the teachers, it is just an option that is necessary to adhere to the code of conduct which asserts to maintain silence so that others are not disturbed. Although one response is positive but remaining infers that communicating discipline is not given significance and it is just an option to maintain students’ code of conduct, as well as it is not something to be taught, this highlights the lack of efficiency in the communication of discipline to the students.
5.1.3 Written strategies
Written strategies in terms of communicating discipline refer to the initiatives that are taken by the teachers in order to maintain a positive attitude of the student. These strategies can be observed and seen in a written form. An example of this format is the display of charts and pictures that can communicate discipline through pictures and symbols that are understandable by the students (Hess, et al. 2016).
According to a teacher
Communicating discipline by using written strategies is something that is used to communicate symbolic techniques regarding discipline but it is not very common. One of the issues is, it is public school, there are a lot of students and it is hard for teachers to address disciplinary needs. The prime focus is to teach and, in that case, teaching discipline is left behind. I do use to teach discipline through verbal communication by using charts and flashcards when I think that students are least bothered about discipline but it is not performed regularly.
According to another interviewee,
“Being a teacher, I try to paste the flashcard and chart that can help students to maintain discipline but it is not significant because the charts are limited and confined to boards only. There is no importance of any of the charts because of the negative approach retrieved from surroundings. Moreover, no one enforces this behavior and act so it is a self-initiative that is onboard very rarely”.
According to another teacher
"I see the communication of discipline by written methodologies as something that is a sheer wastage of time because there is hardly time for a student to look around and see what they are supposed to do in terms of learning discipline. Teaching discipline is a positive strategy but it is not something that can be performed the way it seems to be because there are a lot less students who think that teaching discipline is important”.
There is only one teacher who was having a positive approach towards the communication of discipline
According to her
“I use positive strategies such as chart and the symbols to teach students stay quiet. I often let my students undergo an exercise in which they are taught to react and act in different situations. One of the major points is, teaching and communicating discipline is something that can empower the students to go and learn beyond the realms of content and it is the real growth. I gave them homework to write their routine and what they have done in a day so that I can incorporate discipline wherever required and in a better way”.
5.1.4 Attitude of teachers towards students while communicating discipline
Attitude is one of the major sections that deal with the impact that teachers have on students. It is important to note that the attitude of the teacher is one of the reasons that may give rise of disrupted attitude of the students and behoove students to react violently to the teacher (Gan, et al. 2019). It is observed that the issues are out of control when students feel that the teacher is getting personal with them or he/she is targeting them. In order to understand this aspect, it is necessary to understand and reflect on the view of students about their teachers
According to a student
“Yes, it is evident that teachers get personal with the students because they think that the same student is always a culprit. There is a boy in my class, he is always scolded by the teacher for all kind of disruption, no matter if he is the cause of disruption is or not. There are a lot of students who are of the view that the teacher should look for the actual criminal first and then she should react.”
Another student states
“It happens but it is occasionally because there are some students who are always the cause of disruption in the class so the teacher is well aware of the fact that they are the real culprits. However, sometimes I feel that the attitude of the teacher is not positive towards him she doesn’t give her good grades and all his academic flaws are associated with a negative approach to discipline. I know he is hard working but he has a mischievous nature but still, he is unable to get good grades in the subject of that teacher"
One of the most critical responses was
“No, out teacher doesn’t target a single student, she targets the whole class, almost all of us are threatened by our teacher even when we do some minor mistakes because she thinks that we can’t learn and we will never be able to learn discipline. Whenever there is a minor noise, she commands all of us to stand and we study the whole lecture while standing. It is one of the reasons that we don’t like her and there are a lot of students who say that they will beat her son who came to visit the school with her teacher every Friday.
All these responses pose a different yet negative vision about the attitude that the teachers have towards students, taking into account the notion of communicating discipline.
