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The development of a sophisticated scientific and philosophical culture by the ancient Greeks can be accredited to discoveries and a growing body of knowledge from the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Apart from making major contributions in the fields of mathematics and science, the creation and maintenance of contemporary artistic and philosophical culture can also be accredited to the Greeks. Particularly, the philosophical culture is apparent in the writings and dialogues of Plato who recreated Socrates’ curious dialogues in an organized form CITATION Por10 \l 1033 (Porter). Many of the ideas that Plato explored in his writings were present in the art and culture of Classical Greece. Being similar in aspects of nature, literature and art, they held primary significance in the eyes of Greek society. Drama and theatre soon gained wide recognition and were spread around many neighboring societies and influenced many contemporary genres of drama and playwrights.

Additionally, architecture and sculpture, which chiefly constituted Greek art, also exhibited ascendancy when the same forms of art were practiced in other societies. The embodiment of excellence was seen in Greek art when the sculptors captured the dynamic conditions of the human form which were never quite witnessed before CITATION Fun19 \l 1033 (Funke). Peculiar care was employed with the poise and correct proportions of their pieces and they believed in a utopian symbolism of the human body and its manifestations.

Having a love-hate relationship with arts, Plato delivered literary sensations but at the same time, he was terrified of arts because he thought that arts and literature are critical in forming an individual's character and if the primary message propagates, soon the whole society will be under its influence. In his writings, Plato asserts that art is an imitation. He further advocates that art is mimicking the everyday events of ordinary life and should be considered as an illusion.

For a better part of history, Ancient Greece was either involved in wars and battles or was recuperating from it, but in the time frame from 455 to 431 B.C, the city of Athens in Greece flourished splendidly. Even though the ancient Athenians were not very organized or even large enough in numbers to wage a war against neighboring societies, they showed the rest of the world a true recognition and appreciation for the human mind and its functionalities for human life in general.

Many aspects of the Athenian and Greek environment were conducive to the propagation and spread of creative thinking and related works. Being a fundamental conversationalist, Socrates is regarded as a great thinker and philosopher and although he did not write anything on his own, the world remembers him from Plato’s narratives and dialogues. Doryphoros or the spear-bearer was a famous sculpture in Classical Greece. This sculpture was accompanied by a treatise with the title 'Canon', in which Polyclitus stipulated his principles regarding the ideal proportions in a man. This is a piece of art that Plato must have known and come across and this work shares common ground with his theories of the possibilities of attaining perfection through the imitation of art. Doryphorus’s face lacks any individual, distinct features, clearly suggesting that he has been created to delineate the glamorized version of a common citizen, as in those times, women did not attain the status of a citizen. The body of Doryphorus was designed and sculpted with extreme proportional symmetry and exuded confidence and strength. Plato, like many Athenians, valued beauty very highly CITATION Dre19 \l 1033 (Drees). Although his prepositions about beauty are abstract and subtle, his dialogue, ‘The Symposium’, crafts many of his most important ideas CITATION Ale19 \l 1033 (Alexandrakis). According to Plato, there are three characteristics of beauty; it acts like a form, it is an objective quality, and that no one has ever seen perfect beauty in this world. To sum it all, it is clear that Plato is a product of the world into which he was born, yet it is also true that he significantly contributed to the world that was to come after him in the fields of virtue, justice, ethics, literature, arts and philosophy.

Works Cited:

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexandrakis, Aphrodite. "Plato's Notion of Beauty in Classical Greek and Egyptian Art." Politeia (2019): 56-82.

Drees, Meredith C. "Eros and Experiences of Beauty in Plato’s Theory of Moral Progress." Politeia (2019): 30-46.

Funke, J., & Grove, J. "Introduction—Desiring Sculptures, Encountering the Past: Sculpture, Sexuality and History." Sculpture, Sexuality and History (2019): 1-32.

Porter, James I. "The origins of aesthetic thought in ancient Greece: matter, sensation, and experience." (2010).

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Plato Vs. Aristotle--Which Set Of Ideas Works For You?

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Plato and Aristotle

Plato and Aristotle were some of the philosophers in the ancient Greek who critically deliberated on issues of science, ethics, politics and more. Plato was an intellect of dialect and dialogue and therefore, he wrote several studies regarding politics and ethics. Aristotle is a philosopher who focused on science. He was born in Stagira Greek together with Plato CITATION Sto11 \p 21 \l 1033 (Stonehouse, Allison and Carr 21). However, he is referred to as “the father of western philosophy.” Aristotle contribution is more influential, particularly in logical reasoning and science. But both philosophers’ works are viewed to be less theoretically valuable in the recent days, they have a great historical value to western education.

Though Plato and Aristotle have different believes when it comes to mass, form and other related science CITATION Jad14 \p 24 \l 1033 (Patterson 24), both of them believed that knowledge must be of what is real, the knowledge should be what is able to fix and unchanged and the world experience through sensing is not the way to fixed things. However, I prefer the Aristotle beliefs and argument in regard to people and science in general. Aristotle pointed out that everybody has the ability to learn CITATION Bri12 \p 12 \l 1033 (Duignan 12). Aristotle also pointed out that form exists within space and time and therefore, he criticized Plato argument in regard to the existence of form. He argued that something which exists outside of time and space cannot have a connection with anything within time and space.

In conclusion, I believe everything exists for a purpose and everyone has the ability to learn something which Plato did not believe. As stated by Stonehouse, Allison, and Carr (15) Plato pointed out that is too elitist in his view and this required a devoted time to understand. It means that Plato focused on the weakness and see mass public ignorant. I prefer Aristotle because of the realistic way he looked at issues and argument when it comes to human understand and mass.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Duignan, Brian. "Plato and Aristotle: How Do They Differ?" https://www.britannica.com/story/plato-and-aristotle-how-do-they-differ (2012): 2-15.

Patterson, Jades. "Comparing the Similarities and Differences Between Plato and Aristotle." History of Aristotle and Plato (2014): 2-15.


Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Plato's The Cave

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Plato’s “The Cave”

“The Allegory of the Cave” or Plato’s Cave recognized as one classical literary work in the field of philosophy. It is presented by Greek philosopher Plato with the active consideration on aspects of knowledge and nature. The approach of Plato’s Cave presented in the form of a captivating dialogue between Plato’s brother Glaucon and his teacher Socrates. The perspective presented by the author can be defined as the theory related to overall human perception. Undoubtedly, it is interesting to examine the domain of human discernment in case of different features of nature ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"yWewC0ep","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Fluke)","plainCitation":"(Fluke)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1288,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/D2I98VUD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/D2I98VUD"],"itemData":{"id":1288,"type":"article-journal","title":"Allegory of the cave: On the theme of substantiation","container-title":"Child maltreatment","page":"69-72","volume":"14","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Fluke","given":"John"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Fluke 70). The paper critically focuses to critically reflect the literary work of Plato’s “The Cave.”

The reality and perception of material objects are critically discussed by Plato in “The Allegory of the Cave.” The basic argument presented by Plato is concerning humans’ approach in case of the reality of different things and aspects of life. It is further exploration of attainment of knowledge. It is argued by Plato that generally human beings are not able to see the actual prospect of truth concerning the idea of real knowledge. It is greatly focused by Plato that philosophy is one prominent and great field to find out the path of truth. The basic argument is presented by the author by used different aspects as symbols to illustrate reality. Cave, shadows, game, escape and return of the prisoner illustrated by philosopher as basic symbols to consider the different realities of various aspects.

The allegory of Plato started with the particular event when three prisoners tied up by a chain in the cave where there was a fire as the source of light. The tribulations of these prisoners identified as their helpless approach as they did not any choice but only to look at the wall. The only option they have was to see their shadows in the form of reflections of the objects outside the cave. They were restricted because they were strangled due to chain ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"htJkTvQO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}The Allegory of the Cave})","plainCitation":"(The Allegory of the Cave)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1287,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/5H7EBSTG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/5H7EBSTG"],"itemData":{"id":1287,"type":"book","title":"The Allegory of the Cave","publisher":"Lulu.com","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=50T6DQAAQBAJ","ISBN":"978-1-365-67175-3","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Plato 5). This specific situation compelled them to have a game by guessing the ordering of different shadows. The great twist of this allegory has appeared when one prisoner successfully escaped from the cave and abled to see the reality of the outer world. The reality of external world was immensely shocking for the escaped prisoner. This specific opportunity made it easy for him to figure out the actual reality of the things of the world.

The harsh reality of the world made it easy for the escaped prisoner to understand that world outside of cave is not real. The facet of intellectual journey helped him to comprehensively explore and examine the beauty and actual meaning of world. His return to cave is also one crucial aspect of allegory created by Plato. That was the time of great conflict between him and other prisoners as they were not willing to accept the other perspective of thinking. They came up with believing that functioning of world eventually corrupted the thought process of escaped prisoner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Y3imnA9Y","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Buckle)","plainCitation":"(Buckle)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1289,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/N727Q2TF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/N727Q2TF"],"itemData":{"id":1289,"type":"article-journal","title":"Descartes, Plato and the cave","container-title":"Philosophy","page":"301-337","volume":"82","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Buckle","given":"Stephen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Buckle 305). Critical reading of this allegory raised different questions about thinking domain and actual reality of world. It comes up with a focus that how much it is crucial to discover reality of this world through the domain of different perceptions.

In a nutshell, it is critical to indicate that this allegory greatly encourages people to think out of the box to discover hidden aspects of this mysterious world. It is one vital and brave step by individuals to think differently and presented argument to found new paradigms of life. This specific allegory is one great example to focus on different thinking approaches and perception when someone is actually interested to identify the actual reality of worldly objects.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Buckle, Stephen. “Descartes, Plato and the Cave.” Philosophy, vol. 82, no. 2, 2007, pp. 301–37.

Fluke, John. “Allegory of the Cave: On the Theme of Substantiation.” Child Maltreatment, vol. 14, no. 1, 2009, pp. 69–72.

The Allegory of the Cave. Lulu.com, 2017, https://books.google.com/books?id=50T6DQAAQBAJ.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Policy Analysis Paper

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Policy analysis paper

Policy lever

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is a federal law that aims at providing safe water to the citizens across the United States. The purpose of the policy is to promote public health and welfare. There seems to be tension between government agencies trying to keep our water safe with regulations and corporations. Congress approved a safe drinking water program in 1996 for resolving the fund issues and financing projects for meeting standards. It aimed at allowing eligible communities to follow the standards of drinking water that complied with the state laws. The federal law was established for protecting the supplies of water from harmful contaminations. The federal state established this law in 1974 with collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The clean water policies are not very effective because the poor and people belonging to minority backgrounds lack access to safe water. Lacking access to safe drinking water leads to other potential risks including waterborne diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid and Guinea worm disease. The statistics reveal that 42 drinking water outbreaks were reported in 2013-2014 that 1006 illnesses, hospitalization of 124 people and deaths of 13 CITATION Sus173 \l 1033 (Scutti, 2017). The facts shared by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) states that a larger population of African-Americans is affected by waterborne disease each year.

Level of government implementation

The safe water program develops best practices to effectively manage the water resources that improve techniques of local drainage systems and meets the flow conditions of the future. The funds from the state contribute to the development of the program CITATION Kin16 \l 1033 (King County, 2016). The successful implementation of the restoration program depends on the contribution from land management, and ecological restoration remains effective since history. Restoration of the project projects in the US such as land restoration helps to treat the degraded lands and biological advancements lead to the minimization of destructed land. The water restoration plan forms the framework for future ecological programs as it involves the students and faculties across borders and one-time funds lead to improved ecosystems. The state projects restore the ecological capstones the volunteers’ include students that worked in teams for the restoration of aquatic and terrestrial lands CITATION Gol16 \l 1033 (Gold, Ewing, Banks, Groom, & Hinckley, 2016). The attributes of ecosystem involve effective community structure, restoration of the indigenous species and development and stability of colonialization. The suitable physical environment leads to the reproduction of the population species CITATION Cle09 \l 1033 (Clewell & Anderson, 2009). The protection plan also leads to the safety of the populations. Historically the programs contribute to the protection of natural water resources and using ineffective manner that leads to the advantage of masses.

