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Culture Heritage And Traditions

Culture Heritage and Traditions

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Culture Heritage and Traditions

US culture

My culture and heritage are tied to the culture of the United States of America. The culture I belong to is diverse in its composition. The culture of the United States of America is predominantly known as western culture. It has its own cultural and social characteristics. Such characteristics can be widely observed in the language, literature, religion, socio-economic stratification, arts, fashion, cuisine and the lifestyles of people in the united states of America. The culture of the United States of America has its roots in European culture due to imperialistic and colonial historical influences. The culture is inclusive of both the conservative and liberal charateristics which are displayed predominantly in their political, religious, materialistic and family structures; deeply inherent throughout the geographical parameters of the country. Although with the advancement of popular culture the religious notions are diminishing, many Christian notions are vividly seen in the functioning of day to day lives such celebration of Christmas, births, deaths, and marriages. The gender roles are part of the US culture the dominant roles of sustenance and the inequalities are although less, however, men and women both, are still subject to stereotypes of sustenance, child bearing, and work and economic relations. The United States recognizes and gives liberty to people to have sexual orientation of their choice. Therefore the LGBT community is widely recognized and supported within my culture. The social stratification is prominently eminent in the culture as distinct lifestyles, patterns of economic spending and the consumption patterns are associated with different social groups acquiring social statuses at its cente CITATION Sey02 \l 1033 r (Benhabib, 2002). Social status can be ascribed and achieved. It is deeply rooted in the economic depth of the individuals status. The education levels also play a great part in identifying and classifying the socio-economic status of an individual. The social strata are highly dependent on the income volatility in society. The underprivileged and the disabled are treated with the utmost respect and care. They are supported by initiatives of community and the state. US culture is by large dominated by exquisite, all-embracing and liberal set of norms and values.


Family Values and Structure

The Americans are viewed widely as friendly, happy and generous by the other ethnicities. They are categorized as uncomplicated and standard bearing individuals who endorse the ideals of freedom and respect each other's rights and uphold human dignity. Although many races and ethnicities do not like the idea of the US as a superpower, therefore they envy it and criticize the American culture unrequitedly. Although this is the case and Americans are criticized for their way of life, they are widely appreciated for their effort and contribution in the global issues from human rights to sustainability is under developing countries.

Pride in heritage and culture

I'm extremely proud of my culture as it is all inclusive and endorses the spirit of equality and freedom. The freedoms reflect freedom of religion, choice, expression, and speech. The united states of America due to its historical background is known for its cultural diversity that creates one single culture known as the American culture. American culture welcomes all and is all-embracing. The American culture int5egrates all within it.

Comparative analysis

The American culture is very different from other cultures, for instance, the Mexican, Indian and Asian cultures which sub-exist with it. The difference in family values, genderroels, and socio-economic relations are very much evident in these cultures CITATION Sey02 \l 1033 (Benhabib, 2002). The American culture is a strong proponent of liberal freedoms however, the Indian and Mexican cultures may not as accepting as the Amerian cultures are towards freedom of choice, decisions about marriage, sexual orientation and family structures i.e. extended families. The world views of American culture that of a melting pot, the liberties and opportunities attract people from various cultures to be part of it.

Hollywood stereotyping American Culture

The display of American culture through Hollywood can be seen around the world reach to the world. The media portrayal of American culture portrays that the stereotypical white supremacy, prejudices, and biases which later take depth in the development of the societal perceptions amongst its members CITATION Pet05 \l 1033 (Decherney, 2005). The media, however, misrepresents the American culture distortedly portrays either imperfections or perfections in the society. Media, therefore, instills the spirit of divisibility amongst the union.

Strategizing inclusion in the workplace despite media stereotypes.

The inequalities represented by the media regarding the women as acquiring certain jobs , blonde as dumb, or cold when at high-end positions; people with diverse sexual orientation are looked down upon, while the indigenous groups are preferably underestimated due to their ethnicities rather than talents or skill acquired. The Asians and Indians are represented as nerds or geeks. Therefore, as a manager I would iniate, programs that enforce the mediums of equality, create awareness amongst the employs to eliminate their unconscious biases against their fellow co-workers by communicating with them.


The American culture is by far known for its diversity and upholding of the mediums of liberty. The liberties define the course of culture and functioning of individuals within it. The US has been identified as a primarily attracting force for all other cultures due to its inclusive features. This creates an environment of interdependence and co-existence amongst the nations. Hence it can be derived that American culture prides itself with individualism. It is for anyone and everyone. It does not complex and complicates the ideals of a culture adding value to those who are part of it.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Benhabib, S. (2002). The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton University Press.

Decherney, P. (2005). Hollywood and the Culture Elite: How the Movies Became American. Columbia University Press.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Culture Pluralism

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Culture Pluralism

The social factors like poverty, class, and discrimination are all interconnected with the other factors like race, gender, age, background and schooling. The class, gender, race, and ethnicity are the factors which form the whole society and variety of contexts for the people through the unequal dispersion of opportunities and facilities (Andersen, and Collins, np). The class discrimination is due to the inequality concerning the power and authority, which is higher for some groups than the other creating discrimination in society. The social groups are defined and treated on the bases of these discriminations. This essay is going to focus on the relation between social factors like age, race, gender, and schooling with poverty or discrimination.

The social class is defined by the person’s background, ethnicity or economic rank in the society. The variations among the cultures of people make their social class distinct from each other. There are three classes into which society is divided, lower, middle and upper class. The lower level is defined by extreme poverty, then the middle class which is also known as working class of the society and then comes the upper class which has the opportunities of the community at their door due to the abundance of money. Whereas, the racial categories are defined by the allocation of power, prestige, social resources and privilege in the society. Thus, making one race superior to the other by creating an imbalanced approach towards the racial segregation.

The racism gives rise to the lack of economic resources and bad living conditions for the people of a minority race, such that Hispanics, black and Asian Americans. Racial stratification creates various ways through which families shape themselves for prevailing in a society (Andersen, and Collins, np). Employment problems, segregation, and poverty are the main hurdles for the well-being & family formation differing from an idealized family. Moreover, the children from a minor race are subjected to discrimination on the educational level, and they do not receive proper schooling. Hence they lack behind many privileged students in the society who have opportunities to attend school.

The gender, likewise class and race, has the diversification at the hands of society. There are a set of rules and roles defined according to the gender specifications. Women are the oppressed gender-type in the society, and they face discrimination at the hands of more powerful gender; men. The intersectionality of gender-based inequality with the other racial or ethnicity-based discrimination is obvious and inevitable because these factors or constructs are related to each other. They have a combined adverse effect on each other, such that patriarchy shapes the families side by side with the other social organizations, like public and private institutes.

The sociological studies of cultures have always taken together with the race, gender or class, and other social elements as well as sexual orientation and schooling. This makes the phenomenon of intersectionality. Although these factors are discussed separately, these are interlinked with one another, such that the influence of one element is over the other. The outcomes of socioeconomic class, gender, and race on the academic and non-academic well-being of the children are also one factor which is caused due to this social inequality. It highlights the intersectionality of gender, racial or class-based discrimination which affects the outcome of adult life (Andersen, and Collins, np).

Thus all these factors are combined in the formation of class discrimination of poverty in the society. As these factors of class, gender, race, and ethnicity form the whole community and variety of contexts for the people through the unequal distribution of opportunities and amenities. Therefore the interconnection of these constructs is possible in one way and not likely in the other.

Works Cited

Andersen, Margaret, and Patricia Hill Collins. Race, class, & gender: An anthology. Nelson Education, 2015.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Culture Work Preference Paper

Culture Work Preference Paper

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Culture Work Preference Paper

Geert Hofstede, the Dutch academic provided a framework to model the difference between the nations based on culture. The popular five dimensions of culture comprise Individualism versus Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity versus Femininity, Long-Term Orientation, Power Distance, and indulgence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Z239WcSh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":996,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"itemData":{"id":996,"type":"book","title":"Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions","author":[{"family":"Hofstede","given":"Geert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hofstede, 2009). According to him, the organizational members share a system defined as the organizational culture. After his unique research, he was able to distinguish between the cultures of different nations. Later one more dimension was added to the five dimensions of culture i.e. indulgence. Sometimes personal preferences may differ from the national culture, but generally huge differences are not observed. Here is an outlook on the five key dimensions given by Hofstede along with the personal preferences in each dimension.

The first dimension is the power distance, emphasize the degree to which power distribution is done on the equality principles, and the degree to which such distribution is accepted by the people of society. A society where high power distance culture is preferred is characterized by hierarchical bureaucracies and high respect for authorities. On the other hand, the culture opposite to that favors autonomy and responsibility. Since everybody is unique in a society, and there is a probability that the cultural preferences of one are different from that of the whole society. As part of reflecting on personal preference in terms of power distance, I prefer a decentralized working environment where employees are empowered and everyone takes part in decision making.

In addition, I believe a good working environment offers some level of autonomy of decision making to each individual ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"38tAymTV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mulki, Caemmerer, & Heggde, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Mulki, Caemmerer, & Heggde, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":998,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/B5N38ATC"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/B5N38ATC"],"itemData":{"id":998,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leadership style, salesperson's work effort and job performance: the influence of power distance","container-title":"Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management","page":"3-22","volume":"35","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Mulki","given":"Jay P."},{"family":"Caemmerer","given":"Barbara"},{"family":"Heggde","given":"Githa S."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Mulki, Caemmerer, & Heggde, 2015). In this way, every individual is involved in the decisions taken by an organization. The cultural preference has a huge impact on the behavior in an organization and how others perceive one as an organizational member. Being an advocate of a decentralized culture and empowered environment, I always try to incorporate my ideas in my work. I want others to give importance to my opinion and I never refrain from making a constructive addition to the work I am required to do. For instance, if I were assigned a report to compile, I would always strive to do my best putting my knowledge and expertise. In my organization, I am generally perceived competent due to this behavior, except for those people who like to simply take orders and please bosses.

