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Jackson Katz: “Tough Guise II” A Study In Culture, Violence, Media, And Manhood In America

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Tough Guise II” A Study in Culture, Violence, Media, and Manhood in America

The tough guise 2 is the updated version of the widely acclaimed Tough Guise. In the film, Tough Guise 2 the anti-violence activist and cultural theorist Jackson Katz discussed the consequences that is associated with the ongoing epidemic of men’s violence. He also discussed the incapability of the society to obsolete epitomes of manhood CITATION Jac13 \l 1033 (Jackson Katz).

With the aid of several examples, Katz highlighted issues such as gun violence, discrimination against gay people, and the violence against women by linking it with the normalization of violent masculinity that is prevailing in our society. The film also highlighted the role of media outlets that are manipulating the minds of young males by constantly conveying the violent and sexist messages. Additionally, the exposure and coverage given to the act of violence are making men more prone to commit crimes. The reason behind highlighting the issue was to aware people regarding the stereotypical thinking that is prevailing in our society that men are supposed to dominate females. Another important issue that was shown in the film was, that the violence against women is considered merely a bad thing rather than making men accountable for the violence. To back up his views, he provided statistics regarding several issues that our society is facing. The statistics revealed that most of the crimes that are associated with violence are committed by men. The violence is not only limited to females but gay people as well. Gay people are bullied because of their sexuality. Also, many African American people are the one that had to face violence because of their color.

The film Tough Guise 2 gave an intriguing glimpse of the issue that is prevailing in our society. The film explained several reasons for violence that are occurring in today’s world. I think that people must watch this film as by watching the film they may learn the severe consequences of gender roles and violence.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Tough guise 2 : violence, manhood & American culture. Dir. Jason Young, Jeremy Earp, Sut Jhally Jackson Katz. Media Education Foundation, [2013] ©2013, 2013.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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1.     The Wife of His Youth

“The Wife of His Youth” is characterized as one influential short story that compels the audience to critically think about the cruel reality of society. This issue-based narrative is powerfully presented by Charles Waddell Chesnutt. It is noteworthy to mention that the entire story is comprised of three parts and every share has its great significance to apprehend and analyze the main themes of the story. The first part illustrated the setting of the Blue Vein Society that was based on light-skinned individuals, who excluded darker-skinned people (African Americans) from their society. The social separation between two groups pf mixed-race and African Americans is the signs of chronic issues of racism. The second part of this story also indicates the harsh reality of this world for dark-skinned people through the character of Liza Jane, who faced immense struggles due to the approach of slavery. The third part also helped the audience to the recognized immense struggle of mixed blood African Americans that they had to face to attain a better social and economic position. 

2.     The Passing of Grandison

The problematic aspects of colored individuals are greatly explained by Charles W. Chesnutt in this particular narrative. It is impressive for me the approach of irony was greatly used by the author to depict the problematic aspects relevant to the central domain of color line. A thick dialectic form is the prominent feature of this story that appeared in the form of Grandison. The phenomenon of slavery for Grandison was ironically discussed by the writer considering both crucial elements of necessity and ambition. Various dimensions of the master-slavery relationship described by the author to define the different impacts of slavery on two varied social classes. The prevailing social difference in the region of South was greatly described mainly in the forms of the unjustified approach of slavery and the facet of power struggles. It is interesting to recognize the tendency of freedom-struggle differently perceived by people and their associated form of actions. Moreover, the determination of gaining freedom by Grandison is another strong message or theme appeared from the entire content of this story. 

3.     W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, “Of Our Spiritual Strivings”

The essay presented by W.E.B. Du Bois is one influential attempt to depict the severity of problems that unfortunately exist in the scenario of racism based on the difference of color. The author of this piece of literature adopted a straightforward approach to illustrate that what white people think when it comes to determining the position of black individuals in the society. He comes up with the idea that white people are always interested to ask from black individuals that how they feel as a problematic factor of society. This particular statement eventually defines the harsh reality of racism that exists in the society that causes a critical difference between the social living of white and black people. The narration by Du Bois is helpful to completely apprehend this idea that how it feels when black people characterized as a problematic factor of society. This idea further established the argument in the form of the improper development process for a black individual in a white-dominated society. 

4.    “Of the Dawn of Freedom”

The great illustration of historical movement is the central feature of this piece of literature presented by Du Bois. The author of this text mentioned that social difference in the form of the colored line is the basic problem of the society of the 20th century. Undoubtedly, there is a need to pay more attention to the concern that why there is social difference exist for black and white individuals. The existing relation between lighter and darker-skinned souls requires more explanation in the form of prevailing differences and how these features influence the realities of these separate groups. Furthermore, the author of this section successfully set his ground that colored line is not just the problem of the United States of America but it should be considered on a global level. As the keen reader of this content, I strongly agree with the author’s argument that there is a need to address the issues of injustice and social clash that exist due to the calamity of racial difference. 

5.     “Of the Meaning of Progress”

It is one great narrative presented by Du Bois of his journey as the struggler in society due to the phenomenon of colored lines. He clearly defined his experience as a teacher along with all the problems he faced. Financial struggles illustrated by the author that made it impossible for him to afford a horse or carriage, so he compelled to walk around in different areas of the states. It was immensely difficult for him to searched for the school in the state where he can teach and existing racial difference in the society was one major reason for this imbalance facet of consideration. The calamity of racism was impressively defined by the author through his different experiences during his struggle as a teacher. He illustrated the event when the food was served to the white men first due to the chronic phenomenon of racism that he faced due to his color. 

6.     “Criteria of Negro Art”

The prevailing difference between two social groups was also impressively defined by Du Bois specifically by focusing on the area of art. The factor of beauty is one central aspect of the author’s concern appeared in the form of the text of “Criteria of Negro Art.” He intended to describe the perspective of beauty by considering dynamic approaches. He posed the question that who is the most eligible entity to define the factor of beauty for someone. This particular thought is greatly connected with the living conditions for African Americans in society. It is significant to eradicate the issue of racism for black people to achieve better forms of the beauty of this world. Moreover, the approach of art is also greatly explained by the author that the medium of art is used as the propaganda that requires the necessary attention. It is rightly said by him that the approach of art can be used to successfully deliver the actual concept of beauty to others. 

7.     “The New Negro”

“The New Negro” is characterized as one of the most influential pieces of literature when it comes to identifying the need for change for the community of African Americans. This specific term is defined as the source of encouragement and motivations for the people of the African American community to seriously think about the phenomenon of change over social, economic, and political grounds. This novel presented by Alain LeRoy Locke that strongly established the importance of the specific term of “New Negro.” Through the collection of different and magnificent works of fiction, poetry, art, and essays by African Americans, the author was keen to present a strong image of the African American community in American society. The successful interpretation of African Americans’ work indicates why it is important to consider the African American community as an important part of American society to achieve better social development domains effectively and efficiently. 

8.     “When the Negro Was in Vogue”

It is a short story created by Langston Hughes with the basic thought to describing basic cultural aspects of African Americans. The author of this story comes up with the argument that why it becomes a great matter for white Americans to greatly focuses on the overall approach of black culture. I perceived this concept is immensely interesting as it referred to as the feature of reducing the social gap between the communities of white and black Americans. It is also vital to significantly connect this central theme with the transitional domain of the time-period of this story development. The era of the 1920s has great importance in the overall development of the African American group in the country because it was the time when the nation was gone through from major forms of transition and development. It was the time when African Americans start obtaining a better position in American society due to the prominent features of urbanization and innovations that appeared in the country.  

9.     “How It Feels to be Colored Me”

This essay by Zora Neale Hurston is one great representation of strong personality elements considering the hardships of reality. She clearly illustrated her circumstances that she faced due to her identity as an African American woman. She further explained the idea that how hardships of her life helped her to recognize herself and better apprehends the approach of self-identity. She comes up with the argument that all people are established as random colored bags that are filled with random bits of different things. She successfully explained this idea that how it is different for a female to live in the black community by facing various domains of racism. Her initial struggles in life due to the calamity of racism eventually helped her to identify her strength in the form of self-identity and self-development. The exposure in society eventually assisted her to see the world with various dimensions and strongly fights back to problematic facets of life. 

10. Passing by Nella Larsen Parts 1 and 2

Passing is one great novel presented by Nella Larsen that clearly and successfully represented the approach of the Harlem movement. It is the story of the reunion of two childhood friends who lived different forms of lives due to diverse life dimensions. The first and second parts of this novel have great significance to successfully apprehends the main idea or theme of this novel. The first part of the story illustrated the form of the struggle faced by Irene as the devoted mother to her children. She almost risks everything to bring a better future for his boys. The second part of this story also played a significant role to make better inferences about the overall content and theme of this storyline. This section defined the ongoing issue of racism for the black community and it affects their domain of the living. Furthermore, the character development of Clare that she wanted to become part of both the communities of black and white people to get better privilege in life. 

11. Passing, Part 3

The last part of this novel also has great importance referring to the overall meaning and approach of the author established in this storyline. This section of the novel revealed information about the event of Christmas time when Irene is greatly disturbed by improper behavior from others. She upsets with Clare and wanted to reveal her real identity to the world which was hidden by Clare to attain a better position in the white people community. This form of consideration is a clear depiction that as black Americans, it was immensely difficult for people to achieve better developmental domains in the white-dominated society. The recognition of Clare as African American was undoubtedly a terrifying moment in the novel that clearly explained the chronic prevalence of racism in the roots of American society. The existence of racism in the community eventually shapes people’s behavior towards each other and white people are not intended to build relationships with people who belong to the black community. 

12. “A Raisin in the Sun,” by Lorraine Hansberry Act I

“A Raisin in the Sun” is a play presented by Lorraine Hansberry with critical thought of consideration. The basic ideas relevant to this play are recognized as the features of hopes, dreams, and plans for a better future. The first act of this play explicitly revealed that all the characters were dealing with some form of unaccomplished dreams in their lives. It is also critical to indicate that most of the characters had unfinished dreams in the form of financial stability or money enhancement. They were struggling and striving to achieve their potential targets of getting a better financial position in society. The younger family in this play intended to have a better materialistic position in society by having different facilities in life. It is observed that every character of this play has its struggle to make efforts to ensure the successful application of their hopes for the future. 

13. “A Raisin in the Sun” Act II

The basic idea of scene II of this play is to determine whether money solved all the problems of the Young family or not. After the death of his husband, Mama gets a huge amount of insurance that dramatically turned the whole perspective. It was the time when all family members become able to pursue all their wishes connected with the domain of financial stability. A comprehensive understanding of different scenes of act II for this play revealed that nothing much change for the family due to the availability of money. Their dreams were not successfully collided with the prospect of money enhancement. The family had to face the calamity of separation due to the existing difference between their aspirations towards life. The difference in life choices was one major factor for Young Family that restricted their ways to achieve a sense of satisfaction and contentment from life. Additionally, it is also established that money is one major element that causes separation between people as it makes them more materialistic and self-centered. 

14. Dawn by Octavia E. Butler, Part 1

It is one interesting science fiction novel by Octavia E. Butler that also established some great arguments considering the issue of racism. The idea of alien species was greatly depicted by the author through the development of the story in part 1. The storyline in chapter 1 started from the representation of Lilith Iyapo, who waking up again. I perceived this immensely interesting to learn some major themes through the imaginary domain of alien species used in this novel. The first part of the novel presented with the title of “womb” that gives prior hint to some approach of the entire storyline. The growing encounter between Jdahya and Lilith Iyapo established the idea that human survival is an instinct approach for humans in the form of strive for this life. The strange dynamics of the entire act made it crucial to think about life realities in some different manner. 

15. Dawn, Part 2, 1-6

The second part of this novel interestingly developed the entire content of the story referring to the approach of immense suspense. This part of the novel based on the approach of “family” as the main prospect of consideration. This section depicts the phenomenon when Lilith wakes by observing the wonderful form of a meal with the great involvement of a home-oriented environment. This part of the novel was the introduction of family-owned by Jdahya and it turned as great feelings for Lilith to experience the domain of family again. This form of representation by the author helped the audience to think about the importance of family and normal life in the overall form of social development. It turned as a great form of protection and survival for the individual in society as being part of a family. It is noticeable to apprehend that feeling of protection can never be fully achieved without the active involvement of the family as a shield. 

16. Dawn, Part 2, 7-12, Part 3 1-3

The third part of this novel recognized with the name of “nursery” that illustrates the further development of the main theme of the storyline. This section based on the depiction of efforts of survival by Lilith on the place where humans were sent for the sake of survival and living for a longer period. At this place, Lilith was able to enjoy some necessities of life in the form of large-size space to live and an ample quantity of normal food. It turned out as a great blessing for Lilith to successfully survive in this type of life circumstances. The necessities of food and clothes were stored for her that she can avail whenever she wanted. It is vital to indicate that this particular phase of survival was somehow satisfactory for Lilith as she was able to enjoy necessities. This form of representation indicates the basic elements to ensure a successful form of survival of life under the domain of strange circumstances. 

17. Dawn, Part 4

This part is established as the last part of this novel that helped the audience to reach the main idea of the story presented in this science fiction novel. This section started from the scene when Lilith and Joseph wait at the spot on the riverbank and carrying some elements of survival. These features recognized as the domains of food and necessary instrument to successfully deal with any further difficult situation. The final conversation between the characters of Lilith and Joseph eventually helped to establish the main theme of this story. The idea of otherness is a major theme of this novel which was completely apprehended by Lilith through her entire journey of survival. This form of consideration eventually turned as the phenomenon of prejudice and biasedness that appears in the case of those people who are characterized as outsiders from one social group. Humans tend to reject the benefits of others to ensure their survival as the priority. 

18. Sula by Toni Morrison, pp. 1-66

“Sula” is one great novel presented by Toni Morrison in 1973 with some great themes and areas of necessary attention for the audience. The main idea apprehended by the author in this novel is to make some efforts to identify the prevailing difference between good and evil. The first part of the plot narrative also helps to recognize the existing difference between domains of right and wrong. The traditional pattern is utilized by the author to deliver the main idea or theme of the novel to the readers in a comprehensive manner. The events of the childhood of Sula and Nel were also a clear explanation of the main idea of selecting between good and bad to achieve better outcomes in life. This specific idea is greatly portrayed by the author through strong character development in the case of all the leading characters of this story. Sula’s thoughts of being evil by killing a chicken in her childhood are a significant example of the existing difference between two approaches of good and evil. 