5.1.5 Awareness about policies regarding teaching students
It is a common observation that things can only be improved of a proper channel is brought into contact. Like other policies and procedures of education, there should be some laws and policies designed to teach students about positive attitude and a polite way of communicating discipline to the studies (Burke, et al. 2016). One of the examples could be no-touch policy that is one of the strategies to stop negative attitudes while teaching discipline. Taking into account the context of public schools, it is necessary to address issues and notions from the perspective of the teachers
According to one of the teachers
“No, things are not as simple as they appear to be. Although there are a lot of training and learning programs there is less significance given to the teachings of laws that can help students learn about policy framework that is meant to teach and enforce discipline.”
Another teacher said,
“I don’t know about the policy that is meant for teaching discipline because if there would be one, we don’t have the time to do so. It is hard to recall the names of the student because of the student strength and teaching discipline is far beyond thought. If there would be efforts made by the government, we are not told about it because we don’t bother about teaching discipline it is something that the students will learn by themselves”
One of the teachers says
“We do have workshops but it is all about teaching curriculum, communicating discipline is something very rare. Moreover, discipline is a product of education, A student would learn to do it all by himself so we don’t need training for it, Yes, we have such a massive experience that we can easily manage to handle the discipline of the student because we know how to address the concerns of the student”.
Although there was no direct answer received on it, still it is asserted that there is no concept of awareness regarding the legal framework and the strategies that are proposed on the global level for teaching students how to behave. Communication of discipline is found to be the most neglected aspect in the lives of students
5.1.6 Approach of school in facilitating the communication of discipline
Thinking about discipline assert that there should be an approach to enforce and make student learn discipline by adhering to the code of conduct which can easily be observed and assumed in private school (Farrell, et al. 2016). In the context of public school, the scenario is a bit changed because the title of free education that mitigates and curbs a lot of necessities that a student should be provided with. In order to analyze the self-generated approaches of school to facilitate the teaching of discipline, there are some major aspects to consider which can be understood by the interview answers
According to an interviewee from an administrator,
“in the public schools, we yearn and long for funds that can help us fulfill the educational needs of the students. In such a case, thinking of the school generated approaches for improving discipline seems ambiguous because it is not something that we are actually bound to do. Although it is something that can cast a positive impact on the students by increasing their knowledge but it is not something that should be given due significance because when don’t have enough time’
Another administrator shared
“We try to accommodate the strategies and initiatives of communicating discipline as much as we can but we don’t find it effective because we have a lot of students. Each of the students belongs to a different background. It is not possible that all the students can be treated on the same board of discipline. However, there is something extraordinary because managing the academics is so hard that it consumes all the potentials and resources of the schools. However, we wish that students can be taught discipline with the help of resources that can be guided by a positive vision.”
After analyzing these responses, it can be highlighted and assumed that schools are not seen much committed to the ideas that can help them communicate discipline. In fact, discipline is termed as teaching that is different from education. This idea of teaching discipline also invites attention from the government officials and policymakers to incorporate and include funds that can help to address the behavioral and ethical needs of the students.
5.1.7 The ratio of incident happenings as a result of discipline issues
Another notion that can help to understand the communication of discipline and the approach of teachers towards students can also be addressed by analyzing the incidents that have occurred in the schools. During the interviews, it was asked by the teachers and the students to share the incident that has occurred in the school because of the discipline issues. Although it was something that was not shared by the teachers however students shared that there are numerous incidents that occur very often in the school because of the teacher’s attitude to students when they are failed to meet the disciplinary requirements and as a result student got injured. From the information collected from different schools, and the details shared by the students, there are about 7 incidents that have occurred in different schools and they are a clear proof of the personalization of the teachers with students because beating is not an initial behavior. It is a response to some repetitive behavior.