The second dimension is uncertainty avoidance, which deals with the degree to which people of a society are willing to take the risk ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"X2wFm8ud","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":996,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"itemData":{"id":996,"type":"book","title":"Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions","author":[{"family":"Hofstede","given":"Geert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hofstede, 2009). The society low on the scores of uncertainty avoidance prefers a high level of standardization. I always prefer and encourage calculated risks. Though I have a fair degree of acceptance for novel ideas I believe in taking calculated risks and I am sometimes anxious about unknown situations and unknown outcomes of decisions. Fear of unknown plays a part in my decisions and hence I evaluate all the aspects before reaching a conclusion. American society is generally scored low on this dimension which means they are daring, risk-takers and always willing to welcome new ideas or innovations. Taking calculated risk is a good approach in business decisions, and I never try to hesitate in making well-informed decisions whether it is about doing a job or a small decision as part of my work routine. This attitude is not all the time appreciated since our society believes avoiding risks makes one settle for ordinary.

The third dimension of Individualism versus Collectivism is based on the idea, degree to which members of a society prefers self-interests over their collective interests. Group needs and preferences are important than personal needs, and on the contrary free will is favored in the individual culture. It also impacts what role state has to play in the matters of the nation. American culture is one of the most individualist cultures, and people do not rely a lot on others for support. Self-interests are preferred over group-interests, however, I find myself a little low individualistic culture. I believe that the success and achievement of the group is the success of the individual belonging to that group, but the individual interests must not be hurt over group interests. Same goes with a person working in an organization, organizational goals must be proffered to the personal goals. Such an attitude has resulted in good relationships with the peers and bosses and mostly other organizational members also perceive this behavior as admirable.

The next dimension deals with the masculinity and femininity. Masculinity is associated with liking for heroism, accomplishment, assertiveness and material reward for success ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HJ6Ynn0L","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","plainCitation":"(Hofstede, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":996,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/9IR7QGWG"],"itemData":{"id":996,"type":"book","title":"Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions","author":[{"family":"Hofstede","given":"Geert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hofstede, 2009). On the other hand, femininity is linked with modesty, cooperation, quality of life. My value system also supports the idea of competition, achievement and success. Success is a high motivator for me and I also “live to work” to get success in whatever I do, but I prefer not to attain success based on inequality and bias. Achievement and accomplishment give a sense of pride and also improves one standing in an organization. Others perceive one as diligent and it also improved my working relationship with others, since they liked to work with me when I attained the title of being the best employee based on monthly performance. I believe it also encourages one to behave in accordance with the work demands and job requirements efficiently.

The last dimension is long-term vs short-term orientation. A society characterized by the long-term orientation focuses on the forward-thinking values and embraces long-term devotion. Long-term rewards and relationships are expected in such societies. On the other hand, a short-term oriented society relies on quick turnaround. Employees in such societies also change their jobs more frequently. I am very practical when it comes to decision making, but I always consider the short-term results of my actions. I believe in striving for the quick results and outcomes of decisions in my personal and professional life. Such an approach encourages one to work best to obtain quick results and outcomes. Eventually, it creates a behavior of being a workaholic, working hard to obtain the optimal results. Other organizational members also consider such a person competent and overachiever.

One more dimension has been added to the model and that is termed as an indulgence ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9TSK6QFD","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hofstede, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Hofstede, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1000,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EIU822HJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/EIU822HJ"],"itemData":{"id":1000,"type":"article-journal","title":"Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context","container-title":"Online readings in psychology and culture","page":"8","volume":"2","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Hofstede","given":"Geert"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hofstede, 2011). This emphasizes a free culture, in which one does everything as per choice and what feels good to him or her. Opposite to that is a restrained culture. Cultural preferences and norms play a huge role in interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Hofstede cultural dimension is a guide on developing an understanding of the culture of different dimensions. Furthermore, knowledge of these dimensions helps understand the national and organizational cultural values in contrast to one’s own. I believe the strengths and weaknesses of each of my preferences for each cultural dimension differs from situation to situation. Each situation must be analyzed carefully can leverage the strength of my own preferences and reduce the weaknesses associated with it. Moreover, relying merely on personal preferences in case of decision making in each scenario may not be helpful. Careful and informed decisions can reduce any risks and can enhance the probability of positive outcomes.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hofstede, G. (2009). Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 8.

Mulki, J. P., Caemmerer, B., & Heggde, G. S. (2015). Leadership style, salesperson’s work effort and job performance: The influence of power distance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(1), 3–22.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Deaf Culture In Another Country And How It Compares To The American Deaf.

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Deaf culture and American Deaf


Deaf culture is a culture that represents the culture of the people who are deaf. These people belong to the same classification of people in terms of "set of abilities to communicate through signs as well as disabilities" (Knoors). American deaf is a culture that comprises Americans who are deaf or hard to hear and they consider this difference as a culture or logistic identity. This culture is a representation of American Sign Language that is meant to meet the requirement of language that can help such people communicate (Knoors). In fact, American Sign Language is considered as a code to represent the people who are learning sign language to facilitate communication. Deaf culture and American Deaf is a world, a culture and an approach to language that negates the idea of disability with that of differently-abled.


Deaf culture refers to the culture in which people look at each other while they are communicating. Deaf culture is called a separate culture because it refers to the group of people having alike impairments. Deaf culture is separated by the other people by using a capital “D”, representing significance and importance. There are different behaviors, values, and traditions that are associated with deaf culture. These features are, promoting an environment that can support vision as a prime source of communication. It helps to create value for the children who are deaf by teaching them the use of ASL, along with support for bilingual education for the children so that they can be competent in learning other languages (Center).

Deaf culture can be compared to the American Deaf, sharing the idea that there is a culture of different people, who may lack one ability (hearing) but they learn a lot of other abilities and skills that can help them address the needs of their fellow beings who are like them. However, Deaf culture is a cultural matrix in which different people are taught everything by keeping their difference in consideration. While American Deaf infers the idea that there are very fewer students who are able to learn about humanity as well as the sentiments of others who are like them by studying American Sign language (Knoors).

Deaf culture is compared to American Deaf because both the departments are meant to empower the impaired people in such a way that impaired people can think of themselves as different people rather than disabled people and they can play an equal role in the progress of their society (Center). Deaf Culture, like American deaf, is a motivation that mitigates the idea that the people who cannot hear are the still or useless beings on the Earth, in fact, such people are taught the skills of communication by using sign language and other training programs. The underlying aim of both the cultures is to strive for the significance of language as a source that can fulfill the needs of words. Deaf culture parallel to American deaf aims at breaking down stigmas related to culture. Cultural and identity stigmas are addressed by incorporating those training and sources of skills that can help impair people to achieve the status of a person with good hearing skills (Singer, pp. 98-115). According to one of the Deaf advocates, “When you are deaf, you see the world in an entirely different way. Even, you communicate in a different way and you look for others who are deaf because both of you can understand each other well. You don't agree with the idea that you have a disability and you don’t feel the need of changing it” (Center).

It would not be wrong to say that American Deaf and Deaf culture depicts testimony to the profound possibilities and needs of human beings. In order to help such people, sign language is formulated that is rich enough to let impaired people make a sense of this world by creating meaning out of the signs and symbols. These platforms are a vision to mitigate the idea of being “deaf or hard to hear” that is counted as a disability in today’s society (Singer, pp. 98-115). Under this cultural identity, people with hearing impairment are taught and trained to communicate with each other by using pictures and signs, adhering to the notion that they are better than other people because they consider the significance of eye-contact (Knoors). In a simplified form, this statement reflects the idea that people who are good at hearing do not bother looking at people where eyes are the best communicator, in contrast, deaf people communicate by looking at each other. It also determines that deaf give respect and worth to the people by looking at them and communication is facilitated by using signs and pictures (Singer, pp. 98-115).


American Deaf and Deaf culture present culture that defines people with specific impairments as people with some common traits making them representatives of another culture. Both the platforms or visions are meant for standardizing the people who are hard to hear by teaching them to communicate by using sign language. Moreover, deaf people are considered as another culture, because of the ability to communicate with others by using signs. In a nutshell, deaf culture, and American Deaf are empowered by making them realize that they are no less than normal people. In fact, they are better people because they can communicate in a far better way (eye contact and complete attention) as compared to other people.

Work Cited

Center, Gallaudet. "American Deaf Culture." Www3.gallaudet.edu. N. p., 2019 Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/deaf-culture/american-deaf-culture.html

Knoors, H., Brons, M., & Marschark, M. (Eds.). (2019). Deaf Education Beyond the Western World: Context, Challenges, and Prospects. Oxford University Press.

Singer, S. J., & Vroman, K. M. (2019). Deaf: A Culturally-Sustaining Philosophy for Deaf Education. In Keywords in Radical Philosophy and Education (pp. 98-115). Brill Sense.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Development And Literacy

Development and Literacy

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Development and Literacy

Development and literacy are the two key features of this modern century world. This contemporary twenty-first-century world is unlike its predecessor, which was characterized by brutality and savagery. At present, this modern world has new weapons to shape the contours of world affairs, and they are unique. Information and technology are the two innovations that are ruling this world nowadays. Information is the most powerful instrument which is regarded as modern-day currency, and when combined, both information and technology become the symbols of development and literacy among people. Same is true for American people who have utilized both tools to empower and develop themselves within their societies and in the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dfKNYKZV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Golding & Murdock, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Golding & Murdock, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":642,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/QV2YBWUY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/QV2YBWUY"],"itemData":{"id":642,"type":"chapter","title":"Ideology and the mass media: the question of determination","container-title":"Routledge Revivals: Ideology and Cultural Production (1979)","publisher":"Routledge","page":"198–224","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Ideology and the mass media","author":[{"family":"Golding","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Murdock","given":"Graham"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Golding & Murdock, 2018). However, it is media which controls the flow of information across the globe. It is the platform that has undergone tremendous changes to become what it is today. With its huge significance, media is the top-most influencer in the world without a shadow of a doubt. It is much helpful today in shaping and directing opinions towards mega-events in the world. Nevertheless, the recent mass media has been transformed into a great deal due to significant developments in the past century.

In the last century, mass media was evolved due to some of the significant changes in the world. Some of those developments were the processes of invention and discovery. People, at first, used to rely on print media for information and news. Print media was the only source of those people to keep themselves abreast of the events happening around them. Nevertheless, this situation went a dramatic overhaul with the invention of television sets, telegraphs, and telephone sets. All these means of communication were designed in a way to reduce distances, facilitate two-flow information among different actors in society. With such a new apparatus in operation, people in American society became more independent, more informed and more active in political participation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qql3L3Dg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(St\\uc0\\u246{}ber, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Stöber, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":630,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/UKABJ2E4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/UKABJ2E4"],"itemData":{"id":630,"type":"article-journal","title":"What media evolution is: A theoretical approach to the history of new media","container-title":"European Journal of Communication","page":"483–505","volume":"19","issue":"4","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"What media evolution is","author":[{"family":"Stöber","given":"Rudolf"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stöber, 2004). The media industry was properly established and it received a great fillip with these innovations. This dawn of media industry and the new wave of journalism shaped the American way of life in the country.