19. Sula 67-End

I perceive the ending section of this novel as the most dramatic approach to end the story as it uncovered the chronic realities of life. The idea of cruelty of life was greatly presented by Morrison in the final section of this story. It is interesting to compare the life of adulthood from childhood as both have a clear contradiction. It is established by the author through the characters of Sula and Nel that it is immensely complex for someone to remain faithful with others in the form of friendship during the captivating phase of adulthood. This particular idea is greatly interesting for me to unveiling the harsh realities of life that played an imperative role in the overall development of human beings. This form of consideration also involves interruption of different external factors that played an important role in the overall approach of personality development. The immense detachment with relationships eventually caused an immense form of dissatisfaction for the individual. 

20. Final Thoughts

A detailed consideration of all the literary content selected for this analysis ultimately helps to identify some pinching and important realities of practical life. I closely learned about different social difficulties faced by people due to the chronic approach of social standards. It is observed that mainstream society defined societal roles for all the individuals based on their race or identity and forcefully confined them to limit their progress in those roles. The social calamity of racism specifically in the case of African Americans is greatly described by all the authors in their literary works. The consideration of these forms of content helped me to closely observe all the social obstacles faced by African Americans in a white-dominated society only due to the calamity of racism. This specific idea requires more attention because the social problem of racism persists in the society that needs to be resolved as early as possible to develop better living standards for every individual. 


Subject: Culture

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Journal Unit 5

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Journal Unit 5


There are many religions in this world, roughly around 4200, and every religion has its own set of teachings and practices. Every religion has its sepearte population of followers who are scattered on the whole planet, following the teachings as per prescribed by their religious leaders and working for the progress and propagation of their religion. Out of all the popular religions or spiritual codes in the world, Buddhism is one of the top ten popular religions.

Buddhism is the world’s fifth most popular religion with around 520 million followers all around the globe. This makes up 7% of the total population of the world. The followers of Buddhism are known as Buddhists (Siderits). Buddhism is, in fact, a code of life, based upon the spiritual teachings, practices, and beliefs, mostly preached and propagated by Buddha. The teachings of Buddha have greatly inspired me and changed my life in a very positive way. Following details explain that how the Buddhist teachings have transformed my life


I came across an article that changed my thinking and perspective towards life and many other things. In short, the article changed my life. It was a comparative account that compared the various facts about the Rene Girard, Bernard Lonergan and the four noble truths in Buddhism. The paper also inculcated the teachings by Pema Chodran regarding some aspects of the Tibetan lineage (Dadosky).

The paper encompassed certain themes of daily life like compassion, healing, suffering, violence, and the role of affectivity in the paradigm of desire. The article provided details that how these daily life values can be shaped up and improved by the teachings of Buddha and the explanations of these scholars.

The article emphasizes over the importance of compassion. It stresses on the roles of shenpa and klesha, in defining the reactions of daily life. According to Buddhist teachings, the root of all suffering is the ignorance of the truth. Lonergan emphasis over the fact that every dramatic reaction or bias is due to some wound; behind every dramatic school of thought, it's an unhealed, bleeding wound. Although the wound is caused spontaneously and unwillingly, the reward will be great. According to the concepts of Lonergan, the klesha, any dramatic feeling is attached to the memory of some painful event that has occurred in the past. This linkage or attachment has been referred to as shenpa.

Buddhism also lays great emphasis on the aspect of patience. The teachings imply that greater the level of patience, greater would be the reward in the end. These teachings have significantly allowed me to ponder over my life goals and even reshape them. These teachings have inspired me a lot and molded my concepts about various occurrences in life in a positive manner

My career inspirations were only money centered initially, but after a thorough study of the Buddhists teachings, I have found out that the real goal or objective in one’s life should be serving humanity. This is where the actual virtue lies. Money should not be everything. Moreover, this article has also helped me gather much knowledge about my major, World Culture. I have learned a lot about Buddhists culture and values through this article. Buddhist culture has gone through many changes over the period of time but the values are still rich and nourishing.


In a nutshell, after a thorough study of this article, I have been able to learn a lot about the teachings and preaching’s of Buddhism. This article has enabled me to give a thorough study to Buddhism and have an overlook at my life in the light of those concepts.

Works Cited

Dadosky, John. "Healing and Transformation: Lonergan, Girard and Buddhism." New Blackfriars 100.1085 (2019): 55-80.

Siderits, Mark. Buddhism as philosophy: an introduction. Routledge, 2017.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600


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More often than not, Juneteenth, June 19, is referred to as the second Independence Day of the United States. Juneteenth commemorates the emancipation of all enslaved people as the Civil War concluded in the United States.

As the date changed to January 1 in the year 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was promulgated. With immediately coming into effect, the Emancipation Proclamation set all the people free who were enslaved previously in the Confederacy with an imposed condition that the Union should win the war (Adkins, 3). This imposed condition transformed the war into a fight aimed to achieve freedom. Some 200,000 black soldiers who joined the struggle for freedom disseminated the news of freedom as they made their way deep into the South.

Texas was the strongest bastion of the South and freedom for the enslaved people; there was a long time coming. In 1865, two years later, after the promulgation of the Emancipation Proclamation, the ultimate battle of the Civil War was witnessed (Adkins, 5). Unfortunately, there were still many enslaved people who did not have any idea about the promulgation of the Emancipation Proclamation and their subsequent freedom. Surprisingly, about 250,000 people came to know the news of their freedom when General Gordon Granger, a Union leader, announced and informed them about the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston, Texas. It was June 19, 1865, when Granger emancipated some 250,000 people. As the announcement by Granger came on the 19th of June, the day is remembered as Juneteenth ever since. Juneteenth put an end to slavery in Texas.

The celebrations of Juneteenth propagated across the country as the newly emancipated Texans began to move in neighboring states. In 1980, Texas Legislature passed legislation that recognized June 19 as a state holiday. Almost all states took the lead of Texas Legislature and have recognized June 19. Movements are underway to get June 19 federal recognition (Adkins, 7).

Juneteenth was celebrated every year with church services, huge gatherings reciting Emancipation Proclamation until the Civil Rights movement attained impetus in the 60s. Juneteenth is regaining its lost popularity in recent years as many communities are celebrating it. Moreover, Juneteenth has contributed to raising awareness regarding numerous issues faced by the African-American community. Furthermore, advocates of Juneteenth celebrations demand reparations to be paid to the heirs of the unfortunate victims of brutal slavery. This paper intends to argue why Juneteenth should be considered and celebrated as a national holiday.


The most deadly and probably the bloodiest war which America has witnessed was fought on the issue of slavery. More than half a million Americans laid their lives in the war, which successfully saw the abolishment of the heinous institute of slavery. In reality, the number of deaths that occurred during the war did not mirror the sufferings and plight of the black people (Blanck, 5). Uncountable dreams were shattered as thousands of black lives were devastated under the brutal slavery. The black people suffered barbaric punishments at the hands of their masters. Moreover, they were forced to indulge in arduous physical labor without receiving any sort of remuneration against it. Husbands were separated from wives while children saw their parents taken away. Certainly, the suffering which the black people experienced in the era of pre-abolishment of slavery cannot be measured by any yardstick.

As many Americans recall the days of slavery as "original sin," the end of the sin seems to be an appropriate candidate for annual commemorations all across the country (Blanck, 9). The day which commemorates millions of black people gaining freedom for which they were fighting for more than two hundred years should be given space in the national calendar. Recognizing Juneteenth nationally would only add greater meaning to what America truly is. Moreover, by recognizing Juneteenth nationally, the sufferings that the black community has experienced would be projected to the entire world. Currently, Juneteenth is celebrated only at the state level. However, the day which saw the emancipation of thousands of Texan slaves in 1865 should be celebrated at the national level (Blanck, 5). Moreover, the oldest known significant event of the history of the African American community is Juneteenth, which marks the day of their freedom from the shackles of slavery is only recognized in some forty states. Because the African American community is an integral part of the success which the United States of America has witnessed collectively, Juneteenth should be recognized by every state legislature as a holiday. Only after all the states recognize Juneteenth as a holiday to commemorate the freedom of black people, the movement to get Juneteenth federal recognition would gain unprecedented impetus. Mentioned below are the reasons which describe why Juneteenth should be recognized as a national holiday.

Juneteenth reflects freedom

Even after the abolishment of the practice of slavery, there were many monuments found in different cities all across the United States, which were created to honor the days of slavery. To put it simply, Confederate monuments were still in place in numerous cities in the US. However, during the year 2018, numerous cities took to the streets demanding to destroy the monuments, which referred to the days of slavery (Hume and Arceneaux, 4). As a result of the street protests, mayors of cities having Confederate monuments intended to honor the terrible slavery era made unprecedented decisions. The mayors decided to destroy the last remaining symbols of the heinous slavery era, which is a blot on the US history. Most notably, the mayor of New Orleans, Mr. Mitch Landrieu, announced a bold decision that contended to destroy the four remaining statues which pay homage to the Confederacy that promoted slavery in the US. Sadly, the notion of slavery still has its roots in place in American society. Racist groups waged violent protests against the decision of New Orleans mayor. However, Police intervened and contained violent protestors. Moreover, workers destroyed the four of the last remaining statues, honoring the Confederacy, which advocated slavery, in the late hours of the night. The workers were escorted and guarded by heavily armed contingents of the police force. Another city that saw protests from racist groups was Charlottesville in Virginia.

Although the monuments paying respect to the Confederate should have destroyed much earlier, it is only a small part of the healing process whose wounds were suffered years ago. Moreover, there should be the creation of more monuments that pay respect to the struggle of the black community.

Declaring Juneteenth as a national holiday would be virtually equal in acknowledging the struggle of black people that is an integral part of American history. Confederate monuments only held importance for the white people and completely ignored the struggle for freedom by the black people (Hume and Arceneaux, 12). Declaration of Juneteenth as a national holiday would allow every American citizen to see the Civil War, and freedom of the black people from the lens of the people most affected by it- the African American community.

Emancipation holds significant importance in US history

The abolishment of the institute of slavery is a watershed in American history and should be celebrated by every American citizen. In 1963, the Emancipation Proclamation granted freedom to the slaves in several states of the Confederacy. Two years later, Congress signed the 13th Amendment into effect, which eliminated slavery of all kinds all across the nation. The institution of slavery, which resulted in the abduction of millions in their homeland, destroying thousands of households, women, and children being subjected to sexual assaults, and saw human beings treated as mere objects was legally eliminated by Congress (Jeffries, 8).

There is little doubt over the importance of the Emancipation Proclamation in US history. The document of the Emancipation Proclamation can be placed in the same column in which documents such as Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are placed; such is the worth of the Emancipation Proclamation. Moreover, Emancipation Proclamation served as a cornerstone for further legislation which aimed to grant civil and human rights to the black community. 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments eliminated slavery all across the US, granted black people the status of US citizens, and ended discrimination of voters based on their race, respectively (Jeffries, 6). There are not many pieces of any kind of legislation that so comprehensively changed the entire landscape of the country.

Due to the above mentioned significant importance; Juneteenth should be recognized as a national holiday and celebrated all across the nation. Juneteenth consolidates the fact that black history, in essence, is American History.

Remembering how far America has come

Although freedom came with a price, promulgation of Emancipation Promulgation was the first step towards equality. The black community is still paying the price somewhat. Often, African American children are given poor education, a considerable racial wealth gap exists, and biased sentencing in criminal proceedings against black people affects the mental health of black people.

Even though the 13th Amendment ended slavery legally, it did not address the issue of forced labor. The practice of forced labor was prevalent even after the enactment of the 13th amendment. The following clause in the 13th amendment allowed forced labor to prevail in the American society; "except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." This exception is written in the 13th amendment allowed convict-leasing on a wider scale despite the abolishment of the heinous institution of slavery. Moreover, this clause in the 13th amendment served as a basis for the mass incarceration of black people.

It Juneteenth is recognized as a holiday at the federal level, it would be equal to the recognition of efforts made by the black people striving hard to put a curb on race-based discrimination. Moreover, granting the level of a national holiday to Juneteenth would reinvigorate the modern-day movement that demands full independence and equality for every American citizen (Jeffries, 9).


For years, people from all walks of life have been voicing demand to make Juneteenth a national holiday. For instance, Opal Lee, an educator and an ardent supporter of black civil rights, walked from Texas to Washington DC in the year 2016. She intended to garner widespread support and about 100,000 signatures, which were mandatory to get the attention of White House. Sadly, time ran out, and she could not manage to get the required signatures. However, her efforts are an example of various efforts that have been made to get Juneteenth a federal recognition. Certainly, every citizen in America does not enjoy complete freedom despite numerous acts and legislation enacted to ensure freedom for every citizen. Numerous people are struggling to break the shackles of gender, ethnic, racial, economic boundaries. The fight to achieve equality for every American citizen is still going on. Sadly, some of the recent incidents suggest that achieving equal rights and freedom for every citizen would remain an elusive dream. However, the nation must recognize the importance Juneteenth holds in American history. Only recognizing Juneteenth as a national holiday to commemorate the struggle of black people would allow realizing the dream of full freedom and liberty for every citizen.

Works Cited

Adkins, Courtney. "Juneteenth in Louisiana:" If I found out it was a holiday, I'd try to celebrate it"." Southern Folklore 56.3 (1999): 195.

Blanck, Emily. "Galveston on San Francisco Bay: Juneteenth in the Fillmore District, 1945–2016." The Western Historical Quarterly 50.2 (2019): 85-112.

Hume, Janice, and Noah Arceneaux. "Public Memory, Cultural Legacy, and Press Coverageof the Juneteenth Revival." Journalism History (EW Scripps School of Journalism) 34.3 (2008).