After the analysis of the information and observations that are collected from interviews, the following collations are made
Verbal and nonverbal strategies
No use of verbal communication
Chances of a student getting hurt
Unaware of legal policies and regulations
Funds required for training
Complaints regarding the harsh attitude of teachers
Collation of the responses
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Percentage review of observation
About 50% of the teachers are of the view that they use both verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate discipline to the students. 20% of the teachers have never used verbal communication, 35% use oral communication while 85% use punishment to communicate, 45% of the teachers use written communication to teach discipline to the students. There are about 87% chances of the student who get hurt and harmed by their teachers when they are not abiding by discipline, 89% of the teachers are of the view that they are unaware about the legal association and the role of policies in incorporating strategies for communicating discipline to the students. 95% of the administrators agree that they don’t have resources and funds that can help them train teachers about communicating discipline to students. About 89% of the students complain about the harsh and rude attitude of teachers towards them in all aspects especially teaching discipline.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 Graphical representation of data
Taking into account the data that is collected from the interviews, it is highlighted that problematic and disruptive student behavior is one of the major issues in almost all schools both private and public but this issue is not concentered in the context of private schools because of the strict policy framework. However, in the case of public school, discipline treated as something that is the responsibility of the parent or it is termed as something that the students would learn with the passage of time. Moreover, teachers have a highly negative approach to communicating discipline to the students. The interview results reveal that no matter what the age of the teacher is, what is the grade and who many students a public school has, none of the school is given the right to threat students in the name of discipline. There is a lack of efficiency in the communication of discipline to the students and it is one of the reasons that the teachers are taking complete advantage of their authorities in treating students as per their will. Though the aim of this research is not to criticize the role of teachers within a school still discipline is doing both, empowering and demotivating students at the same time. As teachers are failed to address the discipline needs of the students in a positive way, student don’t like their teacher, they have a negative approach towards their teachers that include threatening the children of teachers and hate speech about the family member of the teachers as well (Brugar, et al. 2016). It would not be wrong to say, that it would not be wrong to assume that a lot of students who are dropped out of school can somewhere be associated with the gaps in the teaching of discipline to the students. Moreover, ineffective disciplinary communication approach not only inculcates rebellious attitude in children in fact, but they are also seen to be a victim of negative actions such as bullying and teasing particular teaching. According to child psychology, love is the only attribute that can help a student adopt something without causing apparent destruction and it is something that educators need to understand. (Bekiari, et al. 2016)Although the issues in teaching discipline are more like a chain in which different departments are connected to each other, such as, teachers to the administration and administration to the government department that is meant to regulate education and educational reforms. Still, it is critical to address that there is a dire need to impart positive approaches either through direct or indirect ways (Brugar, et al. 2016). Here, direct ways refer to the active participation of government educators and policymakers within school conduct or the provision of resources that would be sufficient to address the needs of the teachers in terms of discipline. It is also important to note that the issues in communicating discipline are also a question mark on the attitude of the teachers who are assumed to be the living reformers (Brugar, et al. 2016). It is significant to assert that teachers should be guided and trained to address the issues of discipline and student’s attitude by incorporating positive reinforcements. It is evident that a violent attitude by the teacher is one of the most demoralizing approaches that mark students become rigid and more reactive. Moreover, many times a teacher gets personal with the students which is something that vanishes the higher space that is governed by a teacher in the society. Although it is the part of the psychology of humans that once caught someone doing something negative, then instinct always directs to the same individual and it is something that a teacher needs to understand. In a nutshell, it is asserted that there is a dire need to make efforts that can help teachers and school administrators to improve communication of discipline within students so that a positive and peaceful environment can be formulated (Brugar, et al. 2016).
Taking into account the analysis of observations and results that are gathered, there are some recommendations that can be brought into practice in order to improve the efficiency of communicating discipline in public schools
6.2.1 Universal school approach
A universal approach to school highlights that every public school should be given the same importance as that of private schools. This universal approach will help teachers to be responsible for the behavior of students similar to private schools ultimately, equal attention will be given to all the happenings in the school (Bekiari, et al. 2016). It will not only make students accountable for their actions but this approach will motivate a teacher to act calmly because both students and teachers would be directly on-board. This strategy requires special attention from the school administration to incorporate and include universal policies for the students regarding positive behavior of both teachers and students (Brugar, et al. 2016).