Furthermore, each of these developments really transformed the American culture which takes pride in being progressive in outlook. It was also the era of Progressivism which was marked by great social, political and economic changes in American society. With such modern means in hand, the American ideals were projected at a great length to improve the social fabric in the land. The middle class became the agent of change in society as there was a continuous projection of American norms and beliefs. Besides, the American way of life has more outreach now with the arrival of social media. Social media is the symbol of the globalized world, which is known for its speedy transfer of information. The impact of social or electronic media is so significant in nature that it affects every single of life and in every socio-political and economic dimension whether it is in the American continent or anywhere else.

Recently, the media industry is exhibiting another form of media convergence. This is the new strategy which is reaching new heights with its widespread application. This is the form of convergence where different means and forms of media are synchronized and owned by the same owner. A media person can own a printing press and a tv channel that usually projects the same set of ideas. Many research articles have illuminated this massive power of media convergence in daily life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0SEE1QG6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Larrondo Ureta & Pe\\uc0\\u241{}a Fern\\uc0\\u225{}ndez, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Larrondo Ureta & Peña Fernández, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":639,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/9GM28V8G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ZD9MNZ2P/items/9GM28V8G"],"itemData":{"id":639,"type":"article-journal","title":"Keeping pace with journalism training in the age of social media and convergence: How worthwhile is it to teach online skills?","container-title":"Journalism","page":"877–891","volume":"19","issue":"6","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Keeping pace with journalism training in the age of social media and convergence","author":[{"family":"Larrondo Ureta","given":"Ainara"},{"family":"Peña Fernández","given":"Simón"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Larrondo Ureta & Peña Fernández, 2018). Individuals remain under the presence of these social facts and they internalize those same opinions and views. This is how American thoughts, values, and beliefs in daily life are affected by this strong influence of media in society.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Golding, P., & Murdock, G. (2018). Ideology and the mass media: the question of determination. In Routledge Revivals: Ideology and Cultural Production (1979) (pp. 198–224). Routledge.

Larrondo Ureta, A., & Peña Fernández, S. (2018). Keeping pace with journalism training in the age of social media and convergence: How worthwhile is it to teach online skills? Journalism, 19(6), 877–891.

Stöber, R. (2004). What media evolution is: A theoretical approach to the history of new media. European Journal of Communication, 19(4), 483–505.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600


1. Question about Nikita Khrushchev, “The Secret Speech”

Khrushchev say about Stalin as a leader that he did not act by persuasion by means of explanations and patient collaboration with people, but by imposing his conceptions and demanding absolute submission to his opinion. Anyone who objected to his conception or tried to explain his point of view and the correctness of his position was destined to be cut off from the ruling community and later destined to moral and physical annihilation (Barratt, & Slaughter, 1998).

2-3. Questions about the underworld music by Vysotskii and Severnyi:

This is not just a clarification of the objects of hunting. The context is such that even the seemingly meaningfully erased definition of “gray” (which, at the same time, may seem superfluous at first: meaning that wolves are sulfur, is well-known) turns out to be significant: they are bleeding from the last line of the refrain, stains red flags, snow. Together, they paint the slaughter scene in hard, eye-cutting gray-white-bloody tones. These color spots attract particular attention primarily because in Vysotsky's song poetry, words denoting color are very rare. The stronger, sharper is their impact, the more significant is their presence.

3. Why do you think songs like Arkadii Severnyi's “In the Clink” were not allowed to be performed at official (government-sanctioned) venues? (Before typing your answer, consider this: what was the sole criterion for measuring art works in the Soviet Union and to what extent did Severnyi’s work fit this guideline?)

yes, I think songs like Arkadii Severnyi's “In the Clink” were not allowed to be performed at official (government-sanctioned) venues because these are the government property. It should be kept for some secrets. The sole criterion for measuring art works in the Soviet Union is the past historical scriptures.

4-5. Questions about Stephen Handelman, “Thieves World” (excerpt from Comrade Criminal Russia’s New Mafiya) and “The Rise and Rise of the Russian Mafia” by BBC NEWS:

4. Based on the Handelman’s piece, explain how the new Russian mafia influenced Russia’s development in the 1990s: which socio-economic—criminal and not so much—activities did the Russian mafia conduct?

Hoodlums started to flourish amid the Brezhnev time when the Soviet economy was stagnating. Criminals known as "hoodlums in law" (vory y zakone) started to fill the hole, providing extravagances, for example, pants, cigarettes, vodka, biting gum and howdy fi hardware to the individuals who could bear the cost of them. The Soviet-period hoodlums stayed under the radar, realizing great they would finish up in the gulags on the off chance that they paraded their evil gotten riches (Handelman 1994).

5. According to Handelman and the BBC piece, what were the factors that might have resulted in the rise of the Russian mafia in the 1990s?

According to Handelman an BBC report, The Russian mafia is not a new concept however its prompt development and increasing readiness to use dangerous violence is disturbing law implementation officers international Criminals started to thrive throughout the Brezhnev age while the Soviet frugality was festering (Handelman).

6. Question about Aleksei Balabanov’s Brother (1997):

Does Danila believe that his actions are for the common good? If so, how does he justify his actions? If not, what is his motivation, then? How do we characterize him and his role as a hero?

After two years of military service in the Red Army, Danila Bagrov returns to civilian life. Soon he can not bear being confined to his hometown and decides to join his older brother, settled in St. Petersburg. He discovers that the young man, far from being the businessman he claims to have become, is in fact a hit man on behalf of the local mafia. Danila follows the same path. However, he does not lose his moral sense and continues to help the disinherited he meets on his bloody road.


McCauley M. The Khrushchev Era 1953-1964. Routledge; 2017 Aug 15.

Handelman S. The Russian'Mafiya'. Foreign Affairs. 1994 Mar 1:83-96.

Handelman S. When Crime-Fighting Fails: the Case of Russia. InSocial Capital and Social Cohesion in Post-Soviet Russia 2016 Sep 16 (pp. 134-147). Routledge.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300



Putin and Russian media have created his masculine image because he played the role of a charismatic leader. His confidence, boldness and decisive power represent his masculine attributes. Goscilo identifies power as the most dominant trait of Putin’s personality that makes him indifferent and a perfect male. The leadership style of Putin is different from many leaders. the distinct images of masculinity portrayed by media prove Putin's manhood CITATION Hel121 \l 1033 (Goscilo, 2012).

Nadya explains that her prison experience was dreadful because she felt that she can breathe. In the prison, she experienced humiliation, hurt and intimidation. She also witnessed police brutality that made her feel anxious. There is no peace and the people in jails suffer from the brutality. She was put in jail because the anti-fascist wanted her to kill her friend. In jail, she was not even allowed to speak and faced difficulty CITATION You162 \l 1033 (YouTube, 2016).

Colbert asked insensible questions that why they were released for the jail. he also mentioned that you are a criminal and why were you released? Nadya replied that "they got fed up with us". He also asked her to thank Putin for her release but Nadya didn't thank. The officers wanted Nadya and Masha to fight in jail.

Pussy Riot "Punk Prayer" at the Cathedral of Christ the saviour aims at denouncing Russian orthodox church because it is linked to the president Putin. The violent removal from the church makes her popular. This was used for protesting against the president. In the song, she mentions, "Mother of God, banish Putin" CITATION You12 \l 1033 (YouTube, 2012).

Timati and Vmeste have attempted to portray the positive image of Putin that has profound impacts on the youth. The singers used their rap music for praising Putin CITATION Gio17 \l 1033 (Lomsadze, 2017).



Goscilo, H. (2012). Putin as Celebrity and Cultural Icon. Taylor and Francis.

Lomsadze, G. (2017). Putin Pop: A Guide to Russia’s Most Patriotic Music Genre. Retrieved 04 25, 2019, from https://codastory.com/disinformation/information-war/when-putin-becomes-a-song/

YouTube. (2012). videos by Pussy Riot "Punk Prayer" at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior: Retrieved 04 25, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grEBLskpDWQ

YouTube. (2016). Nadya of Pussy Riot on Her Time In Prison. Retrieved 04 25, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHVeIdnQPB8

Subject: Culture

Pages: 1 Words: 300




Institutional Affiliation


Discussion Prompt #2

According to Macro Tempest, Nikola Tesla played a significant role in developing the current science and technology. In 1887 Tesla, backed up by two other investors, decided to come up with Teslas Electric company. The laboratory was located in Manhattan, where he came up with alternating current induction motor, which offered solutions to various technical problems that had affected many other designs. When Tesla showcased this design in an engineering meeting, we sting company granted his company a license. He was also to be paid some amount of money and enjoy veracious royalties based on the horsepower generated. Come 188os; there was a lot of conflict on current. Thomas Edison noted that direct current was better than AC. West lighthouses asked Tesla to supply power where they were also scheduled to have s platform where they could showcase the advantages of AC. Tesla took part in the world Columbian exposition by ensuring that the entire Chicago was illuminated more than any other city. This earned Tesla a lot of praise because of being able to come up with an electric power than did not require wires. He was awarded a contract to provide power in Niagara Falls. This assisted in coming up with the first large AC plant globally.

However, Tesla faced various challenges. For example, in 1895, a Manhattan laboratory caught fire and destroyed Teslas prototypes and notes. Come 1898, he showcased a wireless control boat, but many labeled it as a hoax. He also believed that his systems were in a position of providing a worldwide wireless communication. To test all these ideas, Tesla set up a laboratory at Colorado Springs.

Tesla is said to have had a photographic memory, which made it possible for him to be in a position of speaking eight languages and memorize a whole book. He also stated that most of his ideas came like a flash in his mind, but he got the large picture in his mind.