Jeffries, Judson L. "Juneteenth, Black Texans, and the case for reparations." Negro Educational Review 55 (2004): 109-118.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy in Saudi Arabia

[Name of Writer]

[Name of Institution]

The life expectancy at the time of birth in Saudi Arabia has increased significantly between 1970 and 2018. It successfully increased from 52.23 in 1970 to 74.90 at the end of 2018.CITATION Mac19 \l 1033 (MacroTrends, 2019) Much of this betterment is attributed to improvements in the departments of health and human development. Saudi Arabia has increased immunization coverage against infectious diseases. This has directly led to a decrease in mortality rates caused by lethal diseases. The progress also indicates a successful coverage of other factors that may contribute to a low life expectancy at birth. Other than infectious diseases, a major factor that also falls in the category of health-related problems is obesity. Terminal diseases brought about by this obesity, when coupled with smoking, has led to astounding young mortality rates in the Saudi Arabia in the past. Moreover, traffic accidents also contribute. Therefore, this increase in life expectancy in recent years is a clear indication of the progress being made in departments directly or indirectly related to young mortality.

Saudi Arabia launched a bold Vision 2030 in 2016. It is a comprehensive plan for betterment of living standards for the people of Saudi Arabia. A major part of this plan is to transform the oil-dependent economy of Saudi Arabia to one that is not so completely dependent on oil. Therefore, the basic idea also revolves around globalization and a better integration of Saudi Arabia and its people into the world at large. Life expectancy is also a part of this vision as it plans to increase the life expectancy at birth in Saudi Arabia to 80 years. CITATION Sul18 \l 1033 (Bah, 2018) This proves that an increase in life expectancy is not only related to overcoming health-related factors but also relates to development in other sectors which happens through globalization.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bah, S., 2018. How feasible is the life expectancy target in the Saudi Arabian vision for 2030?. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 24(4), pp. 401-404.

MacroTrends, 2019. Saudi Arabia Life Expectancy 1950-2019. [Online] Available at: https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/SAU/saudi-arabia/life-expectancy[Accessed July 2019].

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Make A Title For Me

Writer’s Name

Instructor Name

Art 101

11 January 2020

Research Essay: The SFHRMTX Analysis

One of several melodic numbers transcribed in 1937 including Walking the Dog by George Gershwin for the Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers’s movie score for Shall We Dance. It is a part of song that has made the climax of the happy and strong environment of infection.

Texture and Harmony

The texture of the song was to use the polyphony and homophony combined together. It was used as a background music of the film and that is the reason it ended ghastly and rapidly. It has also some moments that witched from one music to other to show the change of switch to other scenes. The travelers on board an extravagance liner were hiking their dogs around the deck when this music was displayed. This is sequence called as Promenade and was published in 1960. It has been seen that various parts of the film were unpublished and were not available in current stereo recordings. Rhythm and genre of the music is essentially important to observe the technical details. It is relevant to the soothing impact of the music that it has good period and style. The analysis of the music depends on the piece of genre and harmony it produces. Harmonically, a music stays in a mind if it contains elements of relieving and soothing. Music has many parts of sound for example, one sound connecting with the next sound and combined to form a chord. Chords are a form of music that are grouped together which reflects different meanings. This music is technically used in the background therefore, it is related to the detrimental and beneficial varieties ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0ezEBvQs","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.})","plainCitation":"(Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":438,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/FUXGECJN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/FUXGECJN"],"itemData":{"id":438,"type":"motion_picture","dimensions":"3:16","source":"YouTube","title":"Promenade. (Walking the dog). George Gershwin.","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?time+continue=1&v=t67SdkYubs4&feature=emb+logo","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.). For example, a music has behavioral as well as psychological outcomes when it is played in the background. It has observed in various studies that different music patterns have different impacts on listeners. If there is no background music in the film, it represents an uninteresting impression on the characters. Sometimes it has detrimental effects on the viewers and usually studies have suggested that using background image creates realization among viewers.


Walking the Dog is an old form of music which is not even in use in the recordings in recent music therefore, it is rare and unique. This form of music is represented in very limited soundtracks. However, the conjunction and periods and genre used in the music are outstanding. A tremendous alignment of accord and harmony has been placed in this music ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fmcH8Lt9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.})","plainCitation":"(Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":438,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/FUXGECJN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qnvKw9vm/items/FUXGECJN"],"itemData":{"id":438,"type":"motion_picture","dimensions":"3:16","source":"YouTube","title":"Promenade. (Walking the dog). George Gershwin.","URL":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?time+continue=1&v=t67SdkYubs4&feature=emb+logo","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2020",1,11]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin.). The background effects have been generated in according with the characters of the film that were best in representing its message. It took several years to generate such kind of music in perfect harmony and accord utilizing all the polyphony and homophony to display the perfect genre. Harmony of this music includes several concepts such as consonants. The genre was created with a rhythm and thoroughly composed form of music. The rhythmic beats are utilized to generate a pulse among listeners to amuse them. Quite and soothing effects are generated by using polyphony and monophony in Walking the Dog. Xtras has been observed to have reliving impact on listeners. Various analysis has shown that music can also increase rating of the films. It has been observed that good music particularly Promenade type having good xtras elements always generate higher rating of films. Background music can create awareness among viewers regarding characters presented in the films. The texture used in the Walking the Dog was a combination of two counterfeits, therefore, it has strong association with the characters. Walking the Dog has a strong atmosphere of melody and infection. The polyphony and homophony has linked the music with the background to help the viewers understand the situation displayed in the film.

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Promenade. (Walking the Dog). George Gershwin. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time+continue=1&v=t67SdkYubs4&feature=emb+logo. Accessed 11 Jan. 2020.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]



Satisfaction of the customers is a prime focus of hospitality and tourism organization. The hospitality and tourism industry are found on the themes of selling services to satisfy consumers. The fours characteristics of service are intangibility, inseparability, variability, and perishability. These factors can be comprehensively executed through operational and marketing by the organization. Although they are widely used in the marketing of the service industry, they are however more useful in the operational aspect of any organization than marketing. Employing service characteristics in operation is more effective than in marketing.


The four characteristics of service can be used productively to increase the efficiency of any organization. The intangibility of service in operations can be viewed in the form of tangible evidence like the people, place and the equipment used to provide the services. Such intangibility is observed in the form of people, price and equipment used to provide service, for instance, the cleanliness in a hotel. Inseparability states that the services cannot be detached from those who provide them hence the attitude and the behavior of the employees while providing services can also be judged as the effective operations were not performed by those providing them. Variability is another characteristic defining quality of service delivered, this quality can vary in tourism and hospitality organizations due to seasonal and demand fluctuations, diminishing quality CITATION Chr93 \l 1033 (Christine T. Ennew, 1993). Lastly, perishibility, reflects that the services are perished as they are consumed in hospitality business organizations. The number of services cannot be stored to be used at later time. The hotel room bookings and the tourist seats once taken cannot be stockpiled and delivered again in that particular time and setting, varying demand causes serious implications for operations in hospitality and tourism organizations CITATION Ric96 \l 1033 (Teare, 1996). The organization can more productively involve service characteristics in the operations of their hospitality and tourism services because, services can perish or vary because of their nature, is difficult to market.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Christine T. Ennew, G. V. (1993). Importance‐Performance Analysis and the Measurement of Service Quality", . European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27 Issue: 2, , 59-70.

Teare, R. (1996). Hospitality operations: patterns in management, service improvement and business performance. nternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 8 Issue: 7,, 63-74, .

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Media And Culture

Client’s name

Professor’s title

The title of the course

01 March 2019

Editorial content and Ads

The analysis of the editorial content in the magazine under view revealed numerous revelations. Most of the time, I observed that the ads were in synchronization with the content published. Since the magazine is the one which accounts for various travel experiences and basic travel and holiday destinations to vouch for, most ads revolved around the same ideologies for instance, the advertisements like Fly with Etihad, emirates Grand Hotel and Dream Visa Card from Doha Bank. The ads remain in close proximity to the editorial content as they appear in the form of circular bubbles in between the written work for the editorial. Almost all the ads feature the exclusivity of the voyage experiences offered by most editorials but there are a few anomalies too like the advert of Al Noor Hospital.

Regarding the fact that whether or not ad pages outnumber the editorial pages, I certainly agree as most of the time I found myself struggling to find something to read other than the ads. In fact, I believe that most content of the magazine is shaped in a way that it calls for a need for certain advertisements to be there, hence the ads are influencing the publishing at large. For instance, it feels like the cover story written by Tiffany Eslick on her travel experiences of Indonesia’s Mentawai Islands is mainly there since Etihad offers direct daily flights to Indonesia as per the ads. In the same manner the account of the mesmerizing lazy layover relaxing spa in Abu Dhabi is again conflicted by the Emirates advertisements as the whole narrative is based over the Emirates Palace Spa. In a way this might lead most readers to believe that while the editorial might be interesting, it might certainly have been subjected to adherence to the advertiser’s values or infact written only with the intent to advertise the product or service and never for the reader’s account.

Lastly, I believe that there indeed can be a balance between an advertisement and editorial content. Such a fact is due to the notion that readers pay money for the magazine to be able to increase their knowledge or invest their time in a productive reading. They have even gone into a shop and browsed to find it and made a conscious decision to invest time and money in reading it. Reading is not just a habit in fact; it is the way with which we walk through different thoughts, views, information, and knowledge. Reading directs into the world of imagination where we find ourselves motivated enough to create something on our own for example; a lot of scientists invented a variety of productive things after a thorough study and reading related books. They achieved success while they read something which was full of information and knowledge. Hence, they invest in any magazine all owing to the reason that they trust and value what it has to say and they find reading it enjoyable. So, when they come across an ad, some of that trust and value and enjoyment rubs off, especially if the ad is as beautifully designed and well-written as the editorial pages. That’s why advertising traditionally pays creative people more and demands higher quality from them than any other discipline. Nonetheless, the ads should never take up so much space that the magazine offers the reader nothing but a book filled with countless purchasing and investing options. Undoubtedly, the whole reading experience might be better if there were no ads at all to provide authenticity to the thoughts put on paper, nonetheless, if there indeed need to be ads, they must always be in a perfectly proportioned amount so as to keep the spirit of the written expression alive for the reader.

References (provided by client)


https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/atlantic-fiasco-renews-ethics-concerns-about-advertorials/2013/01/15/24287dfc-5f5f-11e2-9940-6fc488f3fecd story.html?noredirect=on&utm term=.f46b2336f32a

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Mexico Custom And Tradition


Instructors’ Name

Course Title and Code


Mexico Custom and Tradition

Customs and tradition of ay country play an important role in portraying the image of the country as well as its people to the whole world. Like any other country of the world, the custom and traditions of the Mexican society are quite rich and vibrant, which proves the liveliness of its public. According to the population ratings, Mexico is the twelfth most populous country in the world, and its population belongs to different ethnic groups. The language, religion, values, traditions and celebrations, food and art, music and dance are some of the most prominent aspects of the customs and traditions of the Mexican society, which are widely practiced, appreciated and celebrated.

One of the most important aspects of the customs and traditions of Mexico is the richness of the languages spoken by the Mexican populations. The most commonly spoken language in the country is Spanish. The different ethnic and indigenous groups of the society speak a number of other indigenous languages, which include Nahuatl and Mayan (Zimmermann).

Religion is another important aspect of the custom and traditions of Mexico. Following the religious values is an important part of the life of the Mexicans, and the majority of the general population is Catholic. There are a number of other small groups in the society which follow some other faith. Christians of the Presbyterians, Methodists, Lutherans, Anglicans, and Baptists faith are specifically active in the Mexican communities. In addition to it, the country is also the home to the religious minorities of Jews, Buddhist, and Muslims who practice their religion and follow its traditions without any restriction (Schlosser).

Following the values is one of the most important customs and tradition of Mexican society. The Mexican public gives great importance to the family unit, which includes the extended member as well. The Mexican people often arrange the large parties in their homes, which is the source for the extended family to gather and reunite with each other. One of the major family celebrations in the Mexican households is the fifteenth birthday of the girl, which is considered her transition to womanhood and it is celebrated by arranging the party, food, and dance, as well as the visit to the church is mandatory (Zimmermann).

Another important aspect of the custom and traditions of Mexican society is the traditions and celebrations. The Mexican society celebrates a number of religious, cultural and national events. One of the most important celebrations is the independence day of the country which is on the 16th of September. Cinco de Mayo is another celebration which commemorates the victory of the Mexican forces over the French forces, in 1862. Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe is one of the most important celebrations of the Mexican society which actually commemorates the appearance of the Virgin Mary, and it is celebrated on the 12th of December. After that, another event of Posadas is celebrated, which carries on for 9 days, and the Mexican people try to reenact the scenario of Mary by asking for refuge around the town. The Day of the Dead, Carnival, and Lent are other important celebrations of the Mexicans. They visit the church, families and take part in dance, music and other activities as part of their celebrations while enjoying food is the must. In addition to it, the art and music are an important part of the Mexican culture, which are appreciated at the international level (Schlosser).

The customs and traditions of any country depict the image of the country to the world. The Mexican culture is quite rich, as it includes people from different ethnicities and religions. The national, religious and cultural events are equally celebrated in the community. The art, music, and fashion of the Mexican community are the emerging aspects of its culture and traditions which are now being appreciated by the whole world.

Works Cited

Schlosser, Lourdes Arizpe. "Recasting Culture." Culture, International Transactions, and the Anthropocene. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2019. 211-266.

Zimmermann, Kim Ann. "Mexican culture: Customs & traditions." Live Science (2015).