How policy works

The government in the United States focused on building a public water system that contained at least 15 server connection for serving the population of America. The safe drinking water standards are applicable to water systems that ensure delivery of clean water to the American citizens. The community water systems are developed that are responsible for the provision of safe water to the residencies including neighbourhoods, homes, apartments, parks, small towns and condominiums. The state developed 20,000 non-transient non-community water systems that are responsible for serving over six-thousand people over the year. This also includes the construction of 89,000 transient non-community water system that serves the public for over six months. EPA ensures that this system works efficiently for the provision of clean and safe drinking water. The implementation of the policy confirmed that each year millions of American receive quality drinking water that prevents them from disease and contributes to their overall health. The water department ensures that the supplies water for household use is free from chemicals, pesticides, animal waste and naturally occurring substances. The functions of the state for the provision of sage water use properly maintained distribution system CITATION Des15 \l 1033 (Desilver, 2015). CITATION Dea11 \l 1033 (Spade, 2011)

The SDWA policy is on treatment that ensures the delivery of safe drinking water at the tap. The approach stresses on the delivery of quality water that is free from contamination. “SDWA applies to every public water system in the United States. There are currently more than 170,000 public water systems providing water to almost all Americans at some time in their lives” CITATION SDW04 \l 1033 (SDWA, 2004). These systems adopt adequate measures that stress on providing clean and safe water to the masses. The water system ensures the provision of high-quality water to the public.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for the implementation of wastewater standards. It established the structure for regulating pollutant discharges and making water clean in the United States. It is also responsible for maintaining the existing requirements for setting water quality standards and for making it free from contaminants in the surface water. EPA is also responsible for funding the construction of the sewage treatment plants that are established under the construction grant plants. The agency is also responsible for recognizing the need for the plants and addressing critical issues related to water pollution. “the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under authority contained in the 1972 legislation, the EPA had primary responsibility for implementing the ambitious and optimistic goals of ensuring that all waters of the United States be "fishable" and "swimmable" by 1983, 10 years after the act's passage” CITATION Nic09 \l 1033 (Cotroneo, 2009). EPA has formed partnerships with other agencies that support the national water plan and also control the revolving fund. EPA-state partnership is the central body that generates funds for the public level program. In 1972 EPA incorporated amendments for addressing the issue of unsafe water and improving its access to the larger community.

Objectives of the policy

The objective of the Clean Water Act policy includes eliminating the discharge of chemical agents or pollutants that affects the quality of water. It is focused on providing safe and clean water for the residents of the United States. The regulatory objectives emphasize on the command and control for enforcing laws that remove the possibilities of misuse of water resources. the act also aims at devising effective water control standards that eliminate the opportunities of contaminating water. EPA has established the goal of zero-discharge that means eliminating any kind of chemical or toxic discharge that could undermine the quality of water.

Historical and political aspects of clean water act

Due to the increased number of deaths and diseases associated with unsafe drinking water the Federal Pollution Control Act was passed in 1948. It stresses on minimizing the generation of pollution that deteriorates the quality of water and the environment. With growing awareness and knowledge of the public, the state had to take practical actions for addressing the issue of unclean drinking water. The Clean Water Act amendment was passed on 1972 which emphasized on providing safe and clean drinking water to the residents. This act initially established the basic framework for the regulation of pollutant discharges and EPA remains the central agency that implemented such programs. This agency also identified the watershed standards for the industry that prevented them from discharging chemicals or toxins that could affect the quality of water. This policy initially worked to ensure that no pollutants reach the surface of the water. It further “made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit was obtained under its provisions” CITATION EPA16 \l 1033 (EPA, 2016). The agency also focused on planning and managing resources inefficient way that eliminated the possibilities of misallocation.

The political aspects depict that the Federal state of America faced threats of controlling water pollution. The EPA received full support from the Federal state that stressed on catering the clean water needs of the country. There were three amendments in the Act in 1977, 1981 and 1988. The amendments of 1981 stressed on Municipal Wastewater Treatment Construction Grants Amendments. while the amendments of 1987 stressed on the Water Quality Act. These amendments reaffirmed that the federal interest assures the water quality in the country. Thee goals set forward in the act of 1972 emphasized on adoption of rigid command-and-control regulatory approach. A flexible approach was acquired that stressed on building a partnership between the federal state and agencies. The tribal government and municipalities were also part of the policy. The original act was revised in 1987 that focused on controlling the issues of water pollution in America. The state in collaboration with other agencies stressed on point-source pollution that focused on collecting discharges from the sources. The state later realized that the pollution was coming from the nonpoint sources that included pipes and outfalls CITATION EPA16 \l 1033 (EPA, 2016). The clean water act protects the river because it followed the landmark case of Ohio's river Cuyahoga that was polluted and damaged by the industry. The political agenda was to protect American rivers from the pollution that affected the small stream and even the big rivers.

Social perspectives

The social aspects of the clean water act depict that the state focused on promoting society's welfare by providing access to clean and safe water. It promoted the health of the people by ensuring access to pollution-free water. It is also linked to society's welfare because it eliminates toxic or contaminated substances from the water. The social aspects depict the need for removing pollutants that minimize the presence of waterborne diseases, cholera and typhoid. The World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that 1.8 million people die from the waterborne disease each year. the adoption of the clean water act policy worked to ensure the maintenance of health and welfare of the society at large

Educational perspectives

The act provided education and awareness to the society about the significance of clean water. It provided guidelines to the industry for adopting adequate measures that restrict them from disposing harmful toxic agents, pesticides or pollutants to the surface water. The educational perspectives also emphasize on instructing the people about minimizing waste of water resources.

Short-term and long-term outcomes

Clean water act has short-term and long-term outcomes. The short-term outcomes of the plan include the provision of clean water to the residents, restricting the exploitation of water resources by industry or disposal of chemical wastes to the water surfaces. The long-term outcomes of the policy include the generation of direct funds raised for creating effective sewerage treatment plans. The reduction of pollution also improved the long-term sustainability of the agricultural essay. The long-term outcomes involve building water regulatory bodies that maximize the role of the water treatment plan with coverage increasing from 8 million people to 175 million CITATION Gre171 \l 1033 (Wiszniewski, 2017).

Positive and negative consequences

The clean water act policy provided numerous benefits to the society such as access to clean drinking water. The facts indicate that “the Clean Water Act, billions of pounds of pollution have been kept out of our rivers and the number of waters that meet clean water goals nationwide has doubled with direct benefits for drinking water, public health, recreation, and wildlife” CITATION Riv17 \l 1033 (Rivers, 2017). This act increased the opportunities for protecting water resources for future generations. The act is essential for ensuring the maintenance of good health and the promotion of quality life. this is also linked to the enhanced quality of life of the residents.

There are also some negative aspects of the clean drinking act such as it resulted in the disparity between blacks and whites. Access to safe drinking water reflects disparities in America. This is because the treatment plans are established mostly in white neighbourhoods. The water systems are also set in the white majority areas. This results in the disadvantage of the black or minority population in America. Facts also depict that having inadequate or limited access to clean water results in an increased prevalence of diseases among African-Americans. Waterborne disease, cholera and typhoid are more common among blacks due to lack of access to clean drinking water. Among low-income populations, the risks of such diseases are high. Evidence suggests "in the United States, nearly one in two adults and one in four children do not drink tap water on a given day, with even more dismal statistics among minority and low-income populations” CITATION Ani17 \l 1033 (Patel & Schmidt, 2017). Such statistics indicate that the clean water act has created a disparity in the society among the black and white population.


The stakeholders of the Safe Water Act include EPA, state, federal, interstate, tribal and other agencies that formed an association with each other. EPA is coordinating with each agency and state through its regional office for discussing the policy implementation and other related issues. One important aspect of is engagement goal that means creating a collaborative environment for all stakeholders. Building string engagement among bodies will protect and improve water quality. The stakeholders are responsible for taking policy-related decisions such as the implementation of the policy objectives. Transparent and consistent communications are established among member bodies and agencies.

The stakeholders are responsible for providing resources for the maintenance and implementation of the clean water act policy. These agencies are also supporting the act because they stress the adoption of adequate policy measures that eliminate the pollutants from the water resources. They also have a dominant role in the provision of the funds for managing the activities of maintaining efficient water systems.

Policy across populations

The white majority population is relying on safe bottled water due to their better socio-economic positions. The comparison of the population wise distribution indicates that more water and treatment plants are set up in the developed neighbourhoods containing a majority of whites CITATION Kin16 \l 1033 (King County, 2016).

Policy addressing the issue

The policy does not address the issue by targeting the deprived population directly. The policy has not set any specific criteria for targeting the deprived black population. However, the general implementation of the policy depicts that it emphasizes on providing increased access to the safe drinking water by constructing water distribution systems.

Distribution of benefit

Wider benefits are availed by the whites in America because most of the water systems are set in developed neighborhoods. These neighborhoods contain majority of whites. This reflects that the majority of the whites belonging to middle and upper class have access to safe drinking water. The minority population such as blacks or Latinos who belong to deprived or poor households lacks access to the clean and safe drinking water.

The use of bottled water by the white population is against the agenda of the clean water act because it also threatens environment sustainability. Increased dependence of people on water bottle causes environmental problems including water waste, pollution, and climate change. Massive consumption of bottled water is unsafe for the environment and depicts the need for curtailing consumption. The main claim regarding bottled water reflects the concerns regarding fossil fuels used for the production of plastic bottles. Used plastic bottles contribute to environmental degradation due to the release of 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide. Consumption of bottled water also wastes valuable recourses as it wastes huge amounts of water. As the demands for bottled water constantly rose, depicting the need for reexamining consumption choice based on environmental concerns.

Massive consumption of fossil fuels supports the argument of environmental adversities related to bottled water. America remains one of the biggest consumers of bottled water, as the collective consumption constitutes 8 billion gallons of water. Fossil fuels deteriorate the environment due to the release of toxic gases such as carbon dioxide. Cotroneo (2009) mentioned that “the plastic bottles it comes in may not be so good for the planet: They consume massive amounts of fossil fuel to produce and transport, then pile up in landfills” (Cotroneo, 2009). The claims state that the overfilled landfills directly contributes to pollution that causes negative implications. Evidence reveals that plastic bottles release at least 38 chemicals generating long-lasting impacts. Facts also state that 38 million bottles end up in landfills becoming unmanageable waste. Carbon negative impact and deforestation are also negative implications of bottled water. Environmentalists argue that plastic bottles produce unnecessary waste while in the form of garbage they remain intact for hundreds of years CITATION Nic09 \l 1033 (Cotroneo, 2009).

Social theory and inequalities

The social theory of race depicts that the minority population suffers the consequences of policy injustice. Welfare policy reflects, “an additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators regardless of race/ethnicity will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do” CITATION Bet \l 1033 (Reingold & Smith, 2012). The welfare of the clean water act is more focused on facilitating the white population only. The policy causes inequalities because no proper framework is adopted for building effective water systems for blacks or Latinos in America CITATION Sha00 \l 1033 (Lee, 2000). The administrative laws are acting for promoting inequality among blacks and whites. the policy adopted by the state reflects that the power is “exercised mainly as a means of deduction a subtraction mechanism, a right to appropriate a portion of the wealth, a tax of products, goods and services, labor and blood, levied on subjects” CITATION Dea11 \l 1033 (Spade, 2011). This indicates that the state and the administrative power is working in a specific way that supports one group of society.

Another factor that exhibits inequality is the fact the majority of blacks earn low incomes that eliminates the possibilities of living in developed neighborhoods where they can have access to clean drinking water. Facts reveal that “the top 1% of households held 33.4% of all wealth; in 2013 their share was 36.7%” CITATION Des15 \l 1033 (Desilver, 2015). This explains that as only fewer wealthy have access to money they can invest in clean drinking water. This expands inequality among the population that undermines the access of poor to safe water.

Gaps in data

No clear data prevails that explains the decline disparity or inequality in the provision of safe water to the citizens. This indicates the need for conducting further research for identifying the shortcomings of the policy. It requires obtaining data on the overall decline of waterborne and related diseases and recognizing its differences among black and white population.

Resources and capacity of policy

Due to prevalence of disparity among black and white population depicts the need for investing further for installation of adequate treatment plants. There is need for implanting more water systems at the black neighborhoods. The resources can be used for providing education and awareness to the population regarding safe water. This program will offer education on hygiene for children, pregnant women and people of poor or deprived households. The state can also adopt adequate steps for providing awareness to the population about saving water. They can provide information on refraining from misuse of water.

Cost and benefits from budgetary perspectives

It was estimated in 1990 that the cost required for the clean water act would be $45 billion annually. The cost was managed efficiently for improving water resources and implantation of systems. The costs increased every year with the time due to the increase in population. The overall analysis of the water act depicts that the federal state and EPA is investing $140 each year on a single resident of the US. the examination of the benefits depicts that the policy offered many benefits. Iowa State University obtained water quality measurements of 50 million by monitoring 240,000 sites. The analysis of the measurements indicates that 25 million showed improvement in oxygen concentration. The positive outcomes also include a decline in coliform bacteria. The study also depicts an increase in the number of rivers for safe fishing by 12 per cent. There were also observations that confirmed a reduction in water-related diseases. The overall cost-benefit analysis indicates that investing in the clean water act is efficient because it eliminated harmful agents and enhanced the quality of water CITATION Kat183 \l 1033 (Frazer, 2018). The research also revealed that the clean water act didn't exceed costs. However, it also suggests that it is not appropriate to compare the benefits on the basis of the dollar amount because it leads to wider welfare for society and the people. The benefits of the clean water act can also be identified by considering the reduction in the waterborne diseases at the regions where people have access to safe water.

The analysis of the benefits also depicts that the adoption of treatment plan has improved the quality of water. The examination of the samples depicts that treatment plants eliminated pesticides and harmful agents from the water. The increase in oxygen content depicts that overall improvement in the quality of water is observed. The findings this reflects that the adoption of clean water act is effective for controlling health related issues such as diseases.


This act increased the opportunities for protecting water resources for future generations. The act is essential for ensuring the maintenance of good health and the promotion of quality life. This is also linked to the enhanced quality of life of the residents. The majority of blacks earn low incomes that eliminates the possibilities of living in developed neighborhoods where they can have access to clean drinking water. This indicates that the state and the administrative power is working in a specific way that supports one group of society. Although clean drinking water offer many benefits but it needs to address the issue of disparity by providing access of safe water to the poor and deprived population. There is need for implanting more water systems at the black neighborhoods.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Clewell, A. F., & Anderson, J. (2009). Ecological Restoration Principles, Values, and Structure of an Emerging Profession. ISLAND PRESS.