Response 1

Those translating content indeed need to be keen because a lot of information is lost or interfered with within the process. Thus to ensure proper translation, a good review of the document needs to be done to make sure that you understand the content, subject matter, and the style of the content. Also, you need to ensure that you are well aware of the format of the file you are dealing with It. After you are through with translating, you should check your translation against the original document to ensure that there is no mistake. You also have to observe simple things such as punctuations, tones, and styles used. This should also be clear in your document to ensure that the right message gets to the audience. Moreover, a sound listener should be in a position to identify the change frequency, time, tone, and levels. With this, you will always be in a place to get the meaning of every sound correctly.

Response 2

I also enjoy visual learning, teaching, and thinking. Meaningful visual elements, like in this case, make someone feel engaged and get the message in a way he will never forget. Thus, if educators can use visual communication, they can be in a position of building the skills necessary for the success of the students. Visuals play a very significant role in how we process information. Humans have tried to express themselves with images since time in memorial. Despite the considerable effect of visual learning, most educators still prefer to convey their message through the written word. However, in seasons where access to tablets, smartphones, and laptops is easy, teachers need to consider using visual communication always.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Discussion Questions

Discussion Question 3

Why we still need feminism because of many reasons. Feminism is a movement that provides awareness and information among the women. Among the awareness, glass ceiling, pay equality, domestic violence, sexually harassment and women in the politics are the main reason to keep the feminism exist. Even if women have been able to gain a foothold in the job market, a glass ceiling keeps them away from the highest levels of decision-making in society. For example, in 2017, women are still few in number on a board of directors. Pay equity is still a long way off. The poverty rate for single mothers and older women continues to grow, and women still earn only 77% of what their male counterparts earn.

Summary of ‘Why We Still Need Feminism’

According to Casey Cavanaugh, Feminists are not evil women who hate all men without exception. Feminists do not believe that women are better than men or that women, in comparison with men, deserve special privileges. They also do not believe that in any circumstance a woman is a victim. In order to call herself a feminist, a woman needs to agree with only one thought: men and women should have equal political, economic and social rights. Despite the fact that in the modern world more and more people are beginning to understand the true definition of feminism, the word still has a negative connotation (Jackson, 2001, May). In part, this is due to radical feminism, whose representatives openly say that they treat men with contempt, and the need for women to give birth (and even such an opportunity) is already putting her on a lower level. Fortunately, there are not many such girls.


I believe feminism is not a gender issue at all. And of course this is not a question about the confrontation of men and women. This, if you look, the problem of all mankind, which needs to be solved so that a woman behind the wheel of a luxury car is not treated with disdain (because she is quite capable of earning it), and a man who does all the housework is not considered mumble and henpecked.

1.Write an original post about this essay giving your answers to the following questions, make specific references in your post to the student paper in your text book.

Yes, the writer has followed the guidelines for writing summaries. The writer provides a helpful information in the summary. The writer focus on the basic element of the article.

To some extent, it seems personal but overall it’s a summary objective. The writer tries to cover all the points mentioned in the essay. The writer summary helps to understand the article easily.

Yes, the writer use author tags to let the reader know that the ideas are those of the original not of the writer. The writer uses the author’s name in the summary. Many of the ideas are properly covered in the summary.

The writer’s response is written very well. The writer gives the brief and helpful information for the audience. The writer tries to provide the key aspect of the essay. It is an interesting and useful response.

I found the evidence for the writer’s opinion convincing. The writer tries to touch the basic elements of the articles. Overall, the element of the article is very helpful.

Jackson, S. (2001, May). Why a materialist feminism is (still) possible—and necessary. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 24, No. 3-4, pp. 283-293). Pergamon.

Discussion Question 3.6

oThese devices are appropriate for the audience and purpose because it shows the direct relation with the audience. The author’s goal is to approach every person of American society holding the credit card. If it is written for the academic audience, it shouldn’t be written in the informal language.

o The author uses the explanation of processes, analysis of cause and effect of using the credit card in the society is the main concept of the essay. Yes, I believe it is effective as it persuades the audience about the use of credit card.

Discussion Question 7.1

The authors present differing views on the validity of using Wikipedia in an academic environment. I am agreed with the Neil L. Waters’ essay because there is no system that guarantees the veracity of the information. Many people can collaborate with articles for the encyclopedia, but we cannot assure that their authors are specialists in the subject. The publications are collaborative and this suggests that volunteers help each other to give quality information, however almost anyone can intervene and edit. The support offered by the editorial process: review, correction and arbitration of academic articles are not fulfilled in Wikipedia. Mark A. Wilson's essay is in support of Wikipedia which is not seems logical.

Discussion Question 4.1

oYes, it is true that trend in modern society is for ascribed statuses to become less important because everyone is more proud of prestige and money than being of race and religion.

oFacebook and other media is important in defining the statuses as they help they people to show what they are doing, where are they and etc.

oin my social media, achieved status is emphasized more than the ascribed status. Virtual communication has long become an everyday thing. But through a computer monitor, laptop or other device, it can be difficult to express the whole gamut of feelings that have overwhelmed you. Yes, the words will be written and understood, but sometimes there is a lack of an emotional hue, which will fully convey information to other people.

Discussion Question 4.2

oSocial expectation of the group has a great impact on my behavior and self-identity I used to impress by the acts of my family and friends. I used to act according to the social expectation, for example, I used to wear clothes according to the social norms.


Social conformity pressure to adjust to the group reduces creative expression. Consequently, it would be people with low social conformity who, more likely, would generate creative solutions as normative compliance had less effect on them. However, social compliance can increase creative performance. Think, for example, in the case where the group pressure is directed, precisely, towards the generation of creative ideas. That is to say, that the norms of the group were oriented towards creativity, pressuring its members to be creative in their approaches and solutions provided.

oPeople tend to seek from the bottom up, and not vice versa. Everyone wants to live better and no one worse. Overtaking each other, we rush upward - where there is more power, privileges and benefits. Some see a better life in communion with the spiritual, others - with the material (Newman, 2018). The social hierarchy can be represented in the form of a pyramid, built on the basis of a number of laws. The first law: the number of vacancies located below is always greater than the number of vacancies located above.

oThere are many examples that affects my life such as once I had bad grades in math subject, the behavior of the teachers really affects my personality. The teacher was rude to me. It really hurts my personality.

Newman, D. M. (2018). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. Sage Publications.

Discussion Question 4.3

What are some instances where you use the front stage? The back stage?

In some of the instances where I use the front stage because I feel I am much comfortable and friendly to the environment. I use back stage where I feel rude behavior and not comfortable with the environment.

Why do you use theses stages at different points during your day?

I use these stages at different points during my days because it helps me to present myself best in front of the world.

What examples of impression management do you encounter daily?

One of the example of the impression management I encountered daily in the selection of the meal.

oHow does your analysis differ based on location (work versus home)?

My analysis different based on location is that I feel more comfortable in home than workplace.

Discussion Question 5.1

oI believe that today, the problem of poverty for specialists is related to the fact that they are trying to isolate different groups of poverty and find a solution for each of them separately. The first group is families with workers who have low wages. This includes residents of rural areas and small cities, as well as the unemployed

oHow are the lives of those that live in the country you have identified above differ from the United States? What impact does global poverty have on our everyday lives?

The lives of those that live in the Asia is different from the United States. There is still poverty in the Asia than America. People are living below the line of poverty. They are not enjoying the life.

What suggestions do you have for eliminating global poverty?

The question "how to solve the problem of poverty" worries economists around the world. The main causes of this phenomenon are called the low quality of life because of small-scale incomes, insufficient property provision of the population (primarily housing).

•Discussion Question 5.2

oA Film about Races: A Fresh Look at Diversity explains that race is a historically established group of people with common physical features: skin color, eyes and hair, eye shape, eyelid structure, head outlines, and others. This has changed from watching this film.

oHuman races are historically established groups of people connected by the same origin, which is expressed in common hereditary morphological, physiological, and psychological signs that vary within certain limits. Races are intraspecific systematic (taxonomic) categories that are in a state of dynamic equilibrium, that is, varying in space and in time and at the same time possessing a certain genetically determined resistance.

oWhat misconceptions does this film suggest exist regarding race? What examples of these misconceptions have you seen in your everyday life?

Film suggest exist regarding race is an investigation of the thought of race, this program pursues have Paul Doddridge as he drives aside society's taboos to discover what "race" truly is. Doddridge sorts out a smaller than normal Olympics dependent on racial personality to show the ease of the idea—he takes note of that Jews and Arabs will be on a similar group—and the members jab fun at their own propensity to generalization.

oLooking at your current or future career, what impact do you think race will have on your professional life?

My race has no impact on my future career because I believe hardworking is more important of being white, black, Jew, or Muslim.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Diversity And Inclusion

Diversity and inclusion as a competitive advantage

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Diversity refers to differences in ethnicity, sexual category, age, disability, as well as variances in experience and thought. This creates an environment in the form of inclusion that sanctions people so they can effectually contribute their abilities and perceptions. Inclusion welcomes different kinds of aptitudes and notions and maximizes organizations' output. Thus, diversity and inclusion is a business domineering strategy that ensures the organization's success and competitive advantage ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DRV2NzUS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":99,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"itemData":{"id":99,"type":"article-journal","title":"Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace","container-title":"Journal of Practical Consulting","page":"51-55","volume":"1","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Cunningham","given":"Dahlia D."},{"family":"Green","given":"Daryl D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cunningham & Green, 2007). This paper will discuss the use of diversity and inclusion to gain a competitive advantage and different challenges that organizations face while implementing these strategies. Moreover, some recommendations will ensure the successful implementation of diversity and inclusion.

For the long term, successful companies have to enter the global competition, and for this, they capitalize on diversity and inclusion. Globalization tends to change the world demographically and require diverse kind of people and skills. To enter the globalization world, businesses have to manage to have a workforce from diverse backgrounds that also have a huge number of expertise and aptitudes. Thus, diversity increases the innovation, acceptance as well as the problem-solving capacity of organizations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"wTZpl6QY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":99,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"itemData":{"id":99,"type":"article-journal","title":"Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace","container-title":"Journal of Practical Consulting","page":"51-55","volume":"1","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Cunningham","given":"Dahlia D."},{"family":"Green","given":"Daryl D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cunningham & Green, 2007). Moreover, businesses that have people of different backgrounds, capricious viewpoints as well as the diversity of thought always respond in a better way to different opportunities and solve diverse contests ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"D2T1YPXI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lu, Chen, Huang, & Chien, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Lu, Chen, Huang, & Chien, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":97,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FWH43PZ6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FWH43PZ6"],"itemData":{"id":97,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effect of diversity on human resource management and organizational performance","container-title":"Journal of Business Research","page":"857-861","volume":"68","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Lu","given":"Chia-Mei"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Shyh-Jer"},{"family":"Huang","given":"Pei-Chi"},{"family":"Chien","given":"Jui-Ching"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lu, Chen, Huang, & Chien, 2015). With diversity, organizations are more innovative and productive, bringing greater-than-average returns for their investors and other shareholders. Diversity and inclusion allow organizations to reach out to assorted customer sets and markets.