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Module 2 Precis Group Discussions

Module 2 Precis Group Discussions

The author of the story: The Hammon and the Beans" Amrico Pardes narrated his childhood experience when he was growing up in a small town in Texas just a block away from the Fort Jones in his grandfather's house. The parade ground was near their town, and so their daily routine and activities were regulated, but the sound of cannons and rings. When children read about stories of the American Revolution at school, they would gather at fences and cheer at the flag-lowering ceremony at the end of the day. And sometimes when they heard elders talk about border tensions, they would shout at the soldiers. Every evening, after the flag lowering, a young girl Chonita, whose mother cleaned at his house, would stroll down to the fort Jones and see the officers eating and talking and at night, the cooks in a mess would give her something to eat. One evening a boy invited the narrator to hear Chonita's speech. Many children were gathered and were waiting for her to make her speech, and then she hollered, "Give me the hammon and the beans!" Chonita would go atop the fence every evening and yelled this sentence. One day the boy fell ill, and when he recovered, he found that Chonita was gone. He often thought about her in the next few years and tried to think about that little speech she made. Until one day, he learned about her death when a doctor came to tell his father about it. The doctor seemed angry and said it didn't matter how she died, but those soldiers were inhumane. Then they talked about radicalism but did not come to any conclusion. Then he went to his room, thought through it all, and cried.

In this story, a young boy has encountered with the first incident of death in his life. He had seen that young girl make her speeches every day, and he also tried to interpret the meaning, but he couldn't. This girl was struggling to learn English and her brothers were so proud of her, but other children made mean jokes to her. It is kind of sad that she and her Mexican people had to strive hard to find opportunities that American people had. They were kept off the Fort by a fence and those poor people thought of themselves as slaves because they were immigrants and the government didn't care much abitur them. It makes us all think that why do we not immigrants as an equal human being? Why do we think they shouldn't get equal rights and opportunities as us? If we are not willing to treat them as our equals, why do we even take the responsibility of immigrants in the first place? It makes me feel so hurt to think about them and the extra miles they have to go to ask for what should already be theirs by right.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Module 2 Thematic Group Discussion - Liminality In Chicano Lit

Module 2 Thematic Group Discussion - Liminality in Chicano Lit

The story “the Hammon and the Beans” follows the Liminality theme where a Mexican family is struggling hard to live up to their standards but fail because of the injustice and disparities they face in American culture. The writer had a sentimental ironic vision where he tries to convey the message to the reader that how a Mexican girl is deprived of happiness an success because of political, social, economic and ethnic circumstances. Her death was also subject to a lack of medical attention and social problems she and her family had been facing. The girl and her family had come to America to find freedom and opportunities to lead successful lives but instead, they find chaos in what they thought might be a safe haven for them. In this story, the immigrants are the protagonists who are suffering at the hands of government and military. All the while Revolutionaries like George Washington and Francis Marion are glorified in schools but Emiliano Zapata is officially condemned. The contradiction in the narrative of the government and freedom of speech is such a deception where American Revolution is adored, the Mexican revolution is condemned.

These immigrants find themselves as enslaved by the government. The fence that keeps them away from the fort is a symbol of the system of exiling the immigrants from what Americans tend to own. They are treated the same way as Anglo Americans; walled out and alienated. These people have been ripped away from their comforts and security. I think they have o the point where there are no expectations left from the American’s justice system. They are innocent and deserve better than this. The protagonist represents the poverty, hardships, inequality, and cry of a forgotten people. Chonita’s speech of Hammons and the beans are the demand of her people to rise above the shams of poverty and be given better. They are the victims of injustice that all immigrants face in the name of crossing borders for safety and getting away from the said colonization of Americans on their lands. This story is a portrayal of the disparities Mexicans and Anglo-Americans been facing in the name of Americanization ideology.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Music In Popular Culture

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7718 Music In Popular Culture


(Your Name)


(Name of Professor) (University)


I plan to examine and deliberate the following aspects to highlight the elements incorporated the paradigm of stardom in pop music

It is imperative to examine the intricacies involved in the process of stardom and striking the hearts of the audience to sustain a lasting bond of affinity and reverence.

A critical appraisal of the matters illustrates stardom is not merely an economic process.

To prove the argument, it is essential to examine the structural and economic foundations of stardom comprehensively and highlighting the primary objectives which make a star close to the heart of the people.

The very existence of the star is conceived as a series of visible and discrete relationships that explain the career of the star.

Stardom is a subjective authority generated by the convergence of popularity, expertise and achievement. For instance, ideologies of self-expression and authenticity are critical in popular music to assert significance on the individual personality of the star.

Stars are crucial to shape the ventures in the music market predictable. Meanwhile, it is not the only element constituting a star and the process of stardom.

Case studies These starts constructed a potential engagement with the audience by either exploring innovative avenues in music or reinventing personal image. The progress of their musical careers manifests instability to cultivate the cultural value of their musical texts.

Since the audience is vital stakeholders in sanctioning and entitling stardom to a musician, it becomes key to resonate with their culture, inclinations and strike them with a distinguished musical identity.

The cultural context and the structural basis of stardom play an instrumental role while shaping the future of a pop star in the industry.

It is worthy to underpin that music is not the only substance required to cultivate the strong bond of affiliation with the audience.

The 2 books published relevant to my topic are

Lady Gaga and Popular Music

Ethic and Cultural Identity in Music and Song Lyrics

The book Lady Gaga and Popular Music were essential to be chosen to collect information and have an in-depth analysis of the cultural influences involved throughout the journey of stardom of Lady Gaga. Since the essay comprises a case study on her life, the significance of the book based on her enhances further. The book glorifies the essence of Lady Gagas output manifested in self-consciously pop culture tradition. The book was found on the internet while searching for specific instances and the cultural impact of events on Lady Gagas life. These instances will contribute potentially toward the essay as it explores the stardom and impact of cultural instances in establishing relations with the audience and fans.

Ethnic and Cultural Identity in Music and Song Lyrics is the other productive book to supplement the resources used in the essay. The book was found on the internet while searching for books related to culture and identity in the musical culture. The critical cultural and ethnic identity reflected in songs, lyrics and poetry is comprehensively assessed in the chapters of the book. These songs are an explicit illustration of the cultural, national and ethnic identity established by the people. Moreover, these identities and affiliations prove to be the root cause of peoples allegiance towards the stars. Thus, the book will potentially assist to strengthen the research on elements that combine to make stars and enhance the relationship of the public with the stars.

The 2 journal articles chosen for the essay are

The Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry

So You Want To Be a Rock N Roll Star

The first journal article critically examines the economic structure of stardom, its functions and the ideological basis of stardom. The social structure of stardom is deliberated comprehensively by underpinning the approaches of stardom in contemporary recording history. Besides, the research article is essential to distinguish between the record labels of stars and the changing power balance which have implications on the nature of music stardom. To discuss the significance of the research article for the essay, stardom submerges the processes of commodification in the production of popular music. It is worthy to highlight that the research article is imperative to construct a personal narrative and polish the opinion on the intricacies of stardom. Stars are deemed by the public and stakeholders as the primary faces of the campaigns and anti-privacy campaigns. The rhetorical transformation of the music from the industry to culture indicates the broader ideological importance of stardom in the industry.

The second research article discusses several case studies of popular music stars and sheds light on the impact of cultural instances on their stardom. In essence, stars are defined as persons possessing the unique talent and distinctive culture to influence the public and assume an instrumental role in changing the norms of stardom. However, it is not only confined to the music industry and can be explicitly seen in television, sports and popular music. One of the crucial element mentioned in the research journal is the account of the pop star Lady Gaga and the manner wherein she exploited social media, Twitter and Facebook to communicate with the fans. The public allegiance with the popular star is a manifestation of her enticing character and the unique way of striking the hearts of the public in a particular cultural context.

The 2 sources available on the internet are

Fans or Friends Seeing social media audiences as musicians do


The first source offers a comprehensive account of the influence of social media on musicians and vice versa which ultimately manifests in accelerating the stardom of musicians and singers. Throughout the last decade, the online interaction between the fans and musicians have dictated the norms of stardom and the cultural elements associated with it. In addition, the age factor contributes potentially to manage the audience profoundly and strengthens the relationship between the musicians and the fans. A critical appraisal of the article reflects it will contribute immensely towards adding rational substance in the essay. The relationship acquired with the audience in the paradigm of stardom is not limited to the interaction, interaction and liking. Instead, the bond of mutual respect and moral good for one another establishes the grounds of voluntary relationships and equality.

In the second source, the author advances to discuss the significance of successfully establishing a strong emotional presence in front of the audience. The fundamental object strengthening the elements of stardom is based on giving. For instance, the performers give and the audience absorbs which later becomes a mutual occurrence to lift the interaction to higher planes. An assessment of the primary theme expressed in the brief article reflects it can assist to shape the argument on the aspects of stardom pertinent to musicians. In its true form, music is a gift surrounded by gif-wrapping of affinity, the importance of deriving strong spirits and causing the audience to cultivate the virtues of that gift in true letter and spirits. None can deny the argument that stardom is not an entity acquired through vigorous campaigning and producing the norms to uplift the pop culture. Instead, it is accomplished on the basis of giving from the heart and expecting nothing else than generosity in return.

Music in Popular Culture

The universe of pop culture is populated by the stars and they lie at the very heart of pop culture to embody glamour and intensity of the pop culture. These stars are critical to assist the generation of popular music by offering a focal point for the communities and individuals to interpret the authorial intent. Irrefutably, the establishment and history of popular music are fuelled by stardom and the music stars. It is imperative to examine the intricacies involved in the process of stardom and striking the hearts of the audience to sustain a lasting bond of affinity and reverence. However, there exists a contentious debate whether or not the process of harnessing stardom is only manifested in economic gains and is devoid of constructing a potential relationship with the audience based on cultural aspects. A critical appraisal of the matters illustrates stardom is not merely an economic process. To prove the argument, it is essential to examine the structural and economic foundations of stardom comprehensively and highlighting the primary objectives which make a star close to the heart of the people.

To begin, it is necessary to assimilate the elements which formulate the essence of stardom. In contemporary society, a star is understood by three dominant traits comprehension of the structuralist, subjectivist and poststructuralist perception of the star. In the subjective accounts, the focus is on the individual star whose status is identified by her/his inherent talent and traits ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDfJgZjl1H,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220The Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(The Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid398,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/HNZ8QGMB,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/HNZ8QGMB,itemDataid398,typewebpage,titleThe Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry,URLhttps//www.researchgate.net/publication/263211686_The_Structural_Functions_of_Stardom_in_the_Recording_Industry,accesseddate-parts2019,4,21,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (The Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry, n.d.). The very existence of the star is conceived as a series of visible and discrete relationships that explain the career of the star. The second approach the sketches the individual analysis to comprehend stardom as a coherent system which is influenced by and influences the peculiar social structure. In the third approach, the textual nature of the celebrity is examined. Stars are perceived as tools for media and a source for the consumers and producers to extend their negotiation. Stardom ought not to be merely deemed the aggregation of biographies of various stars. Stardom is patterned and embodied in the structural configuration of elements as ethnicity and gender. It is, thus, imperative to establish a profound awareness of the patterned similarities and the specificities of the individual stars.

In addition, stars should be distinguished from celebrities by underpinning their accomplishments in a particular field. Stardom is a subjective authority generated by the convergence of popularity, expertise and achievement. For instance, ideologies of self-expression and authenticity are critical in popular music to assert significance on the individual personality of the star ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDe45w4DLJ,propertiesformattedCitation(Kennedy and Gadpaille, 2017),plainCitation(Kennedy and Gadpaille, 2017),noteIndex0,citationItemsid404,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/R98VIFEH,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/R98VIFEH,itemDataid404,typebook,titleEthnic and Cultural Identity in Music and Song Lyrics,publisherCambridge Scholars Publishing,number-of-pages268,sourceGoogle Books,abstractEthnic and Cultural Identity in Music and Song Lyrics looks at a variety of popular and folk music from around the world, with examples of British, Slovene, Chinese and American songs, poems and musicals. Charles Taylor says that it is through story that we find or devise ways of living bearably in time one can make the same claim for music. Inexorably tied to time, to the measure of the beat, but freed from time by the polysemous potential of the words, song rapidly becomes our song, helping to cement memory and community, to make the past comprehensible and the present bearable. The authors of the fifteen chapters in this volume demonstrate how lyrics set to music can reflect, express and construct collective identities, both traditional and contemporary.,ISBN978-1-4438-9620-7,noteGoogle-Books-ID NV0pDwAAQBAJ,languageen,authorfamilyKennedy,givenVictor,familyGadpaille,givenMichelle,issueddate-parts2017,6,20,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Kennedy and Gadpaille, 2017). None can stipulate the definite time required to cherish the prestige of being called a star and in reality, it is accomplished by persistency in the popular music culture. When the cultural interpretation of a popular music performer can make him a star. This, by far, is the acceptable and rational apprehension of becoming a star. Stardom is not a qualitative rather a quantitative existence. It is imperative as a wide range of literature on cultural industries and stardom has been generated from the framework of cultural economics. The economic structure of stardom outlines important in features in two primary ways. Stars are exploited as a potential mean to redistribute the financial challenges related to releasing and producing a record. Besides, stars are crucial to shape the ventures in the music market predictable. Meanwhile, these are not the only elements constituting a star and the process of stardom. If stars advance to manifest acts which rely excessively on commercialization, they will certainly struggle to sustain a lasting base of fan following. In this context, a critical analysis of the cultural and structural events associated with the formation of some stars is necessary to further the argument profoundly.