Cotroneo, N. (2009). Back to the tap? How the environmental impact of bottled water is getting people to give up their plastic. New York Times Upfront, 142, 1.

EPA. (2016). History of the Clean Water Act. Retrieved 04 28, 2019, from https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/history-clean-water-act

Desilver, D. (2015). The many ways to measure economic inequality. Pew Research.

Frazer, K. (2018). The study examines costs, benefits of clean water measures. Retrieved 04 29, 2019, from https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2018/11/study-examines-costs-benefits-clean-water-measures

Gold, W., Ewing, K., Banks, J., Groom, M., & Hinckley, T. (2016). Collaborative Ecological Restoration. ResearchGate.

King County. (2016). Green - Duwamish River Watershed. Retrieved 2017 йил 20-April from http://www.kingcounty.gov/services/environment/watersheds/green-river.aspx

Lee, S. M. (2000). Racial classifications in the US census: 1890-1990.

NWF. (2018). National water footprint. Retrieved 11 04, 2018, from https://waterfootprint.org/en/water-footprint/national-water-footprint/

Patel, A. I., & Schmidt, L. A. (2017). Water Access in the United States: Health Disparities Abound and Solutions Are Urgently Needed. Am J Public Health, 107 (9), 1354–1356.

Scutti, S. (2017). Drinking water blamed in hundreds of illnesses, 13 deaths, CDC reports. Retrieved 04 26, 2019, from https://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/09/health/cdc-water-contamination-reports/index.html

SDWA. (2004). Understanding the Safe Drinking Water Act. SDWA.

Spade, D. (2011). Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the Limits of Law. South End Press.

Reingold, B., & Smith, A. R. (2012). Welfare Policymaking and Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in U.S. State Legislatures. American Journal of Political Scie, 56 (1), 131-.

Rivers. (2017). HOW THE CLEAN WATER ACT PROTECTS YOUR RIVERS. Retrieved 04 29, 2019, from https://www.americanrivers.org/rivers/discover-your-river/the-importance-of-the-cwa-to-protecting-your-rivers-clean-water/

Wiszniewski, G. (2017). Greg Wiszniewski. Retrieved 04 29, 2019, from https://www.bbcleaningservice.com/clean-water-act-impact.html

Subject: Culture

Pages: 12 Words: 3600

Post Course Analysis Paper

Black Women and Reproductive Justice

[Name of Writer]

[Name of Institution]

Reproductive justice is a phenomenon that goes beyond the much simpler traditional demand of reproductive rights. When we describe reproductive justice, we are talking about not just the right of women to choose not to have children but also to have access to a safe and healthy environment to raise children in. Having the right to have children when wanted, the right abort unwanted pregnancies, the right to choose the type of birthing option as well as the right to parent the child born of the parents are all covered and effectively protected under reproductive justice. Abortion rights therefore come under a much wider umbrella term of reproductive justice which borrows explanatory meaning from social justice. Intersectionality regarding race, gender and class are all addressed when advocating for reproductive justice. This distinction is crucial because even though the rhetoric of reproductive choice does convey serious meaning, it fails to ensure the public resources that women need in order to realistically maintain the control over their bodies that they fought so hard for. Although encompassing women of all backgrounds, it especially caters to the needs of women of color since subtle policies to regulate women’s reproductive rights are almost always particularly destructive to the more socially vulnerable of women. CITATION Rob15 \l 1033 (Roberts)

Reproductive politics has been long coined as an official phrase by feminists. This is because feminism grounds itself in the idea that women choosing when or how to reproduce has historically been a battleground with significant political meaning. Governments and policymakers have always tried to control or limit the degree of choice women can have over their own bodies. This is the reason why advocacy and activism around reproductive health of women, reproductive rights and reproductive justice is so profoundly central to all feminist struggle. Reproduction in itself is a complicated and controversial issue as it lies at the union of gender, sexuality as well as national identity. It is therefore the talking point of countless regulatory laws which restrict the element of choice around reproduction. The degree of this choice then varies from nation to nation and gains an additional flavor of race when categorizing within one country. Talking about and understanding the abject need for reproductive justice for black women is crucial since exclusionary feminism has unquestionably neglected the losses faced and sacrifices made by women of color. When laws like the Hyde Amendment, family caps and prosecutions are allowed to pass and stay resulting in gross criminalization of pregnant women, black women automatically face the greatest risk of an erosion of their reproductive rights that Roe vs. Wade promised. The vital connection between a condoned criminalization of pregnant women, which goes as far as equating infanticide with abortion, and reproductive rights can only be understood correctly when explained in the context of reproductive justice.

The most significant connection between black women and their perpetually ignored reproductive rights dates back to slavery. As black women were supposed to be property, so were the children they birthed. This then led to the creation of a longstanding social system which failed to respect or acknowledge biological bonds between families that they considered less worthy of human rights.CITATION Lun18 \t \l 1033 (Luna) The raw struggle for survival during slavery created unprecedented bonds in black communities which transcended the ‘normal’ American way of having nuclear families. Communal connections which did not need a common bloodline were confusing for the slave-owning side. Many celebrated sociologists have stooped low enough to call it the root of familial problems in America. Even though these ideas and the social conditions they propagated in are no longer strictly relevant, the social mindset these created unfortunately persists. Policymaking and sociological studies all continue to aim towards finding a ‘solution’ for the stereotypical problem of absent black fathers. The familial system in black communities is still looked down upon as deficient and lacking. It is this exact scenario of an unjust surveillance on the parenting of black families which is why black communities continue to come up with alternative family formations which make sure their children are cared for by the extended family even when the parents cannot be around. When the black family is not respected or held in regard by those who design the laws on how to create or run said families, it automatically creates a gap between reproductive rights as promised by the government and those actually reaching black women.

Black women are ignored when feminism on the political left fails to go beyond justifying abortion rights with the ridiculous logic that abortion caters to economic needs by reducing unwanted children hence curtailing poverty and overpopulation. The right to have children and the right of children to parents are hence neglected. When the activists themselves frame birth control simply as a solution to economic problems, they reduce and diminish the capacity abortion has in its use for racial injustice. Historically racist and eugenist roots in the left’s activism for abortion rights puts a murky shade on their feminism as it has real links with apparent feminists who advocated for racial cleansing and genocide via forced abortions. Forced sterilization rationalized by citing intellectual inferiority historically existed and thrived in around thirty states for decades. These laws were designed to hunt racially and economically vulnerable communities and hence terminating pregnancies in order to stop the birth of children deemed a threat to the society have always disproportionately affected black or native communities. CITATION Lun16 \l 1033 (Luna) This whole scenario was however especially hilarious since the same women that the state and the doctors continued to force sterilizations on, were not trusted to make that exactly same decision for themselves. The ridiculous rule of 120 was only one of the several outrageous sterilization guidelines that these women of color had to follow in order to consensually receive a sterilization they wanted. Consequentially, the political right has repeatedly exploited this connection as a justification for banning abortion by calling it a tool for racial discrimination. Another significant racial twist to this story is the fact that oral contraceptives were frequently tested on women of color without their consent. Here, the contrast between what the activism achieved and what it allowed to happen is too great to ignore. Even though feminist struggle achieved the landmark success of obtaining legal rights to contraceptives for women regardless of their marital status, they ignored the plights of women of color who were tested on without attention to scientific protocols. Therefore, in order to keep the trophy of contraception, feminism categorically threw women of color to the dogs. Other than lack of respect for consent when awarding abortion or contraceptive rights, black women have also been handed a challenge in the face of feminist theory that fails to transform into real, impactful feminist action.

Reproductive justice is hence a necessity for black women and for all women of color. It was black feminists in 1994 attending a pro-choice conference who joined reproductive rights with social justice to officially initiate the political struggle for reproductive justice. Black women therefore took responsibility to claim that their voices did not deserve the margins of the debate on abortion rights but were rather entitled to the center of the conversation on reproductive politics. In order to bring the fight to them, black women had to become organized and socially aware of the inequalities that prevent them from emerging as self-determining humans capable of making and upholding their own reproductive decisions. An overwhelming majority of black women is at a greater risk of living through the experience of disenfranchisement from decisions regarding their own bodies. Knowledge and experience are firmly intertwined, and it hence rings true for black women speaking up for the injustices they have faced. CITATION Ros18 \l 1033 (Ross) Connecting real survivors of reproductive oppression with theorists who write about this injustice is the greatest success the movement has garnered. This movement spearheaded by women of color reiterates the critically important phenomenon of uprooting racial discrimination from within the left while working towards healthy and sustainable legal reproductive rights for all women. When determining the legal or medical experience of an individual woman seeking her reproductive rights, we must be able to connect all her separate but equally influential identities who contribute to the unique experience of privilege or discrimination she might face. Only with this intersectionality can we truly describe feminism as a phenomenon that affects and is accessible to all women.

Previously ignored or misunderstood issues regarding the reproductive freedom of black women continue to rise or, in some cases, be resurrected. A conversation on these issues as they come to the forefront is possible because of a black women-centered movement that seeks to award long-awaited reproductive justice to women from a range of diverse backgrounds.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Luna, Zakiya. "Black celebrities, reproductive justice and queering family: an exploration." Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online (2018): 91-100. Document.

Luna, Zakiya. "Reproductive Justice and Reproductive Rights in the U nited S tates." The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies (2016): 1-5. Print.

Roberts, Dorothy. "Reproductive justice, not just rights." Dissent (2015): 79-82. Print.

Ross, Loretta J. "Teaching reproductive justice: An activist’s approach." Perlow, Olivia N., et al. Black Women's Liberatory Pedagogies. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 159-180. Print.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Postmodernism, Photojournalism And Personal Choice

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Postmodernism, Photojournalism and Personal Choice

Today, the camera, or, as the professionals say, the camera, has become a cult thing. Most likely, every family has a digital camera, perhaps even a few, not to mention the cameras built into mobile phones. In simple terms, if a writing reporter tells stories and the photographer makes pictures of objects (people, places, things), then the photojournalist takes the best of both and makes instant pictures of what is happening. It can be said that the photojournalist takes action.

It can be argued that photography is the most worldwide method of mass communications. Oral and written speech require information of a precise language, and the image in most cases can be unspoken by all. Emotions, Facial expressions, movement and body position, in addition to conformation, light and shadow can express a story in addition to any words. This profession will help to understand the professionals practicing in this direction, know what it costs to create the pictures one see in the news, or make an informed decision about introducing photojournalism into photographic life. Photo report begins with planning. When discussing the topics of materials at the planning meetings, it is necessary to discuss what topic the photo story will be taken on. It is important to set tasks before the photo before filming.

When shooting portraits of people, try to remove them on the background of the interior. It will say more about a person than just a large face. Large faces are removed only if according to the idea of photo essay it is necessary. Photos in the photo essay cannot be staged. The photo correspondent and the operator have different tasks. A portrait can be staged if necessary (Lester, 23).

A photojournalist is a person who “fixes” the history of his time by taking photographs to accompany news reports, notes and articles. Photojournalists tell the whole world about the events that they themselves have witnessed, performing complex and sometimes dangerous work designed to inform people and cause genuine emotions in them. New technologies, the development of social networks have turned the photo story, perhaps, into the main genre of modern media. Photo captions are a very important element. If meaningful signatures are made to the photo report on the topic, then there is no need for a large text (Lucaites, 35-43).

Being the most creative branch of journalism, photojournalism traditionally attracts creative and active people. Those who are bored with the routine work of the photographer in the studio. Those who want to always be in the center of events and contribute to history. In the article entitled, “When the Camera was a Weapon of Imperialism” by Teju Cole explains the history with the help of photography. Many individuals have a camera of few kinds on them always and companies and administrations have suffered as an outcome of this liberty and I consider that this development needs to last with the purpose of increase photograph (Cole, 1).

My choice is to do photojournalism because it is a much more edible argument to claim that "propaganda" is integrally linked to fierceness, however in crux all art, taking photographs involved, has this possible. It just so occurs that beforehand photography was watched by way of an art it was applied as an apparatus of state papers and control on historical stories - therefore the relation is considerable more strong than that of watercolors.

All over the world, young photojournalists have wide opportunities for work and professional development. The working conditions of a photojournalist depend on the direction he has chosen in photojournalism. Needless to say, photojournalists engaged in portraits of famous personalities or filming activities in their city work in more comfortable and safer conditions than photojournalists in hot spots and disadvantaged regions.

Works Cited

Cole, Teju. "When The Camera Was A Weapon Of Imperialism. (And When It Still Is.)". Nytimes.Com, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/06/magazine/when-the-camera-was-a-weapon-of-imperialism-and-when-it-still-is.html. Accessed 7 May 2019.

Lester, Paul Martin. Photojournalism: An ethical approach. Routledge, (2015).