6.2.2 Analyzing policies and bringing them into practice
It is important to note that major issues occur when public educators are of the view that there is no one to ask them and there is no external source that is keeping a check and balance on the actions (Bekiari, et al. 2016). Under this recommendation, it is required of all public schools to teach teachers about the policies that are made by the government regarding communicating and teaching discipline along with the liabilities upon failure to address them. This recommendation will not only create awareness in teachers about the legal framework, how it has designed the actual code of conduct but this will also help students to reach out required platform whenever it is needed (Bekiari, et al. 2016).
6.2.3 Create plans for teachers to follow
As teachers shared that there is a conflict between curriculum and the teaching of discipline as two of them are different from each other, it is asserted that the teachers should be provided with a complete plan that can be used by the teachers to follow (Bekiari, et al. 2016). This will include an amalgamation and combination of both discipline and curriculum, simultaneously which will address both (academic and disciplinary) needs of the students. These plans can also be used as a measure of evaluation for the teachers because teachers would already be provided with the plans so there would be rare chances of targeting students or being violent because strategies of dealing with students would be mentioned in that plan (Bekiari, et al. 2016).
6.2.4 Incorporating fair play
Taking into account the role of teachers in regulating the behavior of the students, it is asserted that teachers should be empowered and made to realize about students as their responsibility. Moreover, incorporating fair play would be much effective because it will help teachers to avoid targeting and getting personal with students. Teachers will maintain a neutral attitude towards students that would be void of any discrimination associated with any of the departments of life. (Bekiari, et al. 2016) It is evident that if teachers would be following code of conduct, they will be well aware of their responsibilities towards students and it will help them address their duties with great care and attention (Airey, et al. 2017).
6.2.5 Physical Activities
Physical activities refer to the activities that are used by schools to incorporate critical and moral abilities in the students. It is asserted that it should be mandatory of the public school to make students participate in physical activity. It will help them learn discipline by following the set direction that are given by physical activity. Moreover, discipline would be a retrieved product from the physical activity as it will help students practice what they have learned on the ground and implement it in all the departments and dimensions of life (Airey, et al. 2017).
The aim of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of communicating discipline in public school taking into account an increased ratio of incidents regarding violent attitude of the teachers and the issue of teachers getting personal with the students. It is asserted that when a teacher gets personal with the students a school is failed in communicating discipline to the student. it is more like a moral deterioration because a child is not fallen from the standards of education but he is pushed many steps away from both academic and moral life. The research proved that the system of communicating discipline is not effective and it is one of the concerns to be addressed on priority. There are several practical strategies that are recommended to overcome this behavior, taking into account the idea that a teacher is successful only if he is successful in influencing and bringing a positive change in almost all the areas and dimensions of the life of children. So, special attention is required not from the public schools, but also from the legal framework as well so that the use of violent behavior as an approach to increase positivity can be curbed and students can be addressed with politeness that can help them grow both morally and academically.
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Research Question for students
What do you want to say about discipline in schools?
Are your teachers good at teaching discipline in a positive way?
What is the attitude of your teachers towards you while communicating discipline?
Is there any incident in which any student got hurt because of the violent attitude of the teacher due to misbehavior?
Research questions for teachers
What are the strategies that are used by you for communicating discipline?
How often do you use verbal communication for teaching discipline?
How often do you use oral communication to teach discipline?
What is the role of your school in molding your attitude towards students in teaching the discipline?
Research questions for administrative
What are the strategies incorporated by the administration for empowering teaching discipline?
Is there any connection and awareness by legal departments regarding school decorum and discipline approaches?
What are the strategies used by the administration to enhance understanding of the discipline?
How much support is granted by the legal authorities in terms of teaching discipline strategies to the teachers?
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