Stefani Germanotta, better known by her stage name Lady Gaga, is a pop star conceived in the web age. She has exploited the compass of the web and internet based life, continually speaking with her devoted and broad fans (the little beasts) through Facebook and Twitter ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDrjT3Hb5X,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220r6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars and Auteurs Shuker Roy.pdf,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(r6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars and Auteurs Shuker Roy.pdf, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid397,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/NBTUVDDN,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/NBTUVDDN,itemDataid397,typearticle,titler6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars and Auteurs Shuker Roy.pdf,URLhttp//www.docs.writing4money.com/uploads/orders/r6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars20and20Auteurs20Shuker20Roy.pdf,accesseddate-parts2019,4,21,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (r6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars and Auteurs Shuker Roy.pdf, n.d.). She makes a big appearance her recordings on YouTube and is the most downloaded craftsman ever. As driving business magazine Forbes saw in November 2009 Woman Gaga isnt the music business new Madonna. She is its new plan of action. While a few records see Gaga as moving in a year and a half (2009 2010) from being an obscure entertainer to being the greatest star on the planet, her life offers an explicit illustration of the challenging route of stardom. Gaga, who started adapting piano at age four, had been melody composing and performing since secondary school and in New York clubs since 2005. Early execution cuts on YouTube, exhibit her officially clear ability in musicianship, vocal capacity and telling stage nearness. Personal records and interviews stress her drive and assurance since the beginning to succeed in the music business. In reality, from various perspectives, Gaga embodies the customary course to success, based on diligent work and live execution as outlined above ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID9OF5e5e9,propertiesformattedCitation(Iddon and Marshall, 2014),plainCitation(Iddon and Marshall, 2014),noteIndex0,citationItemsid406,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/AHFNQ64Z,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/AHFNQ64Z,itemDataid406,typebook,titleLady Gaga and Popular Music Performing Gender, Fashion, and Culture,publisherRoutledge,number-of-pages480,sourceGoogle Books,abstractThis book is a multi-faceted, interdisciplinary examination of the music and figure of Lady Gaga, combining approaches from scholars in cultural studies, art, fashion, and music. It represents one of the first scholarly volumes devoted to Lady Gaga, who has become, over a few short years, central to both popular (and, indeed, populist) as well as more scholarly thought in these areas and who, the contributors argue, is helping to shapedirectly and indirectlythought and culture both in the fields of the scholarly and the everyday. Lady Gagas output is firmly embedded in a self-consciously intellectual pop culture tradition, and her music videos are intertextually linked to icons of pop culture intelligentsia like Alfred Hitchcock and open to multiple interpretations. In examining her music and figure, this volume contributes both to debates on the status of intertextuality, held in tension with originality, and to debates on the figuring of the sexualized female body, and representations of disability. There is interest in these issues from a wide range of disciplines popular musicology, film studies, queer studies, womens studies, gender studies, disability studies, popular culture studies, and the burgeoning sub-discipline of aesthetics and philosophy of fashion.,ISBN978-1-134-07994-0,noteGoogle-Books-ID zLJ9AgAAQBAJ,shortTitleLady Gaga and Popular Music,languageen,authorfamilyIddon,givenMartin,familyMarshall,givenMelanie L.,issueddate-parts2014,1,3,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Iddon and Marshall, 2014). Lady Gaga is not just an exceptionally fruitful contemporary account and visiting specialists, she is the heart of the stardom inside the more extensive popular culture. She keeps on being included in various music and style magazine spread stories and shows up on driving syndicated programs and at music and design grants. Her life underpins the struggle and passion necessary to accomplish stardom and irrefutably, financial incentive never remained her motive to acquire a tremendous fan base.

Similarly, a scintillating star with verifiable ability, Miley Cyrus is one of the rare superstars that has figured out how to endure stardom at an early age and rise with a passionate presence. Miley Cyrus was born on November 23rd, 1992. She demonstrated a proclivity for music at an extremely youthful age and before her tenth birthday celebration, she had verified that she needed to be a performing artist. Around the season of her eleventh birthday celebration, Cyrus endeavoured and won the job of Hannah Montana in the Disney Channel arrangement. The show was a tremendous hit and depended vigorously on Cyrus abilities as an entertainer. In the show, Cyrus would sing, move, and act her approach to high schooler symbol status and in 2006 she visited with the prominent demonstration The Cheetah Girls, performing tunes from the principal period of Hannah Montana. While she was selling out arenas as the character from her hit TV appear, Cyrus was likewise working diligently without anyone else music. In an attempt to enable her fans to see past her Disney station picture, Cyrus released the collection Breakout in 2008. The collection was a prompt hit, and commentators recognized Cyrus for her vocal range and capacity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDdIwiFswZ,propertiesformattedCitation(Klickstein, 2014),plainCitation(Klickstein, 2014),noteIndex0,citationItemsid400,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/3E4N2CJA,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/3E4N2CJA,itemDataid400,typepost-weblog,titleConnecting with Audiences,container-titleMusiciansWay.com,abstractThe performers who connect from the stage establish emotional relationships with their audiences.,URLhttps//www.musiciansway.com/blog/2014/03/connecting-with-audiences/,languageen-US,authorfamilyKlickstein,givenGerald,issueddate-parts2014,3,4,accesseddate-parts2019,4,21,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Klickstein, 2014). She is an epitome of stardom and has not stopped since then.

A critical appraisal of both the case mentioned validate the urgency to disregard the economic inclinations dominating the sphere of stardom. Both the stars share a number of mutual traits by exercising authority over their career and striving toward perfection. These stars constructed a potential engagement with the audience by either exploring innovative avenues in music or reinventing personal image. The progress of their musical careers manifests stability to cultivate the cultural value of their musical texts. Lady Gaga and Miley Cyrus initiated their quest for music from ground zero and were not privileged with additional benefits. Hence, it provides an explicit illustration of the argument that stardom is harnessed through a critical and honoured exploration of self-image, inclinations and persistent hard work. However, a wide range of pop musicians adhere to these traits but struggle to unlock the doors of stardom in true letter and spirits. This calls for an intricate assessment of the aspects which are required in addition to recognizing the passion and striving thoroughly.

Furthermore, stardom is exploited after mastering the techniques of engaging with the audience in a potential manner. Since the audience is vital stakeholders in sanctioning and entitling stardom to a musician, it becomes key to resonate with their culture, inclinations and strike them with a distinguished musical identity. It is worthy to underpin that music is not the only substance required to cultivate the strong bond of affiliation with the audience. At times, musicians tend to permit the musical identities to complex the route to reach the audience. When music is dark, cryptic or artistically inaccessible, it never implies pop musicians must reflect these traits when communicating with the fans ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDdIwiFswZ,propertiesformattedCitation(Klickstein, 2014),plainCitation(Klickstein, 2014),noteIndex0,citationItemsid400,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/3E4N2CJA,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/3E4N2CJA,itemDataid400,typepost-weblog,titleConnecting with Audiences,container-titleMusiciansWay.com,abstractThe performers who connect from the stage establish emotional relationships with their audiences.,URLhttps//www.musiciansway.com/blog/2014/03/connecting-with-audiences/,languageen-US,authorfamilyKlickstein,givenGerald,issueddate-parts2014,3,4,accesseddate-parts2019,4,21,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Klickstein, 2014). Transparent and honoured communication traverse a persistent manner and the notion of becoming distinguished by following the route makes it challenging to resonate with the fans. Harnessing the potential social media platforms, YouTube and live concerts can prove productive to establish a profound musical and cultural identity necessary to unleash the dimensions of stardom.

Likewise, connecting with the audience and knowing the audience are entirely opposite to each other. If a population loves the music, one should never complex the scenario by incorporating robust innovation and uniqueness in the personal image and music. To connect with the audience, it is imperative to place the question as to why they should adhere to your music and honour it in presence of tens of thousands of other pop stars ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDB8AfKCKK,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220Fans or Friends,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(Fans or Friends, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid402,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/88W8UWRZ,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/h6KbaPMu/items/88W8UWRZ,itemDataid402,typewebpage,titleFans or Friends How Social Media is Changing the Artist-Fan Relationship (Part 2),abstract13 13 Nancy Baym is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Kansas. She is also an online fandom expert, an author, publ...,URLhttps//bandzoogle.com/blog/fans-or-friends-how-social-media-is-changing-the-artist-fan-relationship-part-2,shortTitleFans or Friends,languageen,accesseddate-parts2019,4,21,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Fans or Friends, n.d.). When the pop star establishes a concrete assessment of the likings of the audience and associates them with the cultural context and personal traits, he/she is likely to dominate and accomplish the framework of stardom. Besides, the cultural context and the structural basis of stardom as discussed above also play an instrumental role while shaping the future of a pop star in the industry.

To conclude, stardom is an essential phenomenon harnessed after connecting with the audience potentially, assimilating the structural and cultural context of stardom and striving to explore passion in true letter and spirits. The financial aspect is associated with the process but it is not the only aspiration or objective fuelling the framework of stardom. The case studies deliberated above present empirical evidence to negate the notions of economic process and further affirm the incorporation of the cultural image, determined stature and a distinguished urgency to resonate with the audience. The structural and cultural paradigm of stardom calls for resonating with the identity, spirits and aspirations of the audience and overlooking the financial aspects associated with it. Irrefutably, the financial aspect is never a concern for a star and stardom fuels financial sustainability. It never implies, however, that the route to stardom is traversed to accomplish the financial manifestation only. Striking the audience, adhering to the spirits of strong connection and cultivating the successful advancement based on perseverance and passion also contribute to making a star. To sum up, stardom is not an economic process only as various other aspects contribute toward shaping stars and aspiring to become one.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Fans or Friends How Social Media is Changing the Artist-Fan Relationship (Part 2) WWW Document, n.d. URL https//bandzoogle.com/blog/fans-or-friends-how-social-media-is-changing-the-artist-fan-relationship-part-2 (accessed 4.21.19).

Iddon, M., Marshall, M.L., 2014. Lady Gaga and Popular Music Performing Gender, Fashion, and Culture. Routledge.

Kennedy, V., Gadpaille, M., 2017. Ethnic and Cultural Identity in Music and Song Lyrics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Klickstein, G., 2014. Connecting with Audiences. MusiciansWay.com. URL https//www.musiciansway.com/blog/2014/03/connecting-with-audiences/ (accessed 4.21.19).

r6epkvpuqmd01cg98vrk5iu860---Stars and Auteurs Shuker Roy.pdf, n.d.

The Structural Functions of Stardom in the Recording Industry WWW Document, n.d. URL https//www.researchgate.net/publication/263211686_The_Structural_Functions_of_Stardom_in_the_Recording_Industry (accessed 4.21.19).


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Subject: Culture

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

Native American Music

Native American Music

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Music has always held a significant role in the Native American’s culture and history. In their lives, music plays an integral part. It is noteworthy to mention that music is a major facet of many Native American’s celebrations and ceremonies. There are different musical styles of the Native American music. There are varieties of musical instruments and styles in every Native American tribe. Their music is often a large part of passing down oral traditions along with the history. Despite many evolvements and changes that America has undergone, the Native Americans apprehended on to their distinct rituals and representations. In the lives of Native Americans, music is used as an oral transmission of their history and culture. For Native Americans, music is integral to the storytelling purpose as it helps them to preserve their language. Here, the focus is to highlight the unique aspects of Native American’s music and how it represent their cultural features.


It is notable to mention that the vocals are the essential pillars of music made in the Native American cultures. These vocals are passionate, so they are used to invoke spirits. Native Americans have a strong belief that these vocals are used to heal the sick. Native American music is among the most complex ever performed music in the world. In the modern world, Native America musicians are still referring back to their ancestral traditions in their music. Their music integrates aesthetic characteristics of their traditions with new forms of music. Whenever someone hears Native Americans music, he/she can easily understand that their music replicates the quality and ability of their ancient traditions.

The Natives Americans welcomed the first Europeans who arrived in America. The culture of the Native Americans intrigued by white complexions of Europeans and their cultural traditions. After the settlement of Europeans, Native Americans copied their chordophones and then tweaked them. Native Americans tweaked the chordophones of Europeans to come up with sounds attractive to their musical sensibilities. With time, the chordophones of Native Americans became native. Invasion of European blended the music traditions of the Native American tribes. Undoubtedly, music had played a remarkable place in different rituals and religious aspects of Native Americans. However, the invasion of Europeans made a significant change in the social and religious functions of Native Americans. Due to that significant change, the music that accompanied these functions got changed.

In the Native American culture, secular music is of utmost importance as it is used for honoring a person’s life. Secular music is used in melodies for communal celebrations and pieces of gratitude as well. Sacred music is a vital part of Native American music as it is employed when dealing with the earth’s elements and the spiritual life. The sacred and secular music is perceived as intertwined among Native Americans. Unlike non-American Indians, Native Americans don’t make any major distinction among the secular and sacred music. There are different musical styles in the Native American music. However, for both secular and sacred music, Native Americans used drums as a primary instrument. These people believe that the voice of drums helps in driving the music. Despite using certain types of instruments in the music, Native Americans avoid playing instrumental pieces between their music. According to their tradition, singing is the essential part of music.

With time, Christian missionaries and teachers forced Indians to learn European music traditions. That’s why Indians were systematically taught the traditions of European music. Native Americans tried hard to keep their music traditions separate, but the Europeans found a way to assimilate their music characteristics in the Native American’s music. Europeans were the one who introduces ‘Powwows’ to Native Americans. Singing and dancing were the essential part of ‘Powwows’ that Indians inherited and contributed during later part of their lives. In the mid-19th century, ‘Powwows’ got fame in American society due to the relocation of different tribes by the government of the United States. The repositioning of these tribes helps in initiating cultural exchanges. Therefore, it is a new ceremony among Native Americans.

Lullabies are the favored musical genres by American Indians. Lullabies are the integral parts of Native Americans culture as these songs accompany their daily activities. They use lullabies as curing songs and ceremonial songs. They believe that these songs were given to people by their guardian spirits. It is a well-known fact that many cultures in American society have created some sweat lodges. The primary purpose behind the establishment of sweat lodges is to purify the souls, mind, and body. When it comes to the Native American cultures, they have used sweat lodges differently. Sweat lodges are small enclosures in Native American cultures that are filled with hot rocks in the center. Native Americans perceived it differently due to their ancestral traditions and values. These people crawl inside the small enclosure in which water is added along with the heated rocks. They sing the song as steam fills the lodge. They believe it as a way of saying prayers regarding forgiveness, purification, and healing. In the American Indian Music, there are meaningless fill-syllables as there are no tone-marks.

Rare before Europeans came to North America, this communal ritual sprang up around the mid-19th century when tribes were being relocated by the U.S. government and began interacting with one another and initiating cultural exchanges. According to the Native Americans cultures, ‘Powwows’ differ among tribes. First of all, there is a grand Entry of color dancers and after that, certain performers perform. Native Americans have a strong belief in shaman. A shaman is a person, who uses certain musical instruments to cure mental and physical sicknesses in people. In the Native American tribes, shamans are mostly men, but some have female’s shamans as well. The Shamans believed to heal people as it is considered to mediate in between spiritual and natural worlds. Sometimes, Native Americans use the process of the shaman to influence the weather.