Lucaites, John Louis, and Robert Hariman. "Visual rhetoric, photojournalism, and democratic public culture." Rhetoric Review 20.1/2 (2001): 37-42.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Racial Oppression Discussion Prompt

Racial Oppression Discussion Prompt

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Racial Oppression Discussion Prompt

Racism has been poisoning modern societies with its venom for hundreds of years. Many countries have witnessed the rise of such new political parties which played their part in spreading and defending xenophobic and conservative ideologies like Freedom Party of Austria and the Front National in France. In other words, the concept that one particular race is superior than others gave emergence to the social evil of xenophobia and racial oppression. Immigration, economic difficulties, nationalism, and global terrorism are the leading cause which gave confidence to oppression and violence of hate and fear. It has been noticed that such social evils have strongly affected South Africa, America, and Europe with their venom (Medina, 2013).

In history, Native Americans were the victim of white American’s stereotypes and xenophobic ideas because of their thirst of gold’s and land’s conquests. They were continuously targeted and humiliated for their skin color and given the lowest and hateful standard in the society by white Americans who called themselves superiors because of their skin color. As the years passed, when modernization and globalisation started establishing their roots, Native Americans stood up and raised their voice against such standards and conformed to the white American culture of their inhumane actions to avoid the oppression, hate, and famishment they knew.

Racism caught the attention of the world at the beginning of the twentieth century, but the idea that one group of people are above and superior than all the others has been circling in this world for thousands of years. For instance, in 15 and 16 century the Africans were considered as the lowest race and Europeans assumed that because of their fair skin color they are superior than Africans, and only because of this concept they found it rightful to make Africans as their slaves (Allen, 2014). Even farther in the past, Jews were enslaved by the Egyptians, and they were forced to build their pyramids without paying for their hard labor.

Moreover, it has been witnessed in the past and even today that if people of one country migrate to the other for their safety and shelter, they are not mostly welcomed in their new home because of their different religion, economic status, appearance, and nationalities. They face a very hard and tough time in finding jobs, settling and stabilizing in the society. For instance, Immigrants who come to united states of America to live a better and healthier life, they face an extremely difficult time in settling, they are paid less for their jobs as compared to the Americans. Also, it is extremely difficult for them to find a job that fits their qualification. Most of them do unpleasant jobs just for survival. It is happens mostly because English spokens are considered more appropriate and representable for the jobs and on the other hand, immigrants are considered impropriate and unfit because of their accent and nationalities.

As thousands of people migrate to the United States of America every single year, for the better standards of health and living, for their families and themselves, nativism occurs here the most. Now that people different people who belong from a different religion, races, and cultures have been settling in America for high living standards, the venom of racism xenophobia has started poisoning the society, and it is getting difficult to control it. Although, there are many steps taken by the government and social movements to kill such concepts once in and for all, but it is a hard task to accomplish. If it happens one day the world would be heaven.


Medina, J. (2013). The epistemology of resistance: Gender and racial oppression, epistemic injustice, and the social imagination. Oxford University Press.

Allen, T. W. (2014). The invention of the white race, Volume 2: The origin of racial oppression in Anglo-America (Vol. 2). Verso Books.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Reaction Paper #2

Rwanda Genocide




Rwanda Genocide

Rwanda genocide was one of the most brutal genocides in the history of the human beings, in which millions of people were killed by the dominant group of the society. There were a number of reasons behind the genocide and the most important among them were ethnic issues, and, social and political control of the society in a few hands. The genocide in Rwanda was also the result of the structural violence which had been a part of the society for years. The patterns of violence and inequality were quite strongly woven into the fabric of the Rwandan society and needed the utilization of the thick description to explore and explain the issues. Rwandan genocide may have been the worst example of the brutality of human beings, which was supported by the structural violence in society and can be described in the light of the thick description.

Story of Rwanda became prominent after the development of European colonies there, during the eighteenth century. This was also the time which laid the seeds of genocide in the peacefully progressing society. There were two ethnic groups in Rwanda, Hutu, and Tutsi. Hutu was the majority but the working class group of the society, while Tutsi were in minority and cattle owners. The conditions of the society were being managed with cooperation and support of each other. However, the establishment of Belgian and German colonies in Rwanda changed the whole structure of society. The German colonizers established a discriminatory system in the society by declaring the people of the Tutsi tribe as more suitable for the ruling position. The people of the Hutu tribe had to face the discrimination and violence of the ruling group, as well as the foreign colonizers, which filled their hearts with hatred towards them. The Second World War, which had impacted the countries all over the world, also allowed more power to the Belgian colonizers in Rwanda, which supported the Hutu group. Due to the support of the foreign groups, Hutu became successful in gaining the political and social control of the society, while forcing the Tutsi people to leave Rwanda. By 1962, Rwanda was an independent country led by the majority Hutu group, which discriminated the minority Tutsi tribe, by giving them lower ranks in the society. During the 1990s, civil war broke out in Rwanda, in which the Tutsi people living out of the country tried to take the social and political control in their hands. However, they had to face the brutality as the genocide broke out in society. Haperen has described in her article that

“Between 6 April and the end of June 1994, in just 100 days, approximately three-quarters of the total Tutsi population of Rwanda was killed. Estimates of the number of victims vary between 507,000 (Human Rights Watch's historian and ICTR expert witness Alison Des Forges) and 1.2 million (Rwandan government) (Haperen, N.Y).”

Thick description, which provides the opportunity of observing the cultural practices and societal conditions from a closer lens and perspective is very important to explore the cultural issues of the societies. It helps to understand those problems, which otherwise appear to be just abrupt in society. The thick description applies to the context of Rwanda in the way that it helps to understand that the actions of Hutu people and the brutal genocide was the result of the discrimination and violence they had faced. Although the genocide cannot be justified in any manner, it was the result of the unnecessary control and manipulation of the European colonizers in Rwanda, who maximized their profits but crippled the ethnic groups of the society, who were previously living in cooperation and prosperity (Geertz, 2008).

Structural violence was also an important component of the genocide of Rwanda. The people of the Tutsi tribe were not given due position and rights in the Rwandan society, after its independence. Tutsi people had to face poverty, repression, and alienation in Hutu dominated Rwanda. Uvin described in his article that “All in all, approximately half of all Rwandans are ultra-poor, i.e. incapable of feeding themselves decently or investing productively. Up to 40 percent more are poor, while 9 percent are non-poor, and perhaps 1 percent are positively rich (Uvin, 1998).”

Some of the definitions of structural violence as shared by Uvin include “referring to survival, well-being, freedom,” “combination of inequality, repression, and racism,” and “a lack of employment opportunities and social facilities (Uvin, 1998)." Human development helps to shed light on structural violence by highlighting the importance of social empowerment, social cooperation, dignity, equality and promoting sustainability in the society. If all or any of these is deliberately taken away from the public, then it is the structural violence which is specifically done to deprive the public of their due rights. The agricultural development projects in Rwanda also aided violence by giving more land and rights to the majority group and also by practicing social, regional and ethnic exclusion to provide benefit to few dominant groups of the society (Haperen, N.Y).

The political-sociological explanation of public’s participation in genocide is that it was the period of transition of the society, in which the previously dominant group tried to maintain its status quo, by utilizing violence aggression and genocide. The physiological explanation is that the structure of the society was developed in the way that the two parties were not ready to negotiate and considered violence as their only weapon to remain in power. The anomie theory of Merton provides the sociological explanation of the participation of the public in genocide as there were isolation and alienation in society and the rebels redefined the goals and the means of achieving those goals, while utilizing genocide as the source of keeping the control of the society in their hands (Uvin, 1998).

The Rwandan genocide is one of the worst happenings in the world. It was aided by the structural violence and the seeds were planted by the European colonizers. The Tutsi people who initially discriminated the Hutu people became the victims of genocide, which was due to the hatred of the Hutu tribe towards them. The agricultural development programs of Rwanda also supported the structural violence against the Tutsi tribe and made the conditions worst, ultimately leading to genocide which killed more than 800,000 Tutsi people.


Geertz, C. (2008). Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture. In The cultural geography reader (pp. 41-51). Routledge.

Haperen, M. (N.Y). The Rwandan Genocide, 1994.

Uvin, P. (1998). Aiding Violence: The development enterprise in Rwanda. Kumarian Press.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Reflection Essay

Reflection Essay

[Name of the Writer:]

[Name of the Institution:]

Reflection Essay

Language has strong connections with culture and society. Allesandro Duranti identifies the influences that a language has on its culture. A language constitutes important elements of culture and takes part in its evolutionary development. In the first chapter of the book, Ahearn asserts that words have life in them, and they exhibit the characteristics of life that are charged by social factors. Jane Hill writes about Mock Spanish and concludes that speakers of a language have the experience of intertextuality if they can use lexical items in different ‘subkeys’.

Words make up a language, and a language makes an integral part of the culture in a society. This is a cycle of varied influences that different elements of this cycle have on one another. Words, their usages, and the languages vary from culture to culture and in different societies. People communicate in different situations and express their thoughts, feelings, and experiences. They use established words and sentence structures and interact with society. However, there are a few minds who are creative, innovative, and responsive. They invent words, that is, new forms of expression. Languages distinguish humans from other living beings. They reflect the cultures where they are spoken. Anthropologists get enormous help from languages in understanding particular cultures and societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"L3XhTQfr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bonvillain, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Bonvillain, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":13,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wreEcalP/items/ELHGDRVE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/wreEcalP/items/ELHGDRVE"],"itemData":{"id":13,"type":"book","title":"Language, culture, and communication: The meaning of messages","publisher":"Rowman & Littlefield","ISBN":"1-5381-1481-X","author":[{"family":"Bonvillain","given":"Nancy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bonvillain, 2019).

Every language has its specific traits. Words constructing a language have many shades, meanings, and usages. Some are formal; others are informal. Some words represent allusions; others point to direct meanings. Sometimes, speakers of a language use certain expressions that have been developed from indexical expressions of another language, which have been used by their native speakers earlier stereotypically. These kinds of intertextualities add charm to the meanings expressed by the speaker.

The English language has a very huge collection of words, which indicates that the culture of English societies is diverse, multi-dimensional, and rich. The oriental languages, on the contrary, do not possess such a large reservoir of words; indicating their cultural simplicity. Some languages express their meanings in symbols, whereas the others have particular sets of shapes as a means of expression.

Languages play a vital role in promoting culture. They spread knowledge and help people acquire the desired skills. When books are written in various fields of study in a particular language, that language becomes reachable to a wide range of audiences across the world. Moreover, the culture of a society is introduced to other parts of the world when their products in the form of research articles, newspapers, books, movies, songs, etc. are made available across the borders.

Every culture has very specific elements and trends. The way words are created and used in different senses in a language is a reflection of that specific culture. For instance, the English language has a very clear demonstration of innovating new words. They create words for all the emerging technologies of the world. These words precisely relate to new concepts and products. Furthermore, there have been invented many words related to the specific terminology of every discipline of study. In developing these terms, words having their origin in Latin or other European languages have also been adopted to convey meanings.

In my view, the writers have given exciting ideas in each one of their writings. Duranti views culture as a means of communication, a system of practices, and a systematic way of participation. Ahearn emphasizes to think of the words to be inherently social; that is, to understand the social influences absorbed by and spread through the words. Jane Hill suggests using Google technology to explore varied dimensions of intertextuality and constructing intertextual series.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonvillain, N. (2019). Language, culture, and communication: The meaning of messages. Rowman & Littlefield.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Reflection Paper On The Film

Troy Welbeck

Instructor Name


18 November 2019

Reflective Essay: The Mystery of the Jews

We simply cannot deny the fact that the Jewish people carry a history that is full of difficulties but at the same time, it is very fascinating. We cannot write any chapter in history without the mention of this resilient race. This race has survived several persecutions, like the massacre of the Rhine valley (04:54) and the famous Holocaust under Nazi Germany (05:02). Giving a testimonial to this resilience, the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy has written in 1908 that the Jews have been persecuted by all races during different periods in time, yet they continue to flourish (18:33). It has also fascinated the historians of the world as the Jews have contributed to several key fields in the world. They have contributed to developing the current economic system, building international policies, shaping the current media outlook and influencing general lifestyle and opinion. This is admitted by many well-known world leaders like David Lloyd George (05:55) that anti-Semitism has always been there in world history. This is, more or less, the subject of this documentary “The Mystery of the Jews”, which solely tries to tell the story of the Jewish side.

In the first half of the documentary, a tribute is paid to the resilience of the Jews, citing that all the civilizations of the ancient world, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and the Romans have disappeared but the Jews have still endured (04:35). This practice continues throughout the documentary. Another fact that this documentary has tried to justify is the creation of the state of Israel, which is portrayed as the divine safe land for the Jews throughout the Documentary. This is done by citing the historic connections with the Prophets Abraham and Moses. The Abraham teachings themselves are used to portray that the divine teachings of God are the main reason that Judaism is so resilient and have suffered the tests of time.

The explanation of the misery and achievements of the Jews is cited through several references of famous writers and politicians throughout the documentary. One must admit that most of them are true, like the fact that since the inception of the Nobel prize, the Jews have managed to win one-fifth of them despite being only 0.5% of the world population (10:29). A historian, Paul Johnson also states that there are a lot more insights that the Jews have contributed to the modern world (08:30).

