[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]
TO: INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
SUBJECT: HIV/AIDS IS A WORLDWIDE THREAT
HIV/AIDS is a worldwide disease that is affecting more than 33 million people in the world. HIV is a virus that attacks immune system, the natural defense system of human body. HIV virus has the potential to destroy white blood cells, weakening the immune system. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; it is a final stage of HIV; however it is not necessary for every HIV patient to develop AIDS. It is important to note that HIV/AIDS is a worldwide problem; however, there are certain regions with an increased rate of infection such as America, about one million Americans are living with the disease. (Assefa, et, al., 2019). There are certain major causes of HIV/AIDS, where major threats are related to health department. Other causes of HIV/AIDS are unsafe clinical practices, blood transfusion, shared needles, unsafe sex and mothers are a precursor of disease as they feed their infants. In accordance with the information published on media, it has been asserted that HIV/AIDS can have a negative impact on public health. There are significant misconceptions regarding disease, taking into account that HIV/AIDS inculcates fear and anxiety in general public. (Assefa, et, al., 2019). Usually, families are ruined because of lack of awareness, side by side a country's timeline is also affected. In order to address increasing ratio of patients with HIV/AIDS, support from international organizations such International AIDS Society, Kaiser Family Foundation, UNAIDS, and WHO is required to impart barriers in the spread of disease.
HIV/AIDS is more like a life-threatening disease, chronic in nature, and caused by human immune deficiency virus. HIV hampers the ability of body to acquire protection against the disease-causing agents, whereas AIDS is the final stage of HIV when immune system of human body is completely compromised. (Assefa, et, al., 2019). It is important to note that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS; however, medicines are prescribed that can act as a tool to slow down the progression of disease. Identified in 1981, HIV has caused more than 30 million deaths till time. According to data collected from Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta about 20% to 25% of the infected people are still undiagnosed.
There are different causes of HIV/AIDS because there is a diverse medium for transfer of disease. One of the potential causes is "sexual activity." It is evident that satisfaction of sexual desires is one of the necessities of human body but sexual activity can have serious consequences if both or any of the partners is infected from HIV/AIDS. The virus can enter body through small tears that develop in vagina or rectum and mouth sores. Unsafe healthcare or clinical practices are also one of the major causes of spread of disease, taking into account that virus transfers from the blood transfusion. (Sharp, et, al., 2019). Lack of attention to blood screening is increasing the threat to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, sharing needles or intravenous drug paraphernalia can increase the risk of HIV/AIDS. Pregnancy or breastfeeding is also one of the major causes, whenever an affected mother feeds her child, virus pass through milk.
HIV/AIDS has a far-reaching and frustrating impact on the life of patient, his family, and environment, ultimately disturbing a country’s profile. HIV/AIDS related death stigmas have caused an environment of psychosocial stress, compromising mental health and physical health of patient. Today, about 37 million people are living with HIV/AIDS where only 75% know that they are having the virus. (Das, et, al., 2019). HIV threatens relationship because there is no way out to cure, research has observed changes in family roles, causing anger or guilt were family members, or patients prefer to stay alone. Financial deprivation, accompanied by stigma and discrimination has hampered the social structure of families. A lot of distortion has been observed in the country and state profile, stressing that there is decrease in life expectancy of country’s profile such as Africa where eight countries have lost 17% of life expectancy rate. (Das, et, al., 2019). HIV/AIDS affects youth, where youth is the future of any country. Married couples are also one of the central victims, every year millions of children are orphaned because of death of one or both parents due to HIV/AIDS.
Extend of issue
HIV/AIDS is a global disease, affecting various proportion of population around the globe. According to the information collected from UNAIDS, approximately 36.9 million are suffering from disease, among which newly infected generation comprises of 1.8 million, and 180,000 are children population. In the year 2017, 21.7 million people took steps to take treatment while the death rate is also increased, i.e., 1.4 million died of HIV/AIDS. There are 19.6 million people who are living with the disease with 6.1 million in Western countries and 5.2 million people live in Asian and Pacific countries. In 2017 94000 people died of HIV/AIDS whereas 1.4 million people died of disease in 2014. (Sharp, et, al., 2019). Several initiatives have been taken to prevent the transfer of HIV/AIDS from mother to infant but current statistics reveal that in 2017, 80% of women had an access to antiretroviral, medicines that could protect the transmission of HIV to infants; this is an increased ratio as compared to 47% of availability of prevention measures in 2010. (Sharp, et, al., 2019). It would not be wrong to say that although HIV/AIDS is a global issue, still there are certain countries with a comparatively greater number of victims as compared to other countries such as East and Southern Africa, Western and Central Africa as well as Asia and Pacific countries.
Taking into account the global paradigms, an international response is needed to address the disease because HIV/AIDS is a global problem and the countries with greatest ratio of disease lacks adequate amount of funds and other accessories. Side by side, despite increasing initiatives, the ratio of spread of disease has increased over time due to certain historical weaknesses in health systems and inert human nature, emphasizing the need for international interventions. Although UNAIDS, WHO and other organizations are working still sustainable development goals seem to be unachieved. International initiatives are desirable because HIV/AIDS is a threat that has no reverse pathway; in fact, the statistics are increasing with the passage of time. (Das, et, al., 2019). In a nutshell, global initiatives are needed to carry out strategic plans of operation with insight into moral and legal human rights and budgets that can help to incorporate strategic plans. Moreover, the essence of awareness and prevention can be brought into practice if certain initiatives would be taken to address the display of positive and rehabilitating information, with easy access.
HIV/AIDS is a treat that has the power to tarnish the global view of healthcare; it is important to note that the circumstances are not confined to the realms of existence; in fact, HIV/AIDS is a disease that spread from person to person. The modes of transmission are minor so it seems hard to address the precautionary measures at first end. Although global strategies are opted and organizations are formulated to cater to the concerns associated with disease, but the dilemma is, HIV/AIDS is resulting in skeptical responses that not only affect the patient but his surroundings as well. So, there is a dire need for certain practical initiatives that can address the consequences and occurrences of HIV/AIDS at first priority.
Assefa, Y., Gilks, C. F., Dean, J., Tekle, B., Lera, M., Balcha, T. T., ... & Hill, P. S. (2019). Towards achieving the fast-track targets and ending the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: successes and challenges. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 78, 57-64.
Das, N., Agarwal, S., Rautaray, S. S., & Pandey, M. (2019). Big Data Approach for Epidemiology and Prevention of HIV/AIDS. In Emerging Technologies in Data Mining and Information Security (pp. 239-248). Springer, Singapore.
Sharp, C., Penner, F., Marais, L., & Skinner, D. (2019). School connectedness as a psychological resilience factor in children affected by HIV/AIDS. AIDS care.
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