Moreover, Native American music also includes whistles and rasps. Bone whistles came from the ‘Basketmaker- period’ and were discovered in northeastern Arizona. Native Americans whistles were crafted from the bones of animals and antlers as well. However, the modern music of Native Americans depends largely on European descriptions as colonization influenced the framework of that music. The flute is one of the oldest musical instruments in the entire world which was created by Native Americans. The flute was crafted over time from clay and different types of softwoods and hardwoods. The mellow tone is produced by softwood cedar flute; hence many American Indians chose cedar to make a flute.


To conclude the discussion about the significant impact of Native American music, it is vital to mention that this specific paradigm has the potential to influence the phenomenon of culture. Music is recognized as the integral part of the cultural practices of the native Americans as it refers as the mandatory part of their traditional ceremonies and events. Undoubtedly, the entire facet of the cultural and artistic domains of the Native American community can never complete without the keen consideration of their approach to music. The platform of music is effectively used by the Native Americans to convey their specific cultural and traditional perspectives which recognized them different from other parts of the world. Music referred to as the important part of the culture of the Native Americans that are used to represent the traditional features appropriately.


Barkley, E. F. (2007). Crossroads: the multicultural roots of America's popular music. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Pearson Prentice Hall.

Herzog, G., 1934. Speech-melody and primitive music. The Musical Quarterly, 20(4), pp.452-466.

Negus, K., 2013. Music genres and corporate cultures. Routledge.

Nettl, B., 2016. Native American Music. Excursions in World Music: EBook & Mp3 Value Pack, p.424.

Perea, J.-C. (2014). Intertribal Native American music in the United States: experiencing music, expressing culture.

Scales, C. A., & Desrosiers, G. (2012). Recording culture: Powwow music and the Aboriginal recording industry on the Northern Plains.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Non Verbal Communication

Your Name

Instructor Name


Non-verbal Communication

Man is a social animal and, therefore, cannot live in isolation without communicating with his peers. Communication is the exchanging of information by using mediums such as speaking and writing. Communication can be non-verbal that can be defined as the nonlinguistic transmission of information by utilizing auditory, visual, and kinesthetic channels. Factors like culture and religion influence the non-verbal communication a lot. For instance, in Asian countries, children are taught to show respect by not making eye contact with the adults, while in many European countries, eye contact is necessary as it shows that the listener is listening and understanding the conversation. Similarly, gestures like shaking hands and hugging their peers while meeting them also come under non-verbal communication.

In non-verbal communication, proximity is a factor that is of high importance. Although many people think personal distance is something that is culturally patterned if proximity is not considered while communicating non-verbally it can lead to bad feelings that can hinder the chances of effective communication and building a friendly relationship.

While reflecting upon my experience, before reading the book "Intercultural Communication" (Brown), I was unaware of the importance of non-verbal communication and how communication differs based on culture and individual preferences. The book highlighted various aspects of non-verbal communication, such as seating arrangement, timing, and territory, etc. The chapter non-verbal communication also helped a lot in learning about the tone and how cultural impact the tone. In many countries speaking in a soft tone is considered appropriate, while in many countries such as Arabs countries, children, especially males, are taught to speak in a louder tone. I personally prefer to speak in a softer tone as, in my culture, politeness is the key to establish relationships. The chapter also highlighted that the culture of a specific place can also change within time and how changes in cultural beliefs can influence how people communicate non-verbally. Thus, it is necessary to have a significant amount of knowledge of the culture of other people while communicating non-verbally as people use their cultural norms to determine appropriate nonverbal behaviors and make judgments if cultural norms are violated.

Works Cited

Brown., Joann. Intercultural Communication.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Nonverbal Communication

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Nonverbal Communication

Q.1 How do people use body language to communicate power?

There is a significant amount of power hidden in different body language symbols. People employ different kinds of ways to communicate power by using their body language. The paramount way in which people show off the power using body language is their posture (Burgoon, Laura and Floyd, 157). The way in which an individual holds themselves can significantly exert power on to others. Another way to show power to people is through eye contact. By having direct eye contact during interactions, an individual can make themselves look more confident. Personal space is another way through which people can use to communicate power to others. By standing relatively close to a person during an interaction while maintaining eye contact and a solid body posture, an individual can communicate power using only the body language (Burgoon, Laura and Floyd, 157).

Q.2 How many facial expressions are universal (everyone regardless of culture can both

make and interpret them)? What are they?

Due to a single or a combination of 43 different facial muscles, the involuntary and voluntary movement of the face is referred to as facial expressions. Interpretation of facial expressions might be different in different cultures. However, there are certain facial expressions that considered universal. According to Charles Darwin, there exist certain facial expressions that remain unchanged despite moving across cultures. Darwin tabled his idea during the 1800s. The idea of Darwin was further consolidated during the 20th Century by Dr. Paul Ekman. Therefore, there are 7 facial expressions that considered universal. These facial expressions are happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger, contempt, and surprise. These seven facial expressions are the ones which people can easily exhibit and identify regardless of their cultural background.

Q.3 What is meant by these terms: norming, micro-expressions, and hotspots?

In order to fully comprehend the secrets of body language, many experts resort to an analytical system known as norming. In this process, the body language of an individual is assessed and analyzed in contrast to how that person would respond in normal situations.

In order to catch a liar red-handed, many experts use a technique called hotspot. Hotspots are the irregularities between what individuals say and what nonverbal of individuals are implying. For instance, if you ask someone about an opinion on the food that you cooked and their answer is “They like it” while they exhibit facial expressions of disgust. This shows a hotspot.

Micro expressions are the expressions that are exhibited for a brief time. Usually, micro expressions last merely a second or even less. An individual in a bid to conceal emotion, either deliberately or unconsciously, exhibits micro expressions.

Q.4 What are the tell-tales people's faces and bodies make when they are being truthful vs. untruthful?

There are certain ways in which it can be determined whether a person is being truthful or untruthful. This can be determined by analyzing the faces and bodies of individuals. For instance, a liar would have their eyes dart back and forth rapidly (Burgoon, Laura and Floyd, 34). Additionally, rapid blinking may be caused due to the stress produced as a result of a lie. Moreover, a false smile can be exhibited by the person who is being untruthful (Burgoon, Laura and Floyd, 34). Head shaking, blushing, pursed lips are other certain ways that tell the person is lying. The abrupt change in the breathing sequence and rapid movement of the head are different ways to tell whether a person is truthful or not. Moreover, an untruthful person would unwittingly touch their different body parts.

Q.5 How culturally sensitive was "The Secrets of Body Language"?

In the video “Gestures, meanings and cultures”, Desmond Morris has aptly identified the variations of body languages that exist in different cultures. In my opinion, the information described in the video is culturally sensitive. This is because a single hand gesture can have a different meaning in different parts of the world. Therefore, in order to fully adapt to the culture of a country, one must learn gestures and their meanings (Burgoon, Laura and Floyd, 132).

Works Cited

Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. Nonverbal communication. Routledge, 2016.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Online Journal



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


The culture plays a vital role in determining the value and social responsibilities of society. Without knowing the moral codes of the culture, nobody in the community can survive. Culture is considered a key factor to live in a society without any fears and discriminations. The primary role of culture is to ensure that all the factors in the literature are coherent with each other without any significant issue (Pirredu, 2018).

Various theories can be applied when it comes to learning about the online theories of the culture that are applicable all across the globe. The first and the foremost factor is of the ethnicity as it determines the origins and the morals of the society from which they belong. The other factor which plays a significant role in the transition phase in the society as these transition phases requires much more help to understand the requirement of the changes in the society (Moje, 2016). Not only limiting it to that but the generational differences in the society have also played a major role in determining the codes of the society (Lemert, 2018).

If these theories were not determined at that period of time, the transitional process within the societies and within the culture might not have , and this could have been devastating, but with the presence of the theories, the situation of the cultural values can be simmered down easily (Klitgaard, 2018).


Klitgaard, R., 2018. Applying cultural theories to practical problems. In Culture Matters (pp. 191-202). Routledge.

Lemert, C., 2018. New Cultural Theories after Modernity. In Social Theory (pp. 391-442). Routledge.

Moje, E.B., 2016. Youth literacy and cultural theories: A review of the science and implications for policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), pp.70-76.

Pireddu, N., 2018. Reframing Critical, Literary, and Cultural Theories.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Orgnizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Organizational Behavior


This paper will examine what is organizational behavior, what factors influence organizational behavior and how can one determine an organizations behavior. The reading will also explore diversity in organizations, its benefits, and challenges for people and the organization itself, and lastly motivation. Also, how they are related to my work experience as Store In-charge in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia and what factors motivate me.


OB (Organizational behavior) explores and studies three elements of behavior in organizations that are groups, individuals and structure (Robbins, Judge, 2017). In organizational behavior, the information regarding individuals, groups and the structure of the organization is used to bring about better changes in the organization. The behavior of individuals or workers related to their jobs, absenteeism, work, turnover, employment, human performance, productivity and management, communication, motivation, and leadership significantly affects the organizational behavior, and therefore, these elements are used to determine the organizational behavior and what changes are needed for betterment.

Diversity means differences or dissimilarities. These differences can be of different types such as personal qualities related to age, race, gender, ethnicity, marital status, religion, and education, etc. Diversity in an organization or organizational diversity means how many of the workforce is from different backgrounds or with different characteristics, qualities, and beliefs, etc. Organizational diversity has its benefits and challenges.

Motivation is the cause of ones' actions, enthusiasm, and goals. It is a need that requires satisfaction or fulfillment. There are inward and outward elements that stimulate aspiration and vigor in individuals to be persistently fascinated and dedicated to a job, character or subject, or to try to realize a goal. Motivation is the result of the collaboration of both unconscious and conscious reasons such as passion of need or desire, rewards or incentive of achieving the target, and anticipations of the individual and or of relatives and friends.


Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior is all about being thoughtful of how the organization workforce and groups behave in the organization. Organizational behavior is the study of explaining and predicting behavior. By inspecting behavior in three various levels of effect. First is at the individual, organizational or the group level. Through these three levels of behaviors, an organization can well understand work in the workplace and increase collaborations among the staff members.

Companies should participate in organizational behavior as it delivers the understandings needed for the organization to run efficiently and successfully. OB is crucial to be operative at all administrative levels. Businesses cannot excel when personnel's do not understand how their behaviors impact the company's performance and empower policy implementation. When workforces are managed efficiently and are encouraged to perform well, the entire company prospers. The acknowledged profits of OB are as wide-ranging as the businesses that inculcate it. Much of the studies highlight enhanced well-being and yield within work settings, which explains higher job contentment, better production, a better pledge to the organization and a decline in employees’ turnover.

During my job period in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia as a Store In-charge of a chocolate company, I noticed that the behavior of individuals or workers concerning their jobs was always taken very seriously and accordingly the organization used to intervene and make necessary changes in order to keep the organizational behavior standardized and effective. Individual and group behaviors related to performance, absenteeism and on-time task completion were strictly monitored, and any shortcoming in the organizational check process would be handled swiftly. The manager or supervisors used to monitor daily activities and timings etc. of groups and employees and forward the data to top managers who would make necessary changes if required. In such a way, an organization's functioning and performance were always kept standardized. Both of these countries that I worked in focus immensely on studying individual and group behaviors so to make future decisions or changes. Personally, I had to observe closely those supervised by me to keep track of their behaviors and ensure its compliance with the organization objectives and standards.

Organizational diversity

Diversity can be very beneficial for a company, and the more diverse an organization is, the more it has the ability to cover a diverse range of issues and opportunities effectively. This means that people from varied backgrounds, experiences, social statuses, regions, and other characteristics are able to offer various skills sets that can help an organization cope with issues or take advantage of those differences in any other way. Likewise, dialogs and debates among diverse people will usually produce a wider variety of ideas. Furthermore, in current globalized marketplace organizations having a diverse range of employees can more effectively serve that global market as the employees will be able to speak different languages and wider cultural understanding that is required.

Communication and language obstacles are the biggest challenges to effective organizational diversity. Employees may communicate in dissimilar primary languages, making communication hard for other employees. Cultural differences and perspectives on different points result in many conflicts and may hinder effective decisions as well. It is very hard for managers as well as employees to understand each other viewpoints and way of work. Many individuals from different cultures might not get along well with each other resulting in issues or poor productivity. Therefore, it is very important for an organization with the diverse workforce to equip its employees with the effectively communicate knowledge and train them on how to effectively work and communicate with coworkers, irrespective of their dissimilarities (Hajro, 2017). Diversity training can also assist in reducing interpersonal issues within the organization.

There are multiple levels of diversity namely, surface level diversity and deep-level diversity. According to experts' characteristics such as age, ethnicity, religion, race, disability, and gender are demographic characteristics, and they are just the tip of the iceberg as they reveal surface-level diversity, and they do not reveal any feelings and thoughts processes. This level of diversity can lead workers to see one another through assumptions and stereotypes. Nonetheless, studies have illustrated that with time as individuals or groups get to know each other and intermingle, they become less anxious about regional and ethical dissimilarities if they see the more significant features or individualities like values and personalities, that symbolize deep-level diversity.

During my time in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, I witnessed more diversity than ever before, in the organization I worked in as well as outside the organization. I learned a lot about different cultures, people, beliefs, work ethics, the positives and negatives and about managing diversity and co-existing with different people under the same roof with the same goals to achieve. In my office, I had to work with other employees who were from Algeria, Syria, Philippines, Nepal, India, Georgia and Pakistan, etc. Almost everyone in my workplace was different from the other, with different accents, languages, beliefs, attitudes, and motivations. In the beginning, it was hard for me even to understand the accent of many of these coworkers, it took me a couple of months to get easy with their accents. When working in an organization with a diverse workforce, it is hard to know what people from different backgrounds expect from you and how to deal with them in a way that is more appropriate to them. Similarly, my coworkers experience the same difficulties when communicating with me, but with time things got nearly normal.