While this documentary has defined the Jews as the torchbearer of all the good in the world. There is also another side of this civilization that is not accurately portrayed. From the beginning of the 21st century, the Jews have killed almost ten thousand Palestinians CITATION Isr18 \l 1033 (Israel-Palestine Timeline). This is not appropriate behavior for a nation that has four millennia worth of hardship itched in its history. One would say that what they did was for their self-defense, but after their numerous victories against their neighboring Arab states, there should have emerged as the symbol of peace and hope as Paul Johnson thinks they are, rather they insisted on their role as the "Dagger in the heart of the Middle East". The nation which was under ethnic cleansing in Nazi Germany is now doing the same with the Palestinians. Also, we see the Israelites aligning with India's brutality in the Kashmir region that has been under curfew for more than a hundred days CITATION Rob19 \l 1033 (Fisk)

In short, we can conclude that this documentary is very informative and may help the Jews in clearing their names in the world, but there should be no doubt that the Jews have skidded over the dark parts of their recent history where they are the oppressors, not the sufferers. The documentary should have been more critical rather than the story that only sell the view that the Jews are the single best nation of the world that has done nothing but good in the world, whereas the others have not only persecuted them but failed to value their achievements as a nation.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Fisk, Robert. "Israel is playing a big role in India’s escalating conflict with Pakistan." Independent UK (2019). https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/israel-india-pakistan-conflict-balakot-arms-trade-jaish-e-mohammed-a8800076.html.

"Israel-Palestine Timeline." Statistical Charts. 2018. Electronic Document.

The Mystery of the Jews. Dir. Ashley Lazarus. Perf. Ashley Lazarus David Greenberg. 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time+continue=987&v=j6k1jHAYtbI&feature=emb+logo.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Reflection Question

362q bjbjll 7efef 6 8(RhhhCe qPJIyCCyyIhhIIIyRhhIyIIIhpFIt0IPPIIPyyIyyyyyII-yyyyyyyPyyyyyyyyy X t RUNNING HEAD CULTURE

Reflection Question

Name of the writer

Name of the institution

Reflection Question

Science is the branch of knowledge that covers knowledge about nature and the world based on facts and figures. These facts and figures are obtained through scientific researches that depend on observations and experiments. Science has lots of sub-branches like physics, biology, chemistry, geology, and many more. Through experiments and observations, systematic knowledge regarding the behaviour of natural things can be obtained. People use knowledge of science to discover the hidden meaning of the natural world. It is not just a body of knowledge but also a process that is used by every generation to generate or upgrade existing facts. Science is useful as it helps to innovate new technologies and solutions to natural issues. Science is a continuous process because every new result develops a new question or topic for further research. In addition, science is used by every person living on this planet, and it is not linked with the specific are or people ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDTPXqw7GI,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220What is science,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(What is science, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1565,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/2MTIAGEF,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/2MTIAGEF,itemDataid1565,typewebpage,titleWhat is science,URLhttps//undsci.berkeley.edu/article/whatisscience_01,accesseddate-parts2019,10,28,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (What is science n.d.).

Science does not discover all truths as it is a continuous process, and every new experiment can discard the previous results. For instance, scientist discovered that Earth is round, but later they claimed that Earth is a sphere. In addition, various information can be useful, but they cannot be completed. For instance, scientists discover that due to the number of heat explosion, the universe came into existence. However, no one can discover the reason for explosions. On the other hand, science does not consider ethics during experimentations. It does not consider religion either. For a reason, science is unable to explain how individuals should be treated by other people. It just identifies the facts of what is beneficial and what is harmful to the person. Lastly, every scientific experiment carries some limitation which can exclude multiple variables that can change the result of that experiment. Therefore, the results of an experiment cannot explain the complete truth.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY What is science WWW Document, n.d. URL https//undsci.berkeley.edu/article/whatisscience_01 (accessed 10.28.19).


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Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Renaissance And Enlightenment

Renaissance and Enlightenment



Author Note

Renaissance and Enlightenment

“What Is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant –

The professor believes every college - worldwide - should be required to read this essay. Why?

To say that college is a once-in-a-lifetime experience will be putting it mildly, especially if one is doing it right. The number of meaningful experiences one is able to gather in these four years alone is capable of serving them well for the rest of their lives. However, the recollection of these experiences can certainly be more meaningful, if a little bit of Kant’s Enlightenment was added to the mix.

The man did not have much going on for him, but he knew what he was talking about and served as a living proof of what social graces and a little bit of forward-thinking can do for a person. He wrote an essay on the concept of enlightenment in response to a question by Reverend Johann Friedrich Zöllner, an official working with the Prussian government. His essay was released in 1783 and was titled, “Proposal, not to engage the clergy any longer when marriages are conducted”. While a number of individuals responded to this essay, it was Kant’s essay on Enlightenment ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ihi88EXS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kant, 1784)","plainCitation":"(Kant, 1784)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1074,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/CY7Z6A63"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/CY7Z6A63"],"itemData":{"id":1074,"type":"article-journal","title":"Answering the question: What is enlightenment","container-title":"Berlin Monthly. Berlin: Berlin Monthly","author":[{"family":"Kant","given":"Immanuel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1784"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kant, 1784) that still stays one of the most impactful and famous at the same time.

In Kant’s opinion, according to the opening sentences of the essay, people lack enlightenment not because of their ability to think intellectually or even come up with a practical solution, but because they lack the courage to do so. Kant calls it a “self-incurred tutelage” along with giving a sound reason as to why man needs to release himself from these shackles. It is this tutelage that takes away his ability to think in a progressive and useful manner, which results in an acute lack of resolution and courage on his part. Having students read and study this material in college has the benefit of bringing awareness to the flaws of their ways, allowing them to reflect on what is holding them back from reaching their full potential. If only they can let go of self-doubt and take that much-needed leap of faith, their lives will only improve for the better.

Furthermore, another aspect of college life that keeps students from reaching their full potential and conquer their world is procrastination and laziness. The problem always begins when they think they have the time, and it keeps on following them wherever they may go or wherever they may be. In Kant’s opinion, this lack of reasons and aspects with regard to a task at hand only and only stems from laziness alone. A college is a place where people come to learn more and broaden their horizons by learning new things that may prove to be relatively fruitful from that point onwards. However, for Kant, a man finds it increasingly difficult to widen their horizons by obtaining knowledge and question all that they see. He stated cowardice as the reason why men don’t want to use their reason to explore their option, but also supplemented how laziness also adds to the matter. This essay can serve as an apt means to not only study the matter in vivid detail but also be courageous while making a decision.

The third reason why Kant is adamant about the enlightenment of the common man is the monopoly held by the elite on knowledge. They deprive the common, ordinary people of obtaining knowledge and preventing them from actually taking meaningful and progressive decisions that can potentially improve their lives for the better, if not worse. This autonomy of knowledge is kept among the elite segments of society, which takes away the basic natural right of an individual to make sound decisions and live their life on their own terms. College is that one place where no matter where you come from or what socioeconomic class you belong to, you are able to access the sort of education that you want and need. Here, Kant’s essay on Enlightenment sheds light on those aspects of life which most of us take for granted, such as quality higher education. This will make any college student understand the privilege it is to obtain knowledge in its raw and true form, which will provide them with the courage to make sound decisions and the freedom to follow their hearts.

Once the need for enlightenment is established in the essay, Kant moves on to discuss what is needed for an individual to be considered enlightenment. For Kant, freedom was the most important aspect. He held that one’s ability to express oneself freely and honestly was essential for enlightenment. When men start expressing their thoughts and opinions freely and without fear of any sort of punishment, reasoning and new ideas surface, which is paramount to enlightenment. In other words, freedom of speech is one of the pillars of enlightenment. In Locke’s opinion, this freedom to make expressed sound decisions is vital and an essential part of the natural law, which intended man to be free, not only to live life on his own terms but to express his opinion without the fear of being ostracized ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60VmgVtk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cranston, 1986)","plainCitation":"(Cranston, 1986)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1073,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/UWWP28IC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/UWWP28IC"],"itemData":{"id":1073,"type":"article-journal","title":"Locke and Liberty","container-title":"The Wilson Quarterly (1976-)","page":"82-93","volume":"10","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Cranston","given":"Maurice"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1986"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cranston, 1986).

Finally, in his essay, Kant questions the monarchy and argues upon their divine right to rule the man, especially if they chose to take away his free will and the freedom to voice his opinions. This is in complete violation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which allows him to remain free and equal in rights, especially if he chooses to do good with his life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PJJO865V","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Robinson, 1899)","plainCitation":"(Robinson, 1899)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1072,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/68JGJZZG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/5VyEEXyp/items/68JGJZZG"],"itemData":{"id":1072,"type":"article-journal","title":"THE FRENCH DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN, OF 1789.","container-title":"Political Science Quarterly (1886-1905)","page":"653","volume":"14","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Robinson","given":"James Harvey"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1899"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Robinson, 1899). Thus, Kant stresses the factor that a sound and productive society needs sound leadership to encourage its people to do good and stay away from evil forces. They should not blindly follow a leader into the dark spheres of the world but make constructive decisions necessary to live a life where laziness, blind obedience, and cowardice are kept at bay.

Ultimately, college education and the study of Kant at least once in every instruction departing higher education across the globe is rather necessary. It is more than enough to bring students out of the shadows of obscurity and open their eyes to see how the world around them works. This measure will only improve the quality of their life and help them be mindful individuals and citizens of the nation.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cranston, M. (1986). Locke and Liberty. The Wilson Quarterly (1976-), 10(5), 82–93.

Kant, I. (1784). Answering the question: What is enlightenment. Berlin Monthly. Berlin: Berlin Monthly.

Robinson, J. H. (1899). The French Declaration of The Rights of Man, of 1789. Political Science Quarterly (1886-1905), 14(4), 653.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Student’s name

Course id

Submitted to



What is meant by Identity?

Identity is a complex concept that includes diverse edges, which are assembled in a dynamic way to give as a result what we are each as people and what we share in groups. The identity is a set of characteristics of a person or elements that distinguish it from others. The identity can undergo modifications or variations throughout the life of a person, according to the experiences, experiences and crises, since it is not "something" rigid or impossible to change. In philosophy, identity is understood as the relationship that an entity maintains only with itself., for psychology and sociology has a fairly broad conception and even, there is more than one type of identity, such as cultural, gender, sexual, national, among others, within politics there is a type of social identity that deals with the degree of belonging of the person to certain political groups with which he has affinity, for mathematics is an equality that remains true, regardless of the values ​​of the variables.

How is identity formed?

The identity, in the psychological aspect, is conceived as a feeling of personal sameness, this begins to form at an early age when we recognize our origin, the family, the territory where we live and only ends when life ends. Identity has a lot of edges that will make a person "be as he is". During the interaction with the environment and different groups, such as school, friends, activities and even the relationship with their siblings, is that a person feels affinity, identifies and wants to belong to them, in the same way that they Unlike many others, where boundaries, emotions, behavior management are understood to respect those others who are also identities.

In the growth you have conception of who you are and where you want to go, that is, the plans of life, the desires, studies, dreams, making decisions and being faithful in most cases to your own beliefs. Adolescents tend to have conflicts in this sense, since they seek their own ideas and reveal themselves against those they do not share. The crisis of life, such as divorce, vocational or professional crisis, the loss of a loved one, duels due to detachment, changes in stages, etc., always promote a dynamic movement of identity, therefore very advanced age can continue to suffer modifications, although milder.

What is meant by belonging?

The term belonging is one that refers to the action of belonging, being part of or being owned by someone. The verb belong in itself means at the same time integrate something or be part of something as well as being the possession of another, that is, correspond to their orders or command. However, the term belonging is usually related to the first of the two meanings that have to do with the idea of ​​feeling part of something, of some phenomenon or circumstance, of some group of people or of some space. Belonging is usually related to the notion of origin. Notions are what make a person (or even an animal) feel part of a group of peers according to their origin, place or group in which they were born. In this way, the feeling of belonging to a place, to a community, is based on the daily coexistence in such a space and the sharing of meanings, symbols, traditions, actions and ways of thinking with all the other members. In the case of animals, the feeling of belonging is limited to the herd to which it belongs. The animal that is abandoned or despised by its herd is undoubtedly an animal that loses part of its being.

In the case of the human being, obviously, the notion of belonging becomes much more complex and transcends the sense of instinct. The human being is the one who creates his own social group and all the social, cultural and physical phenomena that take place in him are those that unite all his members and make them feel part of that whole, but not of another group. Belonging is especially linked today to the idea of nation since this is the clearest representative of a social group with which one can share the territory, the political system, history, language, traditions and different forms.

Identity and belonging in contemporary social life:

Satisfaction of the need for belonging is essential to the development of the individual. Belonging to a group or community gives them the means to gain affection and love, as well as the means to express themselves, to be listened to, to be supported, to have a place and role to play, to structure one's identity and to receive proof of one's own existence. The groups that make it possible to satisfy this need are numerous: a family, a company, a religious community, a political party, an association, a club, a gang of young people, etc. The success of social networks, and in particular of Facebook, rests in part about the need to belong to a community, whether real or virtual. Under the old regime, belonging to a religious community (Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, etc.) was the condition of social integration. By not respecting the rituals and the rules inscribed in the book (Bible, Torat, etc.) or by not obeying the religious leaders (Priest, Rabbi, etc.), the individual risked the excommunication. Being excommunicated, he was separated from his family, his friends and his community of belonging, stripped of his social identity and sentenced to hell. To reintegrate, he had to rebuild social bonds and reinvent his identity and life outside his home community. In industrialized countries, belonging to a professional community is the condition of the social integration of the individual.