On the other hand, if organizations have homogenous people, ideas, and thoughts, then they cannot respond effectively and manage different opportunities effectively. They cannot also go to international competitions. Forgoing internationally, they have to deal with the diverse nature of people and offer them different products according to their needs. Without diversity and inclusion, these objectives cannot be achieved ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MWykYhRU","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lu et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Lu et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":97,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FWH43PZ6"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FWH43PZ6"],"itemData":{"id":97,"type":"article-journal","title":"Effect of diversity on human resource management and organizational performance","container-title":"Journal of Business Research","page":"857-861","volume":"68","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Lu","given":"Chia-Mei"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Shyh-Jer"},{"family":"Huang","given":"Pei-Chi"},{"family":"Chien","given":"Jui-Ching"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lu et al., 2015). Businesses can accommodate diversity in many forms, such as people, products as well as thoughts that bring new ideas in an organization. For instance, Toyota is known for its diversity and inclusion perspective in the business world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9eL58Bv7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Moosm\\uc0\\u252{}ller, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Moosmüller, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":98,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FCLVXXKF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/FCLVXXKF"],"itemData":{"id":98,"type":"chapter","title":"Cultural diversity in multinational corporations","container-title":"Re-thinking Diversity","publisher":"Springer","page":"121-132","author":[{"family":"Moosmüller","given":"Alois"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Moosmüller, 2016). It has a 21st Century Diversity Strategy that has tangible diversity targets in different areas such as employment, procurement, and supplier expansion.

In addition, diversity and inclusion initiatives are not easy to implement by any organization. There are numerous challenges that organizations face while implementing these strategies. They may face resistance to any changes or diversity. Moreover, organizations may also not have enough resources to ensure effective implementation. However, all these challenges can be faced effectively if there are proactive strategies in organizations. Firstly there is the need for supportive leadership that must also empower employees and paly their role in diversity management ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ndEhDgbn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":99,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"itemData":{"id":99,"type":"article-journal","title":"Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace","container-title":"Journal of Practical Consulting","page":"51-55","volume":"1","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Cunningham","given":"Dahlia D."},{"family":"Green","given":"Daryl D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cunningham & Green, 2007). This will give people confidence, and they will be able to express their ideas and generate solutions to different problems responsively. Secondly, there must also be diversity and inclusion policies and handbooks for employees so they may have an idea about the organization's requirements.

Accordingly, diversity and inclusion programs will eventually improve organization performance. Therefore, organizations can implement these programs in three steps that will ensure the success of the company. Firstly, they must analyze and collect the data to ensure their need for change. Then they design strategy in such a way that will match with their business objectives. At that point, they can go for the implementation of the initiative. However, the implementation does not end with this, and companies are required to audit their diversity and inclusion plan. Moreover, organizations cannot take the real business benefits of diversity without inclusion initiatives. Inclusion will nurture higher employee engagement, efficiency, as well as higher retention rates ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4TbB4E8h","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Cunningham & Green, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":99,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/RZUFYKMA"],"itemData":{"id":99,"type":"article-journal","title":"Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace","container-title":"Journal of Practical Consulting","page":"51-55","volume":"1","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Cunningham","given":"Dahlia D."},{"family":"Green","given":"Daryl D."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cunningham & Green, 2007). All this will help the companies in gaining a competitive advantage.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Cunningham, D. D., & Green, D. D. (2007). Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace. Journal of Practical Consulting, 1(2), 51–55.

Lu, C.-M., Chen, S.-J., Huang, P.-C., & Chien, J.-C. (2015). Effect of diversity on human resource management and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 857–861.

Moosmüller, A. (2016). Cultural diversity in multinational corporations. In Re-thinking Diversity (pp. 121–132). Springer.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Effects Of News Media

Effects of News Media

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Effects of News Media

Information is the power in the twenty-first century. It is the means which is all about triggering powerful concepts in the world. Information media has a huge influence on social life and this is the reason that media has some social responsibility as well. This is the globalized world where information and ideas move without any restriction. Loads of information is everywhere, but it is the responsibility of the media to investigate which news item is real or fake. Media has the responsibility to direct people in the right direction as society is reliant on these means of media. People sometimes blindly follow them for the sake of information. In this way, journalists and reporters must be investigative about the credibility of their sources in a way that they do not spread a piece of information which has a doubtful origin. They need to play an effective role in maintaining collective good and awareness in society by directing attention only on legitimate concerns and limiting yellow journalism trends in the media industry. Information media should play the role of "watchdog" instead of "lapdog". For example, today media is considered the protector of democratic values in society and it has been entitled to safeguard those noble ideals (Curran & Hesmondhalgh, 2019). It should not become a money-minting machine and strive to fulfill this social responsibility in letter and spirit.

The role of information and news media in shaping political opinions cannot be denied. In this modern world, media is rated as the top-most influencer. It is also known as the fourth pillar of the state which gets deeply involved in politics. Besides, mass media is the forum which assimilated a diverse set of opinions. This information and news media shapes political opinions in a way that sometimes it promotes the interest of the weakest and other times, it gets aligned with the strongest class. The powerful people control the reins of the media personnel and they continuously project their views to mold public opinion. Every political party has its club in the media industry and it is the consistent feature of the today' societies. For example, the issue of Arab spring was raised in the media which changed the dynamics of this political crisis in the world and people became aware of the crisis (Khondker, 2011).

The electronic media and the convergence in recent times have transformed journalism and news consumption because this has accelerated the flow of information in society. People are more informed when this convergence of electronic media as they remain engulfed in Snews throughout their day. Even new trends are witnessed among journalists as they try to generate more ratings and views on their news posts by utilizing yellow journalism. People are more susceptible to the sensational news. Take an example of Media convergence, where a single name is controlling different forms of media in the contemporary world.

The field of journalism has been radically changed due to the boom in the media industry. Today, the world is dominated by capitalism and revenue generation, however, the standards of journalism cannot be ignored at all. The standards of journalism are important in today's media, opinion, and media-saturated world. The process of news is speedy, but it requires a certain consideration. For instance, a journalist has to see the validity of the source by employing different free internet tools such as google maps. They need to discard fake news and or composite news (Jacquette, 2016). Furthermore, the need to maintain the authentic side of news by not exaggerating it. Reporters without borders are the agency that deals with press freedom and its expression in the world according to some standards and limitations in journalism.

The role of satire is much important in the news industry today. This is the way of creating awareness among masses by using the means of irony and humor. In this way, the programs The Daily Show, The Colbert Report and the Onion use this form of awareness. They have their own space for commentary because they try to extract different views from the public and their responses on particular issues.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Curran, J., & Hesmondhalgh, D. (2019). Media and Society. Bloomsbury Academic.

Jacquette, D. (2016). Journalistic ethics: Moral responsibility in the media. Routledge.

Khondker, H. H. (2011). Role of the new media in the Arab Spring. Globalizations, 8(5), 675–679.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600


[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]




Putin’s Masculinity

Everyone who is familiar with Vladimir Putin’s initial image from when he came into the world of politics would agree to the fact that it was not of great appeal. How once an impassive bureaucrat turn into a global macho icon? In Russia like most countries political power is usually linked to sexual appeal. Putin’s masculinity was staged very strategically and turned into a regular public display. Further, the fact that Putin’s machismo skyrocketed is because of the crisis of masculinity faced by the Russian community.

The essence of male sexuality was never part of the Russian leadership. Further, to top it all Putin’s abstinence from alcohol was a complete deviation from the traditional masculinity of the Russian men as well as opposing what was seen in the predecessor Boris Yeltsin. This new persona seen in a Russian leader was appealing to women, young girls as well as the younger male generation of Russia.

Masculinity is associated with war but Putin’s decisions are helping in restoring the Russian respect in the world. Putin’s take on masculinity is helping shape and bring an evolution in the Russian political regime and the country’s foreign policy. Even though Russia has seen a new projection of masculinity but there is certain gender stereotyping as well. Soviet men were said to be people who were not capable of taking care of themselves and gave their life in heavy drinking. However, the change that Putin has brought proposes that men are the strong counterparts and are to protect and provide for their families and the women being taken care of. People acting in accordance with their genders is expected.


The policies glasnost’ and perestroika eventually caused the fall of Soviet Union and aided in putting an end to the Cold War.

The course has discussed the soviet political subculture, in which the power was not distributed among different sections of the society, however, it was managed through a centralized system. Its significance in the study of Soviet and post-Soviet cultures is that the soviet culture has suffered greatly due to the change in its political structure, during the post-soviet era.

The reason why Putin is appreciated in his own country is for the masculine persona that he has created. Further, the west criticizes Putin because they believe that he blames all the Russian issues on the west but denies to criticize Donald Trump.

Russia still dates back to its soviet and imperial past. There is racism to this day faced by the Caucasus. Russia cannot seem to look past letting any ethnicity or culture impact its set culture and religious beliefs.

When it comes to WW2, the Holocaust is considered aloof that happened in distant Europe. The tale of concentration camps situated in Poland rings more strongly and intimately to them than the tale of the obliteration of their own Jewish people, majority of whom perished in the gullies and woods outside their own villages and towns. Russians study the Great Patriotic War in excessive detail.

Even after Lenin’s passing, the Soviet Union holds up Lenin's literatures as work of logical mastermind, but this adoration established nothing more than hollow publicity: Lenin was not a pronounced knowledgeable. However, Lenin countered for his mediocre intellect with untiring vigor, an unconquerable determination, and an innate political intellect which started a cult following.

 Even though political and social assemblies in Russia are fairly disapproving for communal enlistment, communal protest and occupants' movements have been emerging throughout the past few years. They tolerate grave difficulties trying to enlarge themselves and confirm their own standards, individualities and rights, but they do exist. In the activists' setting it is noticed that a sense of powerfulness is initiating and the tendency for social trust to further reinforce it. Thus making circumstances for imaginable building of another model of influence relations.