Organizations with diverse workforce should train their employees on how to communicate effectively with other coworkers and staff members. Also, new hires must be introduced to his or her coworkers so break the ice and have some understanding. Any communication issues or conflicts should be immediately reported and resolved. For this reason, it is imperative for an organizations success and productivity prepare its teams, and personnel's to successfully work and connect with each other, regardless of all the differences.

In my opinion, diversity in an organization is very advantageous for the employees and the organization. An organization with staff that belongs from different backgrounds and have unique personality traits add a lot of new sights and unique ways of work that usually is not possible with the same workforce. For instance, an individual from Africa can provide the organization with the insight or method of managing people of resolving a specific conflict in a way that is unique, very effective and not practiced in the home country of the organization. Moreover, people from various regions with various languages are able to communicate more effectively with diverse range customers or businesses, contributing to the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. Moreover, diversity is also very beneficial for employees. Working in an organization with dissimilar workforce adds tremendously to employees overall experience, especially, communication skills. Employees get hands-on experience working with different people, they learn and gain knowledge from people from around the world. Employees and managers acquire managing skills that cannot be learned from books usually. In addition, diversity increases organization and its staff confidence and morale. Diversity is in particular beneficial for organizations that operate on a global or international marketplace.


Motivation is a psychological or a mental phenomenon in which wants and needs of the individuals have to be tackled by outlining an encouragement plan. The word 'motive' means desires, needs, drives or wants within the individual. Motivation means something that pushes an individual to do something or work hard for his or her need or desire. It can also be termed as the process of encouraging people to activities to achieve the objectives. There are many factors that can push an individual to work hard such as, desire for money, appreciation, success, job satisfaction, etc. One of the major function of any manager or management is to provoke the employees to execute in the best of their capacities and talents.

One type of motivation is known as Self-motivation. Self-motivation is a strength that pushes an individual to keep moving forward. It inspires endless learning and achievement in all situations. Self-motivation is the most important means of achieving our goals and continuous development. It is essentially correlated to our imagination in setting vivacious objectives for ourselves, and our belief that we have the necessary abilities and skills for realizing those challenging objectives. The need for self-motivation is always felt, and we should find it one way or the other to keep going and achieving our goals.

There are three types of motivations, mainly divided into two groups; extrinsic and intrinsic. Scholars have identified a third kind of motivation that is said to be remarkably effective if the first two types do not work well. the first motivation type is known as extrinsic motivation. In extrinsic motivation, an individual reason for motivation for doing something or activity is to accomplish something or avoid something. For instance, if a student will work and study harder if he or she wants to get ‘Grade A' in his school exams, or avoid getting scolded by teachers or parents for not getting good grades. The second type of motivation is known as intrinsic motivation. The drive or eagerness inside of an individual to do something purposeful or be successful in something is termed as intrinsic motivation. For example, if I want to become a business person and earn a lot and desire to help my community through my business, I will work hard every day to achieve my goal and fulfill my desire. The third kind of motivation suggested by many scholars is Family. Many people believe that to provide for the family or do something for them has always been the primary motivation on an individual. So, if intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are weak or not available at some times, Family should be made one's motivation to achieve one's goals or targets.

There are multiple theories of motivation, for example, Theory X and Theory Y, Two-Factor Theory, McClelland's Theory of Needs, Self-Determination Theory, Goal-Setting Theory, Self-Efficacy Theory, Reinforcement Theory, Expectancy Theory, etc. The most well-known theory of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow. Maslow postulated that every human being has five needs basic needs that motivate them. First is Physiological need that Includes appetite, shelter, sex, thirst, and other physical needs; second in the hierarchy is the need for safety or security and shelter from emotional and physical harm. Third on the list is Social need that is needed for affection, acceptance, belongingness, and friendship. Fourth is Esteem; esteem refers to Internal aspects, for instance, self-respect, self-sufficiency, and accomplishment, and external factors include in social status, appreciation, and thoughtfulness. Lastly, Self-actualization; self- actualization is a determination to become what one feels capable of becoming; such as personal or professional growth, attaining ones potential, and self-fulfillment.

What motivates me comprises different factors. My first motivation is my family. Specifically my parents. From the beginning, I have always wanted to do something for my family, make them proud, provide them with basic necessities and more, etc. whatever I have done so far was for my family and their likes. The motivation that comes from family or because of the family is the most common and effective motivation. Other than that, I have my personal goals and imaginations of becoming something, achieving success and fulfilling my desires; moreover, meeting the expectations of people close to the organization I work for or me is also a motivational factor for me. I always want to meet and even exceed the expectations that people have from me, and therefore I work hard to make people proud or happy. When I started working in Kuwait, my motivation was to get exposure and experience and earn for my family; along with that was the motivation to serve the organization well that gave me the opportunity to work with them and help them in achieving their objectives.


To conclude, organizational behavior is all about being considerate of how the human resources and structure of an organization and the groups behave within the organization. Organizational behavior is the study of clarifying and forecasting its workforce and groups behaviors in order to keep the behavior aligned with the company’s objectives and mission. Diversity in an organization refers to the variety of its workforce, such as people having dissimilar backgrounds, different features, potentials, and philosophies, etc. Organizational diversity has its advantages and some challenges as well. Motivation, on the other hand, is something that drives people to do something, achieve or provide something in order to get satisfaction or realize their objectives. In my experience of job in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, I have come across all these features and learned that organizational behavior study is extremely important for the success of an organization; moreover, organizational diversity is very beneficial for the company as well as the employees, though it is challenging to handle diverse workforce. Lastly, motivation plays a key role in any individual work and success.


Hajro, A., Gibson, C. B., & Pudelko, M. (2017). Knowledge exchange processes in multicultural teams: Linking organizational diversity climates to teams’ effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 60(1), 345-372.

Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T.A. (2017) Organizational Behavior (17th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

Subject: Culture

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Orientialism And The Post-Colonial Critique


Professor name




Edward Said claims that orientalist representations and stereotypes exist in Arab countries and Middle East. Orientalism represents prejudices of the west and false representation of Arabs or Muslims. This term is used for imagining the differences between Arab people and other cultures such as United States and Europe. Middle East and Arab countries are viewed with prejudice and racism. West is inclined to view Middle East and Arab culture as uncivilized, backward and exotic. This reflects Middle East is still viewed as dangerous and unsafe place by the western people. west has constructed east as a very different and inferior place which is looking for rescue from the west. Orientalism is still existent in Middle East and Arab as women are wearing veils in most of the countries. It is mandatory for women to wear veils which is seen as a non-liberal side by the western people CITATION Muh98 \l 1033 (Abraham).

Existence of orientalism becomes more visible in the Arab spring that occurred in the twenty-first century. Arab spring is viewed by the west as a movement against tyranny and that resulted in revolution. The reason for the people in Egypt to unite against the monarchic regime was to follow the democratic model of the west. Orientalism is thus used for associating democracy with modernity. The existence of orientalism in the Middle East and Arab countries is also apparent in the stereotypes that convince people to recognize the political tyranny CITATION Lor17 \l 1033 (Ventura). Historic differences have been mediated by art and culture. This helped in the co-existence of two distinct cultures.

Western representation of Middle East and Arabs is deeply rooted in the western culture. West perceive Muslim countries as conservative and backward. This conceptualization existed since the first encounters of the Arabs with westerners. Arab expansion in Europe in the third millennium promoted some stereotypes about Muslims in the west. They were identified as aliens or enemy due to their uncivilized ways. Edward Said claims that west has played a negative role in promoting hatred against Muslims in the western countries. This became more apparent after the incident of 9/11 when every Muslim was seen as a terrorist. European and American coverage of Islam encouraged negative stereotypes against its followers CITATION Lor17 \l 1033 (Ventura). The western media creates representation of Middle East and Middle Easterners by displaying their anger and uncivilized ways. An Arab woman taking a veil is associated with conservativeness by the western media.

Orientalist representation of Muslims in the western world has created negative stereotypes such as Islamophobia. This representation has affected the people of America specifically after 9/11. Americans feel unsafe and paranoid in presence of an Arab or Middle Easterner. According to Said these stereotypes infected the relationship of Americans with Arabs. Mass arrests and discrimination against Muslims are common repercussions of such orientalism. Said mentioned, “if one speaks Arabic in public or reads a document in the Arabic language, one is under suspicion”. He further claimed that US remained silent over the brutal treatment of Israel towards Palestine but the foreign policy also considered Arabs as villains. These situations reflects intense hatred of American state towards Arabs and Muslims CITATION Lor17 \l 1033 (Ventura).

Based on the review of documentary it is appropriate to conclude that orientalism still exists in the Middle East and Arab. Middle East representation by the western media exhibits cultural ascendency by showing them backward, uncivilized and aggressive. Media and western foreign policy largely changed the views of westerners towards easterners. The central claim made by the west is that Middle-east is lacking the same democratic values.

Work cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ventura, Lorella. " The “Arab Spring” and Orientalist Stereotypes: The Role of Orientalism in the Narration of the Revolts in the Arab World." International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 19.2 (2017).

Abraham, Matthew. " The Rhetoric of Academic Controversy after 9/11: Edward Said in the American Imagination ." Arab Studies Quarterly 24.1 (2004).

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Paper Revised

Mingjia Zhao



Chinese Rice


Every country has its own culture and lifestyle. They are famous for their religious beliefs, culture, and food. China is the country whenever rice is always discussed with its name. China is well known for growing and cooking rice. However, the land of the whole of China is not favorable for rice growth. Rice is cultivating in the southern region of the country while the northern area due to its cold climate that is not suitable for rice growth. In addition, both regions have different consumption level of rice as Southern region consumes more rice than the northern region that prefers wheat over rice. As China is the largest producer of the rice it provides thirty percent of the total rice to the world. Therefore, due to higher production people of China consume a large percentage of rice domestically ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qoXjOeoJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Boston and Ma 02115 +1495\\uc0\\u8209{}1000)","plainCitation":"(Boston and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":639,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/JHKR4MBW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/JHKR4MBW"],"itemData":{"id":639,"type":"webpage","title":"Rice","container-title":"The Nutrition Source","abstract":"Rice is a main staple in more than 100 countries worldwide. [1] In some households, rice is included with more than one meal a day. This starchy high-calorie grain is generally low cost, making it …","URL":"https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/food-features/rice/","language":"en-us","author":[{"family":"Boston","given":"677 Huntington Avenue"},{"family":"Ma 02115 +1495‑1000","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018",9,24]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Boston and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000). The main purpose of the paper is to get more information regarding the diet pattern and rice importance in China. With the increase in the production and usage of rice in the life of Chinese people, rice got the place in their traditions and rituals. This paper will cater the details of the festival and role of rice as tradition and rituals to indicate the fact that rice is not only the economic component, it is also the part of traditions and rituals.


Growth and consumption of rice in China have a history itself. From ten thousand years ago, rice is growing and eating within the country. It was the time when the population of China was limited to lower Yangzai. Yangzai region was favorable for the growth of rice; therefore, people started cultivating rice in the region. Initially, the growth was limited due to which price was higher for the common people. Therefore, only rich people were able to consume rice during the Zhou dynasty. Rice became the regular meal at the time of the Han dynasty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wcF5MZnm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"({\\i{}Rice in China})","plainCitation":"(Rice in China)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":638,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/9PIUZRW5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/9PIUZRW5"],"itemData":{"id":638,"type":"webpage","title":"Rice in China","URL":"https://www.chinasage.info/rice.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rice in China). With the passage of time growth of China increased the rice production and it became the symbol of success and failure of the country. With the belief of success and failure based on rice, people of China use festival cakes made up of rice on the occasion of "double nine". The festival happens on the 9th of the ninth lunar month. This is the time when people finished harvesting rice and therefore cakes are made up from the fresh new rice. People carry this food while climbing the mountain on this day.

Rice became part of the festival. At different festivals, different types of rice food are used to show rice's ritual and traditional importance. For instance, the concept of lucky meals. During Lunar New Year and spring festival special meal get ready which consist of the number of dishes. Food varies from region to region however, few dishes become the part of everyone’s dinner. These dishes include Jiaozi, noodles, Buddha's delight, mandarin oranges, and glutinous rice cake. Rice plays an important role in this festival. Jiaozi are eaten at midnight is the symbol of wealth and prosperity which is made up of rice. Noodles also made by rice especially in the southern region, however, in north noodles of wheat are used. According to the tradition, people do not cut these noodles and leave them long, it symbolizes longevity. Then there are the glutinous rice cakes known as Nian gao is eaten. It is made up of sugar, sticky rice, and other ingredients. Eating rice cakes symbolizes prosperity. The reason behind calling it happy meal is the belief that eating this meal and the food that left behind indicates that how will be the next year for the person or for the whole family.

Technology advancement and efficient use of resources helped China to grow as the biggest supplier of rice. To grow rice, lots of water is required. In China two methods are used to supply water include; flooding to suppress weeds and irrigation. Irrigation supply water to ninety percent of the land. About 298,997,512 acres of land is used for the cultivation of rice in the country. Other than irrigation, high rainfall is the source to provide water to the fields. In comparison between the southern region and the northern region of the country, the southern region is excellent for the growth of rice. The climate in both regions is totally different. One side is the northern area with its cold climate unable to produce rice on its land. Another side is the southern region which is perfect for rice production due to its warm climate and this is why the region is able to produce two harvests each year. South China supply rice to North China to fulfill their rice demand over there. The northern region of China produces wheat and therefore wheat is the regular meal of the region rather than rice. People in the north prefer wheat items like wheat noodles and dumplings whereas rice is the regular meal in the south. However, rice dumplings are used in both the region during the fifteenth night of the first lunar month. This is the first full moon of the New Year on which people eat rice dumplings. In the northern region, these rice dumplings are known as Tangyuan while in the southern region people call it Yuanxiao. The reason behind eating rice dumplings is the belief that it will bring satisfaction and everything will be fine in the future.