Unemployment, identity and belonging:

Since the individual who has no job has great difficulty finding his place in society and structuring his identity, just like excommunication, the dismissal can lead to a situation of social exclusion . To reintegrate socially, he is therefore strongly motivated to find one. Even if belonging to a group is necessary for the good development of an individual, his emancipation and his psychological evolution require that he learns to detach himself from it in order to forge an identity base of his own. It is easier for an individual to separate from a group of which he is a member than of a group he seeks to integrate or rejects. To gain more autonomy and freedom from the group, it must be integrated and take its place. One of the cause of unemployment may be the way you present yourself in, a person’s dressing has a great impact on the job interviewer. The initial introduction or the principal idea that an unknown person will have about us will rely upon the physical appearance and, on our way of dressing. The manner in which we are dressed represents us. Henceforth the significance of being dressed properly as per situation is very important. For instance, when an individual goes to a prospective job interview, normally he thinks that what would be the most proper dress and the one that can benefit him the most for that meeting. He will definitely be dressed appropriately as per the requirement of his job or the position for which he is applying.

The way of dressing reflects one's personality, it can show either a great taste, the tidiness, the incitement, the style. It reflects if the individual is progressively traditional or is fashionable, is he aggressive by nature or peace loving. One can also get a hint of one's age.


Dressing shows one's identity and differentiates one individual from another. Consequently, it secures such a great amount of significance for some youngsters who find in it their own character and their having a place with a gathering. The Goths, for example, are portrayed by an exceptionally particular method for supporting dark and something red or rappers with white garments, tennis shoes and top. For a few, clothing shows how well off a person is. There are likewise the individuals who like to consolidate over the top expensive garments with an increasingly affordable one, they believe that they give a progressively unique and individual touch and they feel extraordinary fulfillment while doing that kind of blends. There are no right methods for dressing, interestingly, it is steady with our mindset and makes us feel great with ourselves, we ought not to stress over what others consider how we dress, as long as it is proper to the conditions. Every circumstance requires a specific method for being dressed and realizing how to dress legitimately and dependent on our identity is basic to feel good and safe. Unemployment and social class are also interlinked. It is the matter of appearance, when youth, beauty and thinness are enthroned, those who comb gray hair, are overweight or do not fit the canon of the ideal aspect, obviously, they appear as an opportune target for discriminatory darts. Thus, preventing a promotion for reasons of weight, although it seems incredible, is not.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900



The Sapphires 





The Sapphires 

The indigenous Australian writer and director, named Wayne Blair directed the film The Sapphires which was released in the year 2012. The plot of the film, set in 1968 Australia, was based on the play of the same name by Tony Briggs. The film was based on the female indigenous Australian singing group, who performed for the troops during the Vietnam War. The film highlights the discrimination of the society against the aboriginal population, in addition to shedding light on the struggle of the all-female aboriginal Australia singing group. The film has also highlighted different aspects of culture and identity, which is manipulated or discriminated in the case of the aboriginal population (Davis, 2017). The film is not only the source of the entertainment, but it also helps different sections of the society to reflect on their ideology and practices, which added to the difficulties of the aboriginal groups of the society. The Sapphires may have provided entertainment to the society by sharing the struggle of the female singing group, however, it shaped the societies by dictating its values that the aboriginal groups also deserve the opportunities of progress and the appreciation of the society, in recognition of their talents.

The plot of the movie highlighted the rise to fame of the aboriginal females singing group, named The Sapphires. The group comprised of three sisters, Gail, Julie and Cynthia and one of their cousin, Kay who was actually a member of the stolen generation. She was separated from her parents and community because she was half white and the government thought she is able to assimilate into the mainstream white society. She reunited with her cousins, after a significant period of the years and had developed an identity crisis, as she did not belong to the mainstream white society and could not relate with her roots of the aboriginal culture as well. The girls initially tried to win the talent contest, in order to launch their career, however, they failed in it. The failure provided them the opportunity of getting scouted by an Irish group for entertaining the troops in the Vietnam War. The group became famous due to its remarkable performance. Apart from their success, they faced the issues of relationship, identity and making their place in the white dominant society (Blair, Blight, Du Fresne, O'Dowd, Mailman, Mauboy, & Briggs, 2012).

The Sapphires is not just a fictitious story, however, it is based on the story of a real-life an aboriginal female singing groups. Though a little element of drama is added into the film, the main focus of the film is the same which is the struggle of the aboriginal population to make their place in the mainstream white society. They did not only had to make their position in the society but also had to go through the brutal practices of being separated from their loved ones, which ultimately formed the stolen generation (Davis, 2014). The only purpose of the film is not to chant the success or development of the all-girl singing group, however, it has a bigger purpose of highlighting the brutality of the dominating and authoritative society, which supported the inhumane practices. The film has shaped society by highlighting its grave mistake of enacting the program of the stolen generation. The basic concept of the program was inappropriate in the way the white government did not have any right to decide if the half children can be better brought up in their own culture or in the white culture. The government wanted to assimilate them into the white culture, in order to erase the roots of the aboriginal culture from society. However, the stolen generations developed the identity crisis, as they were not able to relate to either group of society. Instead of getting the opportunities for a better life, they lost their identity and became a mockery of society (Griffin, Griffin, & Trudgett, 2017).

The film has served a greater purpose of dictating the value system of the society, while not just limiting to provide entertainment to the viewers. It has highlighted that even after getting a little chance of progress, The Sapphires group was able to show to the white dominant society that they do have talent and abilities. The white society used to look down upon the aboriginal population of Australia, however, the girls' group focused on proving themselves to the odds of the society, instead of being submissive to the struggles and difficulties that were put in their way (Stratton, 2015). The film has also highlighted that in a modern world Indigenous people have little chance of being anything other than what they are constructed to be. They are limited or in other words, confined to their own communities, as the general white society does not like to interact with the aboriginals. They are not provided the opportunities for progress, yet they emerge as a great talent and exemplary figures when provided with a little chance of proving themselves (Dolgopolov, 2014).

The Sapphires has achieved a greater purpose of shaping the society and dictating its value system by highlighting the struggle and rise to fame of the aboriginal female singing group. The film has highlighted the discriminatory attitude of the government and the mainstream white society which not only seized the opportunities of progress for the aboriginal community, however, also committed the grave sin of separating the half white members of the aboriginal groups from their families. The society needs to acknowledge the identity of all the groups, instead of trying to change or discriminate them and the film provides the lesson that aboriginal people are equally able to make progress if provided with opportunities.


Blair, W., Blight, R., Du Fresne, K., O'Dowd, C., Mailman, D., Mauboy, J., ... & Briggs, T. (2012). The Sapphires. Hopscotch Films.

Davis, T. (2014). Locating The Sapphires: transnational and cross-cultural dimensions of an Australian Indigenous musical film. Continuum, 28(5), 594-604.

Davis, T. (2017). Australian Indigenous Screen in the 2000s: Crossing into the Mainstream. In Australian Screen in the 2000s (pp. 231-259). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Dolgopolov, G. (2014). Beyond black and white: Indigenous cinema and the mainstream. Metro Magazine: Media & Education Magazine, (181), 78.

Griffin, L., Griffin, S., & Trudgett, M. (2017). At the Movies: Contemporary Australian Indigenous Cultural Expressions–Transforming the Australian Story. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 1-8.

Stratton, J. (2015). The Sapphires were not the Australian Supremes: neoliberalism, history, and pleasure in The Sapphires. Continuum, 29(1), 17-31.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Research Paper Outline

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Research Paper Outline


Growth of rice in China

Cooking of rice in China

Comparison between the northern and southern region of the country

Main purpose

The main purpose of the research is to find out the diet pattern and the importance of rice in China.

Thesis Statement

China cultivates the largest amount of rice in the world. It provides thirty percent of world rice. Therefore, People use more rice as high production leads to the high consumption of rice in the country. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qoXjOeoJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Boston and Ma 02115 +1495\\uc0\\u8209{}1000)","plainCitation":"(Boston and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":639,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/JHKR4MBW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/JHKR4MBW"],"itemData":{"id":639,"type":"webpage","title":"Rice","container-title":"The Nutrition Source","abstract":"Rice is a main staple in more than 100 countries worldwide. [1] In some households, rice is included with more than one meal a day. This starchy high-calorie grain is generally low cost, making it …","URL":"https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/food-features/rice/","language":"en-us","author":[{"family":"Boston","given":"677 Huntington Avenue"},{"family":"Ma 02115 +1495‑1000","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",9,24]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Boston and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000)


History of rice in China

Its been 10000 years, China is growing rice.

Civilization was range to lower Yangzi where the climate was in favor of rice production

Initially, the price was high therefore only rich people could afford it that is during the Zhou dynasty.

It became a regular meal during the Han dynasty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wcF5MZnm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Rice in China})","plainCitation":"(Rice in China)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":638,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/9PIUZRW5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/9PIUZRW5"],"itemData":{"id":638,"type":"webpage","title":"Rice in China","URL":"https://www.chinasage.info/rice.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rice in China)

Festivals and tradition of rice eating

Rice is the symbol of success and failure of the country

New Year Festival: Rice cakes are used

Lantern Festival: Rice cakes are eaten as a tradition

Dragon Boat Festival: Rice is used in the form of Zongzi

Chongyang Festival: Glutinous or sticky rice is used

Growing rice in China:

Over centuries, technology advancement helping in rice cultivation

Rice requires lots of water

Flooding is the main tool to suppress weeds

Irrigation is used in ninety percent of the land

Other than irrigation, it requires high rainfall

298,997,512 acres land is used in China for rice production

Southern area raise two harvests per year

Diet contrast between south and north China

Climate is totally different in both region

North climate is too cold and not suitable for rice growth while South climate is perfect for rice production

North use less of rice than South

Rice is the regular meal in South

South provide rice to the north to meet the demand there

North grow wheat rather than rice

North region prefer wheat made items like dumplings and noodles

South region consume more rice than wheat ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OggLb9Mk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yuan et al.)","plainCitation":"(Yuan et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":641,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SKLBJNF3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SKLBJNF3"],"itemData":{"id":641,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population","container-title":"Nutrients","volume":"9","issue":"9","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association with typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Data from 14,584 participants (≥2 years) from the CHNS-2011, including three 24-h dietary recalls and additional variables, were used to develop the CHEI. The standard portion size was applied to quantify food consumption. The CHEI was designed as a continuous scoring system, comprising 17 components; the maximum total score is 100. The mean, 1st and 99th percentiles of the CHEI score were 52.4, 27.6 and 78.3, respectively. Young and middle-aged adults scored better than the elderly. Diet insufficiency was chiefly manifested in fruits, dairy, whole grains and poultry; diet excess was mainly reflected in red meat, cooking oils and sodium. The CHEI was positively associated with education and urbanization levels; current smokers and unmarried people obtained relative low CHEI scores. Occupation and body mass index (BMI) were also related to the CHEI. Our findings indicate that the CHEI is capable of recognizing differences in diet quality among the Chinese, and it is sensitive to typical sociodemographic/economic factors.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622737/","DOI":"10.3390/nu9090977","ISSN":"2072-6643","note":"PMID: 28872591\nPMCID: PMC5622737","journalAbbreviation":"Nutrients","author":[{"family":"Yuan","given":"Ya-Qun"},{"family":"Li","given":"Fan"},{"family":"Dong","given":"Rui-Hua"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Jing-Si"},{"family":"He","given":"Geng-Sheng"},{"family":"Li","given":"Shu-Guang"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Bo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",9,5]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yuan et al.)

Types of rice

White rice and brown rice

White rice is a refined form of brown rice

Brown rice is full of fiber while white rice is not

Brown rice is full of nutrition than white rice

Chinese use more white rice than brown rice

Chinese are getting less nutrition as they get more by using brown rice

The nutrition of rice meal

94% of Chinese take three meals while 5% take two meals a day

Rice is composed of carbs and protein with almost no fat

Rice is the complete meal full of nutrients

Cooked white rice contains about 130 calories, 69% of water, 28.7g carbs, and 2.4g protein

It is free of fiber, sugar, and only 0.2g fat

Rice is composed of carbs also known as starch

Starch is the form of carbohydrates

Different type of rice have different percentage of starch

High digestibility is the disadvantage of sticky rice

It is not good for diabetics and high blood pressure patients

Uses of rice

Glutinous rice: They are most sticky rice, often available in packages

Bamboo leaves are used to wrap the cooked glutinous rice

It is used in all types of food that is sweet and savory.