Deficit in Russia defines the sequence of post-Soviet improvements that stemmed in significant privatization of Russia's public assets, chiefly in the manufacturing, energy, and monetary segments. Maximum denationalization held place in the initial and mid-1990s underneath Boris Yeltsin, who expected the presidency after the disbanding of the Soviet Union.

Christianity was familiarized into the East Slavic state of Kievan Rus by Greek preachers from Byzantium in the 9th century. Christianity was accepted as the national faith after the baptism of Olga’s grandson Vladimir I, prince of Kiev, in 988. An event of recognition today is the independence of Orthodox Church of Ukraine from the Russian Orthodox Church in the start of 2019.

Russian Dekabrist, any Russian rebels who ran an ineffective uprising on the 14th of December 1825, and with their death delivered a foundation of motivation to succeeding the age of Russian protestors (Solzhenitsyn). Since these proceedings happened in December, the protestors were named the Decembrists.

Work Cited

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isaevich. One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich. No. 4639. Macmillan, 1971.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year


The chosen piece is Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology. Linda

Light is the author who is a lecturer in cultural anthropology and linguistics at California State University Long Beach from decades. Her primary areas of focus are language and gender, first language attrition and indigenous language loss and maintenance. The piece highlights the significance and structure of language for the existence of human beings. Each language is a symbolic framework which represents meaning and is called arbitrariness in human language ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5iQNvy9e","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Brown et al.)","plainCitation":"(Brown et al.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":636,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/9HYLET2Z"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/9HYLET2Z"],"itemData":{"id":636,"type":"book","title":"Perspectives: an open invitation to cultural anthropology","source":"Open WorldCat","abstract":"We are delighted to bring to you this novel textbook, a collection of chapters on the essential topics in cultural anthropology. Different from other introductory textbooks, this book is an edited volume with each chapter written by a different author. Each author has written from their experiences working as an anthropologist and that personal touch makes for an accessible introduction to cultural anthropology. Our approach to cultural anthropology is holistic. We see the interconnectedness of cultural practices and, in all of the chapters, we emphasize the comparison of cultures and the ways of life of different peoples. We start with Laura Nader's observation that cultural differences need not be seen as a problem. In our complicated world of increasing migration, nationalism, and climate challenges, cultural diversity might actually be the source of conflict resolution and new approaches to ensuring a healthier world. Indeed, as Katie Nelson reminds us, anthropology exposes the familiarity in the ideas and practices of others that seem bizarre. Robert Borofsky advocates for anthropology's ability to empower people and facilitate good. Borofsky calls on anthropologists to engage with a wider public to bring our incredible stories and important insights to helping resolve the most critical issues we face in the world today. This book brings Nader, Nelson, Borofsky, and many others together to demonstrate that our anthropological understandings can help all of us to improve the lives of people the world over. We need you, as students, to see the possibilities. As instructors, we want to help you share anthropological knowledge and understanding easily. We want all readers to be inspired by the intensely personal writings of the anthropologists who contribute to this volume.","ISBN":"978-1-931303-55-2","note":"OCLC: 1050870316","title-short":"Perspectives","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Brown","given":"Nina"},{"family":"González","given":"Laura Tubelle","dropping-particle":"de"},{"family":"McIlwraith","given":"Thomas"},{"literal":"BC Open Textbook Project"},{"literal":"BCcampus"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Brown et al.). Besides, the piece thoroughly addresses biological, cultural, universal and social settings pertinent to linguistic aspects. The biological basis of language and acquisition of language in childhood are the frameworks used to generate further research. Irrefutably, the reading proved productive by enhancing the knowledge base related to linguistic and culture.

To begin, the reading proved beneficial and informatics because I learned key concepts related to linguistic and influence on culture and vice versa. The most intriguing information was the concept of the gesture-call system. Each culture possesses verbal and non-verbal languages that are consistent and vary from one culture to another. Apes and chimpanzees used gesture-call communication on a persistent basis. Kinesics, proxemics and paralanguage are the types. Paralanguage refers to the difference of gestures used for identification in several regions. For instance, making a circle with thumb and forefinger or raising thumb is deemed the gesture of acceptance in the United States. However, it is not essential that the same gesture is observed in each region as these values and gestures are largely influenced by indigenous cultural and social values. Phonemes, syntax, morphemes and semantics were sections I cherished the most. Each section is thoroughly discussed by the provision of evidence and credible information. For instance, semantics deals with the meaning of words and morphemes to comprehend the meaning of sentences and phrases derived from them. A wide range of linguistics has advanced to comprehend the uses and multitude of the meaning of the word like in American youth. It was made famous for the very first time in 1983. It was primarily a feature of Californian English but was spread across the state and even in the youth speaking who are second language speakers of English.

Another prominent aspect mentioned in the reading is the context which causes variations in language. Several people from distinct regions of America speak inherently different. The explanation and clarity with which the author explains the variation are immaculate. As per the author, migration routes, settlement patterns, language contact, geographic factors, social class, linguistic process and group reference are essential factors deriving the difference and variation among English speaker. In addition, I successfully extracted the critical message embedded in the reading. Language is a cornerstone to define humans and highlights the ethnicity, social class and historical preferences. From all around the world, languages are derived from historic languages. For instance, Latin is deemed a sister to Sanskrit which is the mother Indian languages. In the contemporary era, globalization is defining the role of language, culture, ideas and information in the world. English is one of the 3 or 4 most spoken languages. More than 6,000 languages are spoken in the modern era but more than half of the population of their world only speak 10 among them. The drastic disappearance of languages is a grave concern for many anthropologists and linguistics. It is essential to comprehend the significance of language as the loss language abrogates not only the language but also the culture and identity associated with it.

Word Count: 600 words

Works Cited

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, Nina, et al. Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology. 2017.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600






One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

The obliteration of human dignity and solidarity takes many forms through trails and misfortunes of Ivan from the story” One day on the life of Ivan Denisovich”. While in camp together with other fellow men doing hardcore work, mercy is deprived to a point of being deprived proper food to consume as well as other materials to use. When it comes to food, they are offered depending on one’s work and are even forced to work despite illnesses. According to Ivan, a man’s core enemy is another man a phrase he tries to depicts throughout the novel while showing the various ways competition, as well as conflicts between inmates, worsened life.

Ivan argues that despite being a prison, there still existed a hierarchy between prisoners who operated inside the camp and those who operated outside. Inmates who worked as cooks, as well as building foreman, were given more power, a power they misused by punishing other inmates or taking away their power. The short of amenities as well as necessities forced camp inmates to turn against each other with the aim of surviving making life even harder in the camp. Solzhenitsyn, the writer of the novel, goes on to use numerous examples to portray the various ways whereby imprisonment in the so-called “special camp” continued to deprive people of their humanity. The supremacy of these illustrations is increased by the writer’s replicated use of understatement. For Ivan and his fellow inmates, this deprivation of humanity becomes so common aiming at upsetting the inmates. This is clearly depicted when a guard mocks Ivan on the way he washed the floor by asking him,”….did you never watch your spouse scrubbing the floor, pig?”. Additionally, there is an illustration of stolen humanity in the mess hall landscape. Solzhenitsyn writes, “….while at the table a young man crosses himself before dipping his spoon in……”In this phrase, Solzhenitsyn tries to show the vicious power the camp had on a human spirit not through numerous outdoor abuses enforced on inmates by the guards but rather by the inmate’s own internalized reaction to his lengthy imprisonment. The writer’s morality is clearly depicted in the book based on the deeply rooted religious beliefs under the Soviet government. The deprivation or religion was one of the leading causes of hopelessness in the camp. Moreover, it acted as an illustration of the Stalinist system abuse of the human soul and body.

The subject of whether humanity is essential or beneficial to a person’s survival is largely discussed when Ivan remembers Kuziomina, a prisoner who had been incarcerated for nearly twelve years since 1943 and always told the new inmates together with himself the various types of people who used to manage to live. He used to say,”……….those individuals who lick other people’s leftovers, those who squealed on their busied and those who relied on the doctors to push them through will never survive….” (Solzhenitsyn). Ivan is well aware of the fact that squealers to survive but due to the cost of his own humanity decide to agree as well as respect Kuziomin’s arguments. Throughout the story, Ivan is seen n away from the breakfast mess hall to avoid being tempted to lick another man’s bowl thus maintaining his survival and humanity which depicts an atrocious attitude toward humanity. Ivan together with his buddies lived in a prison camp where not only were their labor controlled by authorities but also their bodies as well as their language. They were regarded as no longer the Soviet Union’s citizens and thus not allowed to address a guard as a comrade but as citizens which depicts inferiority in the part of the prisoners. Additionally, inmates were expected to remove their hats when guards are passing in the paths to portray just how powerful the guards were and how inferior the inmates were. In an environment where the inmates every move and word is managed and monitored it becomes difficult to maintain the freedom as well as humanity thus depicting slavery.

In the novel, “One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich,” Ivan is ruthlessly punished by the government for acting as a spy despite being innocent. The story starts with Ivan being sick and wakes up late but is forced to clean the guardhouse as a minor punishment. Due to the nature of survival for the fittest, most inmates found life in the camp extremely hard. However, for Ivan this is not the case as despite his life sucking and being hell, he tries to live as a decent person and thus ends up achieving some measure of happiness in the middle of all challenges and suffering he endured on a daily basis. In the midst of oppression, Shukhov never gives up/ in and thus his attitude is largely admired. The entire story present in the book revolves around camp survival as well as authoritative oppression. The USSR gulag forces workers to operate in an inhumane manner as they work below their dignity. The ultimate objective of the novel is to try and maintain human dignity which is seen through Ivan, a prisoner who thinks humans should live with dignity.

From the above discussion, it’s accurate to say that the story is a masterpiece of its time as it tries to show the apathy of human racism while trying to convey the message of humanity. Humanity is the biggest religion and an individual who decided to respect humanity is regarded as a true citizen to his country and society. One should always aspire to pursue human ways when it comes to confronting problems. Solzhenitsyn is able to portray details clearly making it easier to visualize the danger that clenched the camp.