There are two types of rice which are white rice and brown rice. White rice is the refined form of brown rice; therefore, fewer nutrients are present in it than brown rice. Brown rice is full of fiber while white rice does not contain fiber. People of China use more white rice than brown rice hence the nutrition level is low. 94% in China consume three meals a day while 5% take only two meals every day. As they use more white rice than brown rice, according to that their nutrients consist of carbs and protein. Rice is a complete diet with 130 calories, 28.7g carbs, 69% of water, and 2.4g protein. White rice does not contain sugar and fiber with a minor amount of fat. Rice is composed of water and carbs where carbs are starch. Starch is the form of carbohydrates and its percentage vary according to the type of rice. High digestibility is the disadvantage of sticky rice and it is not good for the patient of high blood pressure and diabetes. There are different uses of rice, various kind of dishes are made up of rice. Glutinous rice is available in the package. It is the stickiest rice which is wrapped in the bamboo leaves after cooking. During dragon boat festive the consumption of glutinous rice increases. The festival takes place during the fifth lunar month. The dish made up of glutinous rice known as zongzi is eaten by the people. People eat zongzi in the memory of Qu Yuan, an official of the Chu state. He committed suicide by jumping into the Miluo river. People not only eat zongzi but they also throw a large quantity of zongzi into the river with the belief that by doing this fish will not eat the body of Qu Yuan. Another use of rice is in the form of flour. Rice flour is commonly used in China. Noodles made up of rice are used in everyday meal. In addition, fermenting rice is used to make wines.

If we look at the economic view of rice, it can be understood that rice is a big part of the country's revenue. This is why it is considered as the symbol of success and failure in the country. China is the world largest producer of rice. It produces 30% percent of the world's high-quality rice. Therefore, it is considered as an important export item. High production of rice makes the price of the rice lower domestically. Low price enables middle and lower class people to consume more amount of rice. This is one of the reasons that rice is used at a large scale within the country. By using 298,997,512 acres of land for the production of rice, China is getting high revenue by exporting it. In addition, the demand for rice in the northern region of China is also fulfilling by providing them rice from the Southern region ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"OggLb9Mk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yuan et al.)","plainCitation":"(Yuan et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":641,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SKLBJNF3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/SKLBJNF3"],"itemData":{"id":641,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population","container-title":"Nutrients","volume":"9","issue":"9","source":"PubMed Central","abstract":"The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association with typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Data from 14,584 participants (≥2 years) from the CHNS-2011, including three 24-h dietary recalls and additional variables, were used to develop the CHEI. The standard portion size was applied to quantify food consumption. The CHEI was designed as a continuous scoring system, comprising 17 components; the maximum total score is 100. The mean, 1st and 99th percentiles of the CHEI score were 52.4, 27.6 and 78.3, respectively. Young and middle-aged adults scored better than the elderly. Diet insufficiency was chiefly manifested in fruits, dairy, whole grains and poultry; diet excess was mainly reflected in red meat, cooking oils and sodium. The CHEI was positively associated with education and urbanization levels; current smokers and unmarried people obtained relative low CHEI scores. Occupation and body mass index (BMI) were also related to the CHEI. Our findings indicate that the CHEI is capable of recognizing differences in diet quality among the Chinese, and it is sensitive to typical sociodemographic/economic factors.","URL":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622737/","DOI":"10.3390/nu9090977","ISSN":"2072-6643","note":"PMID: 28872591\nPMCID: PMC5622737","journalAbbreviation":"Nutrients","author":[{"family":"Yuan","given":"Ya-Qun"},{"family":"Li","given":"Fan"},{"family":"Dong","given":"Rui-Hua"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Jing-Si"},{"family":"He","given":"Geng-Sheng"},{"family":"Li","given":"Shu-Guang"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Bo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",9,5]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,13]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yuan et al.).

Rice is the part of rituals, festivals, and the economy of the country. However, it is not the only food consumed by the people of the country at large scale. The most interesting fact is that with this much high consumption, rice is not the main meal of the people. For instance, during the 8th day of the twelfth lunar month, people eat porridge. Unlike other festivals where food made up of rice is being used as ritual, people use porridge made with dried fruits, beans, wheat, cereals are used. Rice porridge is also used however people do not eat it as ritual or tradition. This is the day when people bath Buddha. A large percentage of produced rice is consumed by the southern area where northern region prefer wheat as it is more economical than rice there. People in China use meat and eat almost all animals. The common meat they use included; chicken, perking duck, pork meat, mutton, and beef. Meat can be cooked separately or they add it with rice. Besides meat numbers of vegetables are being cooked in the country. Vegetables that are commonly used include; Chinese eggplant, Chinese cabbage, cucumbers, potatoes, and white radish. Vegetables can be cooked along with the rice. For instance, fried rice is the famous food in China which consists of white rice along with different vegetables and boiled egg in it. As rice is not the main meal for the people therefore, they add vegetables or meat dishes with rice. The basic role of the rice is to fill the stomach. Therefore, people eat special dishes of meat or vegetables and then eat white rice with it to fill their stomach. Foods that are served with rice includes; salad, vegetables, burritos, sweet stuff, and soup. The most favorite food of Chinese is Chew Mein. Chew Mein consist of noodles made up of rice along with different vegetables and small pieces of meat in it. It is, therefore, full of nutrient as all three main food that is rice, vegetables, and meat is used in one dish. People in the Northern region also eat Chew Mein but they use wheat noodles more than the rice noodles in it.


Rice is the most common grain used in China. China is growing rice from about ten thousand years ago. Rice makes China's economy strong by producing about thirty percent of world rice. However, not the whole country harvests rice. It is the southern region that produces rice because the Northern area is not suitable for rice production due to its cold climate. The southern region produces rice which meets the demand of rice for the Northern region of the country as well as the demand of the world market. Southern region harvests rice twice a year. People of China uses white rice which consists of carbohydrates, protein, and fewer amount of fat. It does not contain fiber and sugar. Therefore, it is the food item full of nutrient for the people. The consumption of rice in the country is high still; rice is not the main meal of the people. They use it to fill the stomach after eating special food made up of different vegetables or meat. There are numbers of uses of rice that is boiled rice, noodles, flour, and wine made up of fermenting rice. Chew Mein is the favorite dish of the Chinese that contains rice noodles, vegetables, and meat all in one dish. Besides this number of dishes are made from rice. The main reason for the high consumption of rice is high production. High production keeps the price of rice lower and therefore, more people are able to consume it as a normal food item. Rice is the part of ritual, festival, and economy of the country. Eating and using pattern of rice indicates the importance of rice related to the rituals and tradition of the people. There are numbers of festivals where different type of rice is used as a tradition. First, rice cake is used as a tradition. Second, rice dumplings are eaten throughout the country with the belief that the future will be according to their wish. Third, people eat zongzi during the dragon boat festival. People also throw it into the river to prevent the fish eating body of Qu Yuan body. In addition, people use rice food during double nine festival and 8th day of the twelfth lunar month. All these eating patterns of rice made food indicates that rice is not only the economic component of the country, it is also a part of the traditions and rituals of the people.

Work Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue, and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000. “Rice.” The Nutrition Source, 24 Sept. 2018, https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/food-features/rice/.

Rice in China. https://www.chinasage.info/rice.htm. Accessed 13 May 2019.

Yuan, Ya-Qun, et al. “The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population.” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 9, Sept. 2017. PubMed Central, doi:10.3390/nu9090977.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Paper 1


[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note


In the poem ‘Bar’s Fight’, Lucy Terry demonstrated the attack by American Natives on the white families. The poem is written in couplets and every line has a different length and number of syllables which makes the metre irregular and uneven. The poem lacks poetic prowess and doesn’t have attractive metaphors. However, its real beauty lies in its simplicity. The poem explained the attack of Indians on white people. Lucy seemed to have known these families personally. Terry tried to express her gratitude in regards to the attack and her admiration for the deceased people. Despite this deep emotion, Terry is able to describe the happenings of attack quite vividly.

The explanation of stanzas chosen for this assignment, along with the questions they propose is given below.

The names of whom I’ll not leave out,

She states here that she will not mention the victims of the attack, which might be her way of giving privacy and respect to the deserving deceased men.

Samuel Allen like a hero foute,

The way Lucy described the white people, proves her close relationship with them. In this phrase, the word ‘foute’ is used which has no particular definition and is supposed to be an alternate spelling for ‘fought’, which in this context would make clear sense. Another possibility is that it was a misspelled to make it rhyme with ‘out’ in the previous phrase.

And though he was so brave and bold,

Mr. Allen was quite a fighter!

His face no more shall we behold.

This line says that the bravery of Mr. Allen could not stop his death. However, it is not clear that the poetess used euphemism for explaining his death or the phrase has a literal meaning. Was Allen’s face brutalized?

Eleazer Hawks was killed outright,

The death of this guy was quick, which in this context is a good thing.

Before he had time to fight,

He didn’t even was allowed to reason, as they were all ambushed.

Before he did the Indians see,

This phrase confirms that Mr. Hawks was taken out by surprise. An interesting thing to note here is that the kind and level of details mentioned here could only precisely be described by someone who observed the event. However, Lucy didn’t witness the attack and used her creative liberty here.

Was shot and killed immediately.

He was shot down and didn’t get the praise that Allen did. The question raises here is that what was the reason for his sudden death? Did he fail to put up an attack? However, his death seems quite cruel as he didn’t have an opportunity to defend himself.

Oliver Amsden he was slain,

The description here is not detailed and it gets directly to the point that Oliver was killed.

Which caused his friends much grief pain.

This phrase acts as a pace changer here as it mentions the consequences of this tragedy.

Simeon Amsden they found dead

Again not a detailed description at all. Mr. Amsden was found to be dead.

Not many rods from Oliver’s head.

An interesting thing to notice here is that Oliver’s corpse is mentioned as “rods” from his head. Was it just his head? The rod mentioned here is for explaining the measurement, although it was quite a long distance so it seems to be a little odd choice to mention it here.

Throughout the poem, the tone of the poetess seems to be very sorry and wistful. The stanzas explained above clearly depicts the sadness and sorrow in her heart for the deceased white people. In the first line, she said that she will not reveal the victims of the attack. And right after that throughout the poem, she mentioned the names of the deceased ones along with their brief description. She knew about the hardships and troubles faced by the victims during the attack and in order to show them respect, she decided to give them the privacy they deserve. But as the poem progresses, she just couldn’t control her emotions and mentioned a few white men who lost their lives in the tragedy. The details of the victims mentioned by the poetess show that she knew them very well and was deeply connected with them. Lucy, in the form of this poem, tried to pay the white men, tribute for their sacrifices.

In the poem, Lucy expressed her gratitude to the white people attacked by the Indians. However, In the ‘Criteria Of Negro Art’, Dubois focused on three things. According to Dubois, the real beauty of the world lies will be unleashed only when black Americans will be given equal rights as white Americans. Secondly, no piece of art is useful unless it is used for a proper agenda or propaganda. According to Dubois, the art presented by the people of any community must ensure that the basic rights of living are provided to the people of that community. And the last important point explained by Dubois in his essay is that he predicted that the art presented by the black Americans will not be appreciated. He had this doubt in his mind that the black Americans will never get the facilities that white Americans had at that time.

The following two paragraphs are taken from his essay:

[31] The ultimate judge has got to be you and you have got to build yourselves up into that wide judgment, that catholicity of temper which is going to enable the artist to have his widest chance for freedom. We can afford the truth. White folk today cannot. As it is now we are handing everything over to a white jury. If a colored man wants to publish a book, he has got to get a white publisher and a white newspaper to say it is great; and then you and I say so. We must come to the place where the work of art when it appears is reviewed and acclaimed by our own free and unfettered judgment. And we are going to have a real and valuable and eternal judgment only as we make ourselves free of mind, proud of body and just of the soul to all men.

[32] And then do you know what will be said? It is already saying. Just as soon as true art emerges; just as soon as the black artist appears, someone touches the race on the shoulder and says, "He did that because he was an American, not because he was a Negro; he was born here; he was trained here; he is not a Negro -- what is a Negro anyhow? He is just human; it is the kind of thing you ought to expect."

In the first paragraph, Dubois said that we must perceive a piece of art by black Americans in the same way as we receive them from white Americans. The real judge only judges the content, not its creator. He explained the fact that black Americans became dependent on white Americans almost for everything. He said that to publish a book written by a black person, he got to have a white publisher and a white newspaper in favor of him. Otherwise, any piece of literature or art done by any black American cannot be published. He insisted upon this very important point again and again that black Americans must be awarded the equal rights and opportunities as white Americans. Also, to ensure fair and real judgment, it is necessary for people to consider everyone equal in all regards.

In the second paragraph, Dubois gave an example of the piece of art presented by a black American. He said that if by any chance, a piece of art made by a black American comes under the liking of white Americans, then the white Americans will try to take the credit on their own. They will say that he (black American) was born and risen here and now he has created this masterpiece only because he is an American. They will not appreciate the Negros, whatsoever. At the end of the paragraph, Dubois asked this question that who are Negros anyway? And right after that, he said that they are just humans like all other humans in the world, but unfortunately, they are not treated fairly.

In the above-mentioned paragraphs, Dubois explained the unfair situation faced by black Americans. They were not given equal rights and luxuries as white Americans. They were not treated fairly. Their art was not appreciated and if it does get appreciated, the white Americans would not give the credit to Negros. Dubois wanted to uplift black Americans. He wanted to see them standing on their own. He wanted to convey this important message to them that they are not worthless and that they are created the same way as the white Americans and all other humans in the world. The only difference between the people of different communities is those which are created by people themselves. The Negros must become independent and stay positive and produce the stuff that they must own. They must show the world that they are equally capable of doing and creating amazing stuff (art) as the white Americans are, and they must fight for their equal rights.

This essay, ‘Criteria of Negro Art’ is a true depiction of the unfair events and happenings with black Americans. Dubois not only mentioned the unfair treatment but also provided the Negros with a suitable yet hard solution. He tried to motivate them to work hard and prove their real worth. He made them believe that they have equal and perfect capabilities to produce extraordinary pieces of art. He wanted to see them rise and fight for their agenda of equality.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

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