Rice flour is also used in everyday meal

Noodles made up of rice are used in meal

Wines are also made by fermenting rice

The economic view of rice

High-quality rice is produced

China is the world's largest rice producer

High production leads to the low price of rice in the country

Low price enables people to consume more amount of rice

High revenue is obtained by exporting rice

Chinese diet other than rice:

Rice is mostly consumed in the southern area

The northern region of China prefer wheat as it is cheaper in that region

Chinese use meat and basically eat all animals

They commonly use pork meat, chicken, beef, mutton, and Peking duck

Vegetables are also used separately and also with rice

The most common vegetables in China include; Chinese cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers, white radish, and Chinese eggplant

Chinese do not eat rice alone, they add vegetables or meat with it

They eat special dishes and then add rice to fill the stomach

Foods that are served with rice include; burritos, salad, soup, vegetables, and sweet stuff

The most favorite food of Chinese is chew Mein

Chew Mein contains rice noodles, vegetables, and meat all in one dish


Rice is the most common grain used in China

It is growing and using from about 10000 years ago

It is used in festivals

Southern region produce and use rice more than the northern region of China

Rice contains carbohydrates, protein, and least fat

Rice is not the main meal

It is used along with other dishes like vegetables and meat

Economic background of rice in China is strong

Thirty percent of world rice is produced in China

People use rice to fill their stomach

Various dishes are made in China through rice

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue, and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000. “Rice.” The Nutrition Source, 24 Sept. 2018, https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/food-features/rice/.

Rice in China. https://www.chinasage.info/rice.htm. Accessed 13 May 2019.

Yuan, Ya-Qun, et al. “The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population.” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 9, Sept. 2017. PubMed Central, doi:10.3390/nu9090977.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Response To Discussion Question

Response to discussion question

Student’s Name



I make the point that "Using the Hofstede cultural dimensions, leaders can learn about the cultural background of different nations by comparing and contrasting them."

The theory of Hofstede’s culture dimensions involved the framework which revolved around cross culture communication. It also discusses the relationship between values, and behavior of people which are helpful in creating a structure. The work of Hofstede serves as a benchmark for other cross cultural researchers CITATION DPF13 \l 1033 (Ford, 2013). Though the work of Hoftede is useful to leaders in understanding the cultural dimension of different nations, it also provides better understanding of some of the similarities. It defined nations in six components which bring out the similarities and differences which exist in different nations. The six cultural dimensions are power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. femininity. According to Hofstede (2011), the theory categorized countries based on their similarities. For instance, Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, and Ireland are categorized as small power distance and weak uncertainty avoidance nations. These nations have a lot of cultural similarities from language, food and regions CITATION KEr17 \l 1033 (Eringa, 2017). Even the government structure and leadership style being practice in these nations are similar. Therefore, the classification of nations according to the theory of Hofstede is also based on the unequal relationship which exists between people.

International comparison of culture based on Hofstede theory indicates that Arabs, Asia, Latin and African have higher score in regard to power distance index. However, Germanic and Anglo countries have lower power distance index. For instance, the Guatemala has a power distance score of 95 compared to the United States with a score of 40 and Israel with a score of 13 CITATION Pet14 \l 1033 (Craig, 2014). This makes it clear that Hofstede theory defined nations based on cultural perspective which are related to similarities and difference. Therefore, the nations are categorized based on the way they scored on power distance, muscularity and individualism.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Craig, P. (2014). Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - From MindTools.com. 2-31.

Eringa, K. (2017). How relevant are Hofstede's dimensions for inter-cultural. https://www.tandfonline.com › , 2-15.

Ford, D. (2013). Information Systems Research and Hofstede's Culture's . https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org , 2-31.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , 2-35.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Retail Ethnography (How To Take Care Of African American Hair)

Retail Ethnography (How to Take Care for African American Hair)

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Retail Ethnography

How to Take Care for African American Hair

African American Hair is beautiful, whether it is left natural, braided or styled. There is one thing that should be kept in mind that in order to maintain healthy good hair, it needs to be taken care of. If the health of the hair is good the styling experience and results turn out great. As I have observed, African Americans usually have tighter and coiled curls with a coarse texture, and the hairstyles that they do are quite diverse and intricate. The detailing that is put in every single hairstyle is both mesmerizing and beautiful to look at. Every hairstyle looks very defined and interesting. However, unlike other hair types, African American hair needs more treatments and moisture, the reason behind being the texture of black hair (Ellis-Hervey, Doss, Davis, Nicks & Araiza, 2016). The hair strand is much thicker than most hair types and if not taken care of properly it tends to get brittle and dry. Yes, African American hair requires extra effort but the end results are beautiful, the hair becomes very soft, silky and healthy. So, the end outcome is worth all the effort. In this paper, I will discuss all the aspects of caring for African American hair and the history behind it via thick description.

The Stigmas Behind Natural Hair and its Ability to Grow

As far as I have read and seen, African American men and women have faced quite a bit of struggle over the course of time based on the type of hair that they have. Through the progression of time, it is seen that there are certain set beauty standards, if an individual lives up to those standards they are said to be beautiful. Before the civil war, having African hair was said to be a disgrace. A person was deemed to be less beautiful if they had African hair, only smooth and straight hair was considered to be a mark of beauty. Prior to the civil war, the black men would crop their hair short and the women would use hair relaxants to make themselves look more representable and desirable like the whites. Good hard spent money was spent on the straightening of hair by the African American women. That all changed after the 1960s. The men grew their hair out and the women stopped using treatments to tone the natural body of their hair. Natural African hair became a political statement, it was the identity of the people of color and they wanted the world to see them for what they are (Ellis-Hervey, Doss, Davis, Nicks & Araiza, 2016). The Afro holds a specific reference and association to the African roots. The rise of the Black Panther Party also helped many African embrace their true identity. Many notable figures like Angela Davis and Jesse Jackson started to support a full Afro. It was the time of the embracement.

Many African women and men love their box braids and they say that it protects the hair and helps it grow out naturally. There are many Africans who have started making protected hairstyles so their hair stays safe. On the contrary, there are Africans who have left their hair be in its natural glory. Africans have finally started to embrace what God gave them and started appreciating the uniqueness of it. Singer Bob Marley made a statement with his dreadlocks in the past. Actors like Whoopi Goldberg created history with her dreadlocks in the 1980s. She made it official that all Africans need to accept their natural hair and own it. Further, lately, young stars like Zendaya have taken a step ahead by rocking the dreadlock look. Regardless of the racist remarks, she got from Giuliana Rancic, she flaunted her hair and did not let anyone tell her any differently. All the people from across the globe supported Zendaya pointed out Rancic for her Shallow thoughts (Ellis-Hervey, Doss, Davis, Nicks & Araiza, 2016). Times are changing and the stigma that surrounded African American hair is breaking away. People now spend heaps of money to maintain their hair in its natural glory.

The Pros of having Natural Hair

In my observation, the Natural Hair movement has played a substantial part in helping the African Americans break the stigma that clouded their hair type. It is about identifying themselves and breaking stereotypes. It all started in the early 2000s and is not coming slowly ever since its initiation. This movement helped Africans across the globe feel comfortable and happy in their skins. This was the time that the beauty standards started to change, it was not just straight and smooth hair that was beautiful anymore, every hair type was considered beautiful. The term used for the Natural hair movement is "Nappy." There was the release of movies and documentaries that also helped break the stigma, movies like "Nappily ever after” is one of the recent releases and saw great success (Ellis-Hervey, Doss, Davis, Nicks & Araiza, 2016). It is true, people do get influenced by what they watch. In accordance with tradition, the source of the word Nappy leads back to the days of the civil war. It is intimately tied to the production of cotton in the slave plantations. The clump of cotton that forms on the top of the plant before harvesting is called a nap. This term was used to describe the hair texture because of the similarity that the African hair had with the tuft of cotton. African women and men are opting for a variety of natural hairstyles like Bantu knots, TWA, braids, twists, dreadlocks and so on. The hair relaxant industry saw a great decline after the movement, Africans have eliminated harsh chemicals from their lives.

As far as the advantages of having natural hair are concerned, there are many which are as follows:

There are a lot of people who are under the impression that there is no versatility when it comes to natural hair. This fact is absolutely wrong as the possibilities are endless. An individual can have a long or short afro, braids, knots, kinky hair, dreadlocks and so on.

The best part of going natural is that one does not have to use relaxers anymore. People feared that their relaxers will wear off if they sweat, because of this issue individuals started to avoid the gym and even partying (Huebschmann, Campbell, Brown & Dunn, 2016). With natural hair, a person can party and sweat as much as they want without any fear.

Further, women and men would avoid scratching their scalp as it burned. The fact that the chemicals in the relaxants are so harsh they make them think twice before scratching their head. Now, they can scratch all they want and whenever.

Having natural hair is quite economical as well, women and men have actually started to save up ever since they stopped using relaxants on their hair.

No longer does the hair needs to be exposed to harsh chemicals. Individuals can use products that are skin friendly and avoid any permanent damage.

The overall health of the hair improves as they remain natural. The flexibility increases and the texture becomes improved. Africans saw less to no hair fall when they opted for natural hair (Huebschmann, Campbell, Brown & Dunn, 2016).

The best of it all, a woman looks unique and beautiful. Accepting your natural self also boosts self-esteem. A person does not just look beautiful, they feel it as well.

What Products to Use and What they are Good for

To get a better insight on this I took an interview with the owner of a popular African American Salon. She said; in my opinion, there are many products that an individual has to invest in when going natural. They do not necessarily need to break the bank, they can be affordable options from the drugstore as well. Now that a person has decided to go natural they should start their hair journey by getting a good shampoo. Make sure that the shampoo that is being purchased is organic and does not contain any harsh ingredients. Secondly, since African American hair is coarse and can dry out easily it is necessary that a good conditioner and leave in conditioner is purchased. They should also be organic (Huebschmann, Campbell, Brown & Dunn, 2016). A deep conditioning mask that is all natural is required as well, which can be used once a while to hydrate and moisturize the hair.

Now that the washing part is over, it is time for the after washing hair care. A good leave-in conditioner and extra virgin cold pressed coconut oil is required to keep those curls bouncy, structured and stuff. A comb or a wet brush is the best bet to distribute the hair perfectly in the hair and end it all with a frizz control spray. After doing all these steps the hair can be left to air dry or it can be blow dried, but it is best if heat is avoided. However, if blow drying is done make sure to use a heat protect serum prior to exposing the hair to heat. Further, a good dry shampoo that can be purchased if there is an event ahead and there is no time to wash the hair. A hair detangling spray can be used so the brush smoothes out easily through the hair after using the dry shampoo. Ever since the natural hair trend started, the hair relaxant industry might have suffered a loss, but consumer consumption of various hair products has brought a rise in the purchase of hair care products (Johnson, 2016). Women and men have become very peculiar and aware of the products that they put on their hair. Whatever the case and the price tag natural products are appreciated and wanted.

Product Usage

The products that are mentioned above are easy to use as well according to the hair stylist I interviewed. It might seem like a hefty routine but do not get intimidated by it. It is not necessary nor recommended to follow the same routine on a daily basis, I know I will not be able to. So pick a day of the week and assign it to your hair, it can be the weekend. When showering start off by taking a dollop of shampoo on the palm, warm it up between the palms of the hand to activate the ingredients and lather the product in the hair. Gently massage on to the scalp so all the buildup from the week removes (Johnson, 2016). Wash the hair thoroughly till all the product removes. After that put on the conditioner on the ends of the night after towel drying so the product can soak up. Give it a good 5 to 10 minutes to sit in the hair then rinse it off as well. In the final step, put the hair treatment on towel dried hair again and let it sit as per instruction. Rinse it off and the washing part of the hair is over.

Now, coming to the next stuff. Come out of the shower and rub a few drops of extra virgin coconut oil or a leave-in hair conditioner on the roots of the hair. Make sure to not get any conditioner or oil in the scalp or it will get oily quickly. Use a wet brush to comb the hair and get rid of any tangles and finally spritz some frizz control hair spray. this is the part when the hair can be left to air dry or one can blow dry it depending on the choice. If that is done, make sure that a brush head is used with the blow dryer, so the hairdos do not get frizzy (Johnson, 2016). For the rest of the weekdays rock the beautiful afros and if things start to look oily, just use a dry shampoo on scalp massage a little and run a brush through them. If the hair is too tangled sprits a little hair detangle spray.

Protective Styles and why they are Important

I have always been intrigued and impressed by the intricacy of protective hairstyles. The way African Americans carry them is just mesmerizing. As per my observation, protective hairstyles are different than flaunting the natural hair, the hair is still natural, but it is molded beautifully in a protective hairstyle. The main purpose of the hairstyle is to conceal and protect the ends of the hair. The ends of the hair are the oldest parts of the hair strand and they need to be protected so they do not become brittle or break. The African Americans have started to tie their hair in protective hairstyles so their hair gets healthier and stays cared and guarded. There are many hairstyles like twists, dreadlocks, and braids that come in protective hairstyles. The possibilities when it comes to these hairstyles are endless (Cone, 2018). Some individuals go for a weave to further temper with the thickness and length with their hair while still protecting it.

These hairstyles are very important as they protect the hair and help it grow stronger. The hair texture, quality, strength, and length improve via these hairstyles. These hairstyles are the best bet for summer, as they help protect the hair from sun damage and humidity while keeping an individual stylish. The hair becomes less prone to breakage and the best part is an individual can have flaunted a beautiful and intricate hairstyle which flatters them. The hair stays protected and style is not compromised. A person can even support wigs and protect their whole scalp as well as the hair. There are a lot of options when it comes to protective hairstyles (Cone, 2018). Young celebrities like Zendaya and Alicia Keys have actually made the trend of protective hairstyles thrive further. Many people working in the salons claim that people come asking for hairdos just by the name of a celebrity instead of actually knowing the name of the hairstyle.