Works Cited

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. "One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich." (2010): 138-139.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900



Professor name


April 25, 2019


Two misconceptions prior to RSSS 150B2 include; its dangerous and all Russians are racists. My involvement in the course allowed me to remove these two misconceptions because Russians are neither dangerous nor they are racists. Before taking the course I used to believe that all Russians are dangerous due to the country’s history and war and ruthless attitudes of Russians in the past. I always associated Russians with their history that caused me to neglect their current roles. The second thing that misconceived me was that all Russians are racists. This also provoked me to believe that they dislike Americans.

The course focused on multiculturalism by providing opportunities for exploring different aspects of Russian culture. The course covered different aspects of the Russian religion that allowed me to change my perspectives about them. I learned about ethnic diversity, language religion and beliefs of Russians. I also learned that historical incidents and happenings had profound impacts on the identities of Russians.

By analysis work of literature like Aleksandr Solzhenitsynn's book "One Day in The Life of Ivan Denisovich" I uncovered different aspects.

My engagement with the book helped me learn the nature of Russians and factors that contributed to the development of such identities. The story narrates the harsh realities and tragic lives of the Russians. In the Stalinist labor camps where Russians were forced to live the people were victims. I learned the history of such camps and how they deteriorated the lives of common people. By reading the literature I learned that Russians were not dangerous but they suffered the consequences of labor camps. It allowed me to change my misconception that Russians are dangerous people. In history, they have undergone miserable incidents that affected the lives of such people. The course provided me with opportunities for exploring the ways in which minority populations are living in the country. This reflects that Russians pose no challenge to the minority population. The incidents mentioned in the book improved my awareness of the Russian people and their past. The book provides some answers to the questions such as the role of prison camps. The history of the Soviet camps allowed me to witness how Russians suffered in the past.

The course offered me opportunities for interacting with the Russian culture that improved my knowledge about the country. I learned that Russia is no more dangerous place because the state has taken numerous measures for preventing illegal activities. There is a lot of police in the country that works to eliminate threats of murders and crimes. My encounter with Russians allowed me to see the bright side of the country. Russians who were part of the course shared their personal experience and told me that it is as safe on Russian streets as it is in America. I viewed a few movies made by Russian directors that revealed that Russians are normal people having similar issues of love, poverty, struggles and dream.

My encounter with Russians in the course also allowed me to overcome my misconception that Russians are racists. The Russian guys whom I interacted with were not racist and they talked to me in a normal way. I also explored through my interaction with them that Russians are friendly and they are no different from Americans. By observing Russians I realized that they like to talk and have a good nature. The entire course had a positive impact on me as I managed to change my misconceptions associated with Russians.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Solzhenitsyn, A. (2003). One Day In The Life Of Ivan Denisovich. Vintage Publishing.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Title page


Citizen’s responsibility

One’s community is important and an essential part of citizen’s responsibility. I have exhibited by citizen responsibility by talking part in many welfare activities and programs. I had been a part of charity activities that was working on the initiative of supporting youth community IDPs in Iraq. I was a volunteer and helped the victims of Iraq internal displacements in 2014 who had suffered terrible incidents. I offered social and financial aid to the victims. I accepted my duty as a responsible citizen and was eager to join the mission of helping the displaced people there. The primary motive during this mission was to arrange security and safety for the people. During my three months stay at the mission I managed to reach as many people as I could. I rescued many kids who were lacking homes and food so I arranged help from different welfare agencies that were working to take care of such kids.

I believe that being a human it is responsibility of every person to help others in time of need. This is not only my religious duty but also moral obligation. If we fail to serve our community and deny our responsibility this world will become a more terrible place to live in. Hundreds of people will die of hunger, poverty and displacement. This according to me is wrong and condemnable. Being a Christian I learned from the teachings of Jesus that we must help others. I also think that be performing citizen responsibility I could satisfy my conscience and free me of the guilt of letting innocents die. It is also morally wrong to leave people in situations of displacement such as the sufferings of Iraqis. This feeling encouraged me to join the mission of helping displaced people in Iraq.

Leadership values

The most important leadership value is empathy because in welfare programs one must be able to adopt a positive attitude. This allows individual to understand the needs of the others and responding them appropriately. Empathy is focused on relating to other people and understanding what they are feeling. In the mission of supporting IDP’s in Iraq it was crucial to show empathy towards the people. This made them feel better and share their concerns. The second important leadership value according to me is ‘humility’. It is crucial for making a person realize how important dignity and respect is for other people. By showing respect to others better terms can be established with others that leads to attainment of positivity. I practices this value during my participation in community IDP’s at Iraq. During my encounter with different people I always showed respect and never made them feel bad. This value is important for welfare programs because it prevents a leader from neglecting the emotions of people CITATION Kam16 \l 1033 (Bhui, Dinos, Galant-Miecznikowska, Jongh, & Stansfeld, 2016). I also think that this value helps a leader to attain his mission of supporting humanity.

Third important leadership value according to me is ‘cultural competency’. This indicates that a leader must be able to treat people equally irrespective of their cultural and ethnic backgrounds. I believe that this value will be useful for promoting fairness and justice in the delivery of service. This is linked to the attainment of common interest that leads to the welfare of larger population. Fourth leadership value that I find most interesting is integrity. This value states that a leader must exhibit his moral strength and ethical courage. It is important to build trustworthiness and fulfill words. This is important for promoting positive relationship with the people CITATION Dan175 \l 1033 (Ames, Lee, & Wazlawek, 2017).

Issue in community

One common issue faced by the youth in my community is lack of career skills which makes it difficult to join workforce. Limited or no opportunities are offered for building skillset among young people who are completing educations and aspiring to join careers in future. Due to lack of such opportunities most of the candidates never succeed in interviews. They have to take low-wage jobs irrespective of good degrees. I would therefore want to make some changes in the education industry that will provide solution to these problems.

I would recommend to make workshops compulsory for the graduate and post-graduate students. The institutes, government and firms can arrange workshops that could explain the skillset required for joining careers. In these worships skills are taught to students such as by engaging them in challenging situation that will require them to use problem-solving attitude. My second recommendation would be to make it mandatory for all graduates to take internships and summer jobs. This will give them the opportunity of becoming part of an organization and learning practical skills. Their interaction with employees, managers and leaders will allow them to build practical skills. My third recommendation would be to suggest students to take part-time jobs during studies. This will give them ample chance to build professional skills they firms are demanding. I believe that by working on these recommendations the issue of limited job opportunities can be resolved. By having adequate experience with educational degrees youth will have better chances of entering good companies CITATION Whi14 \l 1033 (White, 2014). Finally, on joining workforce youth is also encouraged to update their skills by attending professional workshops, short courses and seminars. This will lead to the development of a stable career.

Diversity and equity

Equity according to me is that everyone in the society must have equal access to all resources irrespective of their religion, race, color, genre or political affiliation. This philosophy states that no one can enjoy privileges bases on their race or socio-economic power. Diversity means removing differences among groups and placing a single value on them. It is focused on accepting the differences based on the idea that all individuals are unique and possess different set of qualities. Equity and diversity are important in education, institutions and community because they promote harmony and acceptance. The concepts of equity and diversity are interlinked because they emphasize on encompassing acceptance and respect. I think that the purpose of these concepts is to promote interdependence of humanity among cultures. It remove differences by making people believe that everyone deserves respect. Diversity aims at recognizing personal, cultural and religion differences. By relying of these ideologies people refrain from entering into a conflicting situation. They exhibit high tolerance towards each other in different social settings. Equity and diversity are thus important for attaining peace and welfare at larger level CITATION Rob19 \l 1033 (Robinson, 2019).

Diversity and equity improve social fabric in Iraq by making people realize that everyone deserves respect irrespective of their race, socio-economic status or religion. This will improve the level of resistance because people will focus on living in peace. Discrimination of all forms can be removed by building alliances over differences. People can be made understand how they can overcome differences such as by building positive relationship. Respecting individual rights and self-identity are two important ways that help in overcoming negative feelings towards people belong to different cultures or religions. Diversity and equity will create a situation in which people will support each other and adopt a model of equitable society. Negative feelings towards other cultures and religions can be removed.



Ames, D., Lee, A., & Wazlawek, A. (2017). Interpersonal assertiveness: Inside the balancing act. Social Personality and Psychology , 11 (6).

Bhui, K., Dinos, S., Galant-Miecznikowska, M., Jongh, B. d., & Stansfeld, S. (2016). Perceptions of work stress causes and effective interventions in employees working in public, private and non-governmental organisations: a qualitative study . BJPsych Bull , 40 (6), 318–325.

Robinson, M. (2019). What is Social Justice? Retrieved 08 18, 2019, from https://web.archive.org/web/20130307071200/http:/gjs.appstate.edu/social-justice-and-human-rights/what-social-justice

White, L. R. (2014). Military leadership lessons for management accountants. Strategic Finance.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Ethnic Groups

Ethnic Groups

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Ethnic Groups


The second largest Mexican Community is found in the United States. The interesting part is that the Mexican population stats in America are second to Mexico itself. It is also a fact that they compromise of 24% of the complete Mexican population in the whole world. Mexican families have called the United States home for the past 15,000 years. It should also be put under consideration that the Mestizo Mexican history in America dates back to 400 years ever since the Spanish New Mexico was founded. According to an estimation, around 10% of the Mexicans that are settled in America are the descendants of the early colonial settlers, who started living as citizens back in 1848 through the Treaty of Guadelupe Hiadalgo which was the reason why the Mexican- American war came to an end. 11.2% of the American population consists of Mexicans, which means that Mexicans comprise 36.3 million populace of the United States.

Majority of the Mexican population are Roman Catholic. The official language that they all speak is Spanish, but they are all well versed in American English as well now. There is also something that is witnessed that the younger generations Spanish are more Americanized now. What I really admire about the Mexican society is their staunch belief in family values, the family is in the center of the social structure. Their family structure is usually quite big and they go all lengths to help a family member as it is considered to be their responsibility and duty. The Mexicans usually follow patriarchy as the father of the family is considered the head and the one who makes all the decisions. The mothers are more on the reserve side and their role is usually secondary to their husbands. Their society also follows a hierarchy and someone who is above in the hierarchy must be treated with respect. They believe in giving gifts and their certain etiquette's to be followed, coming a little late is always appreciated. All in all Mexican society is close-knit and family oriented (Noel, 2015).


The Chinese community that resides in America is the largest Chinese Community that lives overseas apart from Asia. It should also be kept in consideration that it is the third biggest community in the Chinese dispersion right behind the Chinese communities that are living in Malaysia and Thailand. The Chinese people make up 3.8 million of the United States Population. The majority of the Chinese population is living in New York and California. In accordance with the United States records the first ever Chinese immigrant arrived prior to California Gold Rush. This also drew in the initial large number of Chinese laborers who helped mine the gold and completed basic labor. Chinese workers initially migrated to the United States to get jobs in mines, grab the agriculture jobs, work in the garment industry, making railroads and working in the factory. They ended up becoming very successful in the United States because of their labor work.

There are five main religions that are being followed by Chinese; Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Islam, and Catholicism. Chinese culture reflects Taoism, they believe in simplicity. They also love their festivals, the jieqi. They believe in clarity of thinking and refinement. Zen Buddhism also has a great following in the Chinese way of life. They are also very cautious about healthcare and try to find herbal ways to preserve health. After thousands of years of establishment, Chinese Cuisine has also reached perfection. Their food is not only pleasing to the eyes but delicious as well. I admire Chinese cuisine a lot. I also like that the seniors and elders of the family are treated as the most important guests (Hwang, 2016).


Irish take around 10.5% of the United States population. About 50% of the Irish immigrants originated from the province of Ulster, dating back to the colonial era. The other 50% of the immigrants came from the other three provinces of Ireland. There are various approximations given by scholars, but the most accurate would be that 250.000 of the Irish people migrated to the United States in-between 1717-1775. Approximately 400,000 Irish people had moved to the United States by 1790.

The Irish community has been present in the United States for hundreds of years now. Their biggest advantage was knowing the English language. Irish people have the reputation of being very pleasant, which is quite true. Traditional Irish people have large families and are closely linked to their community and church. Their community was the first to allow gay marriage. When it comes to religion the majority of the people are Roman Catholics. Saint Patrick's Day is probably the most celebrated of the Irish culture and is known worldwide and to me, it is the most admirable part of their community. Irish Halloween, music, and dancing shows just how colorful their community really is. There favorite food to consume is potatoes, no meal is Irish without potatoes (Cogliano, 2016).


Cubans make up 0.71% of the United States population. There are many communities who are heavy with the Cuban population, but Florida has the highest population of Cubans. 70% of the Cuban population lives in Florida. Cuban immigration to the United States has a long history. It started in the Spanish colonial period dating back to 1565. This was the time when St. Augustine, Florida was originated by Pedro Menendez de Aviles. There were hundreds of Cubans who shifted to St. Augustine inclusive of families and soldiers to start a new life.

The food, music and belied of Cubans reflect the Caribbean, African and European culture. What I love the most about their community is the Caribbean feel, their culture, music, colors, and dances all have the Caribbean flow. There rhythms like the drum yuka, jazz, rumba, and mambo are all the part of their culture. They carry out various carnivals and festivals. Majority of the Cubans are Roman Catholics. Cuban cuisine like them is also very colorful and delicious (Dossick, 2018).


Americans have a way of stereotyping all four of the ethnicities, the way they represent them is not even close to what their cultures are all about. A small example would be media, people who are portrayed as either Mexicans or Cubans are portrayed in a negative manner. there are exceptions which represent the culture very well but mostly they are misrepresented. Even the Irish and Asian portrayal is quite inaccurate most of the times, just a self-presumed idea is represented. All four cultures are given a group ethnicity on the basis of appearance, accents, cuisines and certain believes that people said to have about them. Further, there is always this assumed thought that if one is Mexican they will be disrespectful and masculine towards women. People need to know that there is awareness everywhere now. When it comes to Irish, people butcher their accent like no tomorrow. There is such a prejudice regarding the way they talk and the words that they use that it is portrayed that way in media as well. further, if one is from Mexico it does not mean that they do drugs. This really needs to be put into consideration that a few people cannot represent the whole community. Chinese are also stereotyped based on what people believe that they are like, the Chinese culture that is represented is more Americanized than authentic. When it comes to the class system and employment, there is quite different from American culture. The class system in the US is simply high, middle and low class while for Mexicans it is based on the hierarchy that talks about being true blood and being on Spanish descent. The other people lower in class are to respect people who have a higher standing in the hierarchy. For Cubans, race, ethnicity, and money all combine to make the class system. While for Chinese, it has been the same for centuries; landlord, peasant, craftsmen, and merchant. For employment, Americans have a flatter structure, while Cubans, Chinese, and Mexicans follow a hierarchy.


Noel, L. C. (2015). Neil Foley. Mexicans in the Making of America.

Hwang, D. (2016). Chinese and Americans: A Shared History by Xu Guoqi. China Review International, 23(2), 199-203.

Cogliano, F. D. (2016). Revolutionary America, 1763-1815: A Political History. Routledge.

Dossick, J. J. (2018). Cuba, Cubans and Cuban-Americans. Routledge.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Exam 2

Exam 2

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Exam 2

Question no 1

Identify and discuss two important challenges in conducting an organizational cultural inquiry. These challenges could be ethical ones, measurement issues, or difficulties in working with the organization, etc.


The most critical and important issue which can be faced in conducting organizational cultural inquiry are:

Organizational culture is the deepest thing in all kind of organizations, so inquiring this may not be an easy task. So there may be an issue of getting all informationrmation from individual may be difficult because sometimes people don’t provide all of their secrets or background information.

Background, a person’s characteristics and other factors about individuals vary from one to another in an organization (Schein, 2010). So it may create a challenge or measuring the exact issue while inquiring organizational culture.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative methods in the cultural inquiry. Please provide examples.



Provide rich and highly illustrative informationrmation regarding the social phenomenon.

Provide useful information for practical implication.

Needs small size of sample than quantitative method.

Provide the possibility to design specific insight

It Reduces chances for bias in the data and informationrmation

Focus on the purpose of result and decision rather than huge details

It converts a person’s experiences into usable data


The qualitative method provides subjective data which is difficult for prompt decision making

Takes more time than the quantitative method in cultural inquiry

It lacks statistical data and informationrmation

It requires investigators to get non-verbal data

Question no 2

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative methods in the cultural inquiry. Please provide examples.



Provide formulation of purely statistical hypothesis which is easy for concluding results

It provides faster and more accurate data and informationrmation than other methods

It enables to evaluate multiple dimensions about organizational culture.

It will save the time of investigators who works on cultural inquiry.


A quantitative method for cultural inquiry in the organization needs constant monitoring of model which is difficult to get. E.g. every employee may not provide continued information whenever you need/want (Schein, 2010).

Sometimes, inadequate data may be gained which will result in no outcomes of the inquiry.

In this method, the whole process of inquiry is dependent on the statistics while getting all statistics is not an easy job.

Chapter 14 provides several typologies to understand organizational culture. Which one do you like the most? Why?


I like the way of rewards and punishment through which organizational culture can be understood. I like it the most because rewards and punishment is the only way that provides exact results about your organizational culture. Likewise, if your employees get rewards so it means that your organizational culture is well organized and employees help each other as well as they are competent but if there are a high number of punishment than rewards then the situation would be different. In short, rewards and punishment provide a true and clear picture of organizational culture (Schein, 2010).

Question no 3

There are three generic subcultures in every organization: operators, designers, and executives. Describe each subculture by summarizing some of its important basic assumptions.


Executive Subculture

Without revenue and financial, there is no return to the executives.

The executive or CEO is the single hero who controls everything and works hard to get succeed.

Executives cannot get what they want because subordinates say which they think the boss like. So the boss cannot rely a lot on the information nor the subordinates.

Designers/Engineering Subculture

Human creates and make problems and do mistakes so they should be designed out of the system in some cases.

In engineering, the results should be mostly based on technology and science.

Efforts should be product and result oriented to produce something credible.

Operator Subculture

Activities and operations of the organization are the shapes of people activities. So operators are the real asset of the organization.

Operators are those who face changes, deal with and they bring possible innovation because these things are connected with them.

The growth, success, and failure depend on the capabilities. Skill and expertise of operators.

Pick an organization, and identify who share these subcultures in the organization. Be sure to explain why you think people belong to one particular subculture.


Ford Motors has been picked as an organization. In Ford, each subculture shares all these three values. CEO and Directors share these work for overall control and put efforts for organization success and growth. Engineering subculture put efforts to work through technology and machines as well as producing high-quality products while operators share their subculture because they work put hard effort, work more, face changes and work to introduce advanced production system and bring innovation in their operations and processes (Schein, 2010).

Question no 4

What are some important challenges an organization faces in each stage of cultural evolution?


In founding stages stage challenge can be faced which is that employees may not share similar values which will create problem in the beginning stage.

In the early growth, some of the people may be against each other values so this may not allow the organizational culture to grow.

Midlife is an important stage but organization face challenge when some people leave the organization and new people enters so it may create a barrier in this stage of cultural evolution.

In Maturity, stage organization doesn't mostly face challenges but sometimes people with higher values than others create a problem at this stage because they sometimes devalue others.

Decline stage is the final stage in which an organization faces the challenges of cultural evolution because the organization is going towards the beginning of another cultural evolution so it creates huge problems for the organization to get settled accordingly (Schein, 2010).

How can leadership face these challenges and improve the organization and its culture?


Leadership can face and improve these (above mentioned) challenges and improve organization and its culture by many ways but the most suitable and appropriate way is they develop policies and environment that support diversity, inclusion, and equity among all individuals or employees at all stages and any cost. They work to bring all the people together (near to each other) so that the issue and challenges in organizational can be handled and resolved efficiently (Schein, 2010). Beyond that, they also work to offer and provide equal compatible and fully fair financial compensations to all individuals so that they would not feel devalued against each other.


Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership(Vol. 2). John Wiley & Sons.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Female Ruler

Comparative Essay-Wu Zetian of China and Pharaoh Hatshepsut of Egypt

Your name


My comparative essay is on two great female leaders, Empress Wu Zetian of China and the Pharaoh Hatshepsut of Egypt. Both of them were transformational leaders and brought great changes to their states. In 690 and 705 AD it was considered unnatural for women to rule in China, but Wu Zetian significantly ruled Tang dynasty and showed that women could be great leaders. Pharaoh Hatshepsut ruled Egypt between 1478 and 1458 BC. The reason for choosing this topic is to reveal the greatness of these two female leaders and acknowledge their great accomplishments towards their states.

Wu Zetian ruled