How to Maintain Protective Styles to Avoid Damage

Summer times ask for funky and interesting protective hairstyles. Most African hairstyles shine the brightest in spring and summers. Various twists, box braids, dreadlocks, and faux locks are one of the best ways to protect the hair from the humidity and heat damage. It is safe to say that even I at times go for something that is less fussy and passes the summer without redoing repeatedly. While protective hairstyles protect hair at the same time they can damage the hair as well, so, one needs to be careful. Consumers nowadays are said to follow patterns that they see other people doing. Make a celebrity do or follow something and the citizens mainly the youth will follow (Cone, 2018). Following are some of the dos and don’ts of the protective hairstyles by known celebrity artists.

A man at my local black salon said; I love the feeling of opening a loose braid. It is necessary that a person always detangles the hair with their fingers after opening a braid or taking out a weave, I always do. It will create lesser tension in the hair and they will not break. Further, using a detangling spray is a good option here.

Taking care of the scalp is key, make sure that all the buildup, flakes and dandruff has been removed from the hair. Hair scrubs are a great bet.

Deep conditioning or hair mask is very important as it will moisturize every single strand of the hair. Most African’s favorite would be coconut oil, natural yet impactful.

Getting rid of the dead ends can actually help the hair grow longer, it is essential to take away all the dead ends.

It is always good to let the hair breath, protective hairstyles can add extra tension and stress to the scalp. It is good to give the hair a chance to breathe after every protective hairstyle. Let the hair be in its natural state for a bit too.

Trims, Stigmas Behind Them, Why they are Important

A friend of mine from African roots said; growing up my mother would always tell me that how hair trims are key to maintain healthy hair, on the contrary, my aunt would tell me that it is a myth. This fact indeed has great stigma and doubt behind it. Well here is to burst the bubble, it is indeed a myth that hair trims will make the hair grow longer, in fact, they are just a way to make the clients rush to the parlors every few months. Payday for the hairdresser and a happy customer is the end result. However, trims might not help with the hair growth, but they do aid in keeping the hair healthy (Woolford, Woolford-Hunt, Sami, Blake & Williams, 2016). Trimming the hair helps with exposing the new healthy hair shaft and gets rid of the dead and split ends. So, one way or the other trims are important to keep the hair healthy.

Preparations for the Salon Visit

When going to the salon make sure that you always wash your hair prior to the visit that is what I have seen most African Americans did. Dress nicely so the service provider knows that you are here to impress, wear a little makeup too. Always tell the truth about your hair routine and keep realistic expectations. In fact, take a photo with you to show that what you want ((Woolford, Woolford-Hunt, Sami, Blake & Williams, 2016). The hairdresser is there to attend to your needs and satisfy you, listen to them but prioritize your wants.

The Mindset Clients Enter the Salon With

Being a client myself it is my personal experience that speaks that when a client enters a salon they start a consumer journey. It actually starts way before even entering the salon, when booking the appointment. There might be women and men who will look very confident but there is no doubt in the fact that they will be feeling intimidated and stressed. It is not easy letting the faith of your hair go in a single person's hand. Choosing the perfect hairdresser is very difficult. Things are even more complex for Africa Americans as a lot of them are not even sure that the salons will cater to their hair or not ((Woolford, Woolford-Hunt, Sami, Blake & Williams, 2016). Overall, it can be a nerve-wracking experience for the customer unless they have been regularly visiting that salon.

Client’s Attitude towards their Stylists’ Opinions

When it comes to African Americas, they can be particular about their grooming, but they do take the insight into the hairdresser as well. They mostly like to be in charge and are very vocal about how they want their hair. The hairdresser mostly just adds on to what slight changes can enhance the experience. However, the opinions are taken well as the hairdressers know how to deal with the African American hair, but they never imply.

The Aftermath of an Undesired Protective Style

As I have contemplated by looking at African Americans, there are certain things to be kept in mind when protective styling, there are chances that it can go wrong. The hairdo can cause stress and tension in the hair if it is very tight which can lead to breakage. Get It redone if that is the case and make sure that a specialist is approached. Further, in my experience the more a client tries to manipulate a protective hairstyle, the worst it gets. If per se, the protective hairdo is not up to your taste, try to put it in what they call a pineapple, or do a loose up do like a bun or a pony (Woolford, Woolford-Hunt, Sami, Blake & Williams, 2016). Excessive manipulation will ruin your hair. Further, be patient and always go to a professional to get the problem fixed instead of trying to fix it yourself.

Why Clients Choose these Protective Styles

In accordance with my observation, there is not just one but many reasons why the clients choose these hairstyles. They want to showcase the beauty of their heritage and culture. Other than that, the African Americans want to show that they are proud of their ethnicity and the way they look, it has political significance as well (Woolford, Woolford-Hunt, Sami, Blake & Williams, 2016). This is further to make the culture more widespread and show their youth the beauty of the African culture. It is more about showcasing strength and beauty.


Ellis-Hervey, N., Doss, A., Davis, D., Nicks, R., & Araiza, P. (2016). African American personal presentation: Psychology of hair and self-perception. Journal of Black Studies, 47(8), 869-882.

Huebschmann, A. G., Campbell, L. J., Brown, C. S., & Dunn, A. L. (2016). “My hair or my health:” Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors. Women & health, 56(4), 428-447.

Johnson, E. (2016). Resistance and Empowerment in Black Women's Hair Styling. Routledge.

Cone, J. (2018). Black theology and black power. Orbis Books.

Woolford, S. J., Woolford-Hunt, C. J., Sami, A., Blake, N., & Williams, D. R. (2016). No sweat: African American adolescent girls’ opinions of hairstyle choices and physical activity. BMC obesity, 3(1), 31.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 10 Words: 3000


[Title Here, up to 12 Words, on One to Two Lines]

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

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[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Leadership Theories and their implementation in Organizations


Leadership is an integral part of work and social life. A collection of people or team always needs a leader in order to organize them, lead them and direct them towards the right path. Leadership is the act of guiding and leading a group of people towards a common destination. A leader usually does not only lead the pack but also sets an example for the members of the group so that they can know how the things will be done. A good leader also makes sure that all the members of the team or the group participate in the decision-making process because the input of his followers is important for him. Any leader followS one or more leadership theories in order to lead and motivate their team (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015). These theories act as a doctrine or guiding light for the leaders themselves so that they can effectively manage and lead their team. The following paper will discuss multiple leadership theories in practice and how they are followed or applied in my organization.


There are a number of leadership theories that are being followed in different regions of the world. These leadership theories not only apply to the people holding important political and presidential positions in different countries of the world but also to the leaders leading different teams in organizations. Some of the important leadership theories have been discussed below. In addition to this, the following details will also discuss how these leadership theories are applied in the case of organizations.

“Great Man” Theories

The “Great Man” Theories of leadership explain that leadership is an inherent quality and leaders are born, not made. According to this theory, leaders are born with intrinsic qualities like charisma, charm, confidence and valor. Although, there are only a few leaders, in the case of my organization, who are truly “born leaders” but still, they possess the qualities defined in this kind of leadership theory.

Management Theories

The most common style of leadership or the theory that is practiced in the organizations is the “management Theories”. Management theories are based on the roles of supervision, organization and group performance (Latham, 2014). The leaders following these practices base their leadership style on the basis of reward and punishment. These theories are also known as “Transactional Theories”.

I have seen many people in my organization to follow management theories. In fact, not only the leaders but also many systems in my organizations are based upon these management theories. Good performance is rewarded with different kind of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and bad performance is reciprocated with punishments, warnings and even terminations.

Relationship Theories

Leaders adopting the leadership style based on the Relationship Theories focus on developing a positive and healthy relationship between themselves and their followers or subordinates. These theories are also known as transformational theories. The most positive side of transformational leaders is that they believe in constantly motivating people and inspiring them in order to achieve more and more. My organization has also a few leaders or managers who follow the transformational leadership still and try to bring out the inner potential of their followers.


Hence, in a nutshell, it can be concluded that leadership is not only a task but a big responsibility. A leader needs to be very careful while choosing his or her leadership style. There are a number of theories which are followed by leaders all over the world in order to manage their teams or group of people, whether it’s of any country or any organization. There are also many leaders in my organization that are also following different leadership styles based on different leadership theories. Most prominent ones out of these are “Good Man” Theories, Management Theories and Relationship Theories.


Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management, 5(1), 6-14.

Latham, J. R. (2014). Leadership for quality and innovation: Challenges, theories, and a framework for future research. Quality Management Journal, 21(1), 11-15.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Saudi Arabia Life Expectancy





July 19, 2019

Saudi Arabia life expectancy

The life expectancy in Saudi Arabia was 74.6 years for males and 73.3 years for females in 1900. The expectancy declined in 1918 by 20 percept that was due to the war. Arab revolt of 1916 caused significant drop in life expectancy. The military uprising of the Arab forces encouraged British to increase supply of arms and equipment that caused massive destructions. Larger population of Saudi Arabia died in the war. The groups and tribes looted the citizens. Significant number of population lost their homes and access to food that caused famine. Many people and children died from hunger during the revolt CITATION Bar162 \l 1033 (Barr, 2016). The life expectancy improved after 1920 that reached satisfactory level at 1930.

The incomes of people in Saudi Arabia were high during 1900s due to the economic stability. A larger population was involved in trade business that provided the opportunities for generating revenue. Trade provided labor jobs to the people that also improved the economy of the country. However, after 1917 the incomes of people declined significantly due to Arab revolt. History reveals that the trade was discouraged that affected economy of the country badly. Revolt opened group fights as European troops entered the cities of Arab. This created environment of uncertainty and fear. People were unable to take part in trade and business activities are impacted negatively. By 1918 many people lost their jobs due to low trade and economic activities. The exact figures of income are not available. This caused the businesses to reduce wages for the labor. The economy improved after 1920s and Saudi Arabia presented subsistence economy. The country again opened trade and business that attracted traders and investors from the world. Improvement in economy also raised incomes for the labor and workers.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Barr, J. 2016. The Arab Revolt: A war of unintended consequences. Retrieved 07 19, 2019, from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2016/06/arab-revolt-war-unintended-consequences-160609100901626.html

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Social Media And You

Social Media and You

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Social Media and You

Social media are interactive internet-based applications that are used to connect people all around the world. However, as every picture has two sides, so as social media has its pros and cons. The paper will briefly summarize the advantages and disadvantages of social media, its credibility, and my experience with it.

Advantages and disadvantages of easily obtainable information

Due to the tremendous increase in the use of digital media, it is very easy to access the information regarding anything. This accessibility of information has its pros and cons. While talking about the advantages, easily obtainable information is convenient as people as they remain up to date about the current happenings around them. Also, to complete tasks related to course work, all the information is available on different sites. Many companies use social media accounts of their clients to get information about them so that they can cater to them according to their interests (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).

In contrast, easily accessible information is a major concern. Specifically, when it comes to social media sites, the information shared by the people should remain confidential, and no third party should be allowed to access as this information can be sensitive and leaking it out open for public is against moral and social norms.

Advantages and disadvantages of social media

Social media sites are popular among people of all age groups. These sites not only provide entrainment but have multiple advantages. People all around the world are connected with their loved ones using these sites regardless of the geographical differences, thus reducing the overall communication cost. These sites can be used by many companies to market their products. There are many people known as the social media influencers that sell different products using these sites. People are using these sites to make their careers and earn living through it.

In spite of all the advantages, social media has many disadvantages as well. The first and the foremost con of these sites is privacy threat. Many users can stalk other users without raising any suspicion using Facebook or Instagram. Also, the reputation of any company or a person can be destroyed within seconds through allegations against them on social media (Etter & Colleoni, 2019). Additionally, bullying culture is very common on social media leading to severe depression and mental disorders.

Social media and me

Learning about the advantages and disadvantages of social media the first thing that I will ensure is to not post my personal information on any of the social media sites, whether it be Facebook, Instagram or Twitter. As this information, when leaked online can cause so much damage to the overall reputation. Secondly, while talking about the career, the information from social media sites can be used to know about different job opportunities related to my field. The review section of a particular site on Facebook will help me check the credibility of the information posted. I can also follow motivational speakers and career counselors on these sites that will further help me boost up my career. There is a feature on every social media application in which I can create my page where I can share details about my career and motivate others.

The credibility of information on social media

The authenticity of the information provided is another issue on social media sites. In past, people used to rely on information provided by the newspapers. Before publishing any story or report the source of the news was cross-checked to ensure reliability and validity. Today due to an increase in the use of social media sites, people fall easily in the trap of fake news. Despite all these, social media is still the biggest tool for providing a lot of information. Many jobs are posted on these sites, information regarding different restaurants and places are posted and updated regularly. The reviews feature on these sites is another way to check the credibility of the information provided in different blogs posted on social media regarding different places and businesses (Allcott & Yu, 2019).


Allcott, H., Gentzkow, M., & Yu, C. (2019). Trends in the diffusion of misinformation on social media. Research & Politics, 6(2), 2053168019848554.

Etter, M., Ravasi, D., & Colleoni, E. (2019). Social media and the formation of organizational reputation. Academy of Management Review, 44(1), 28-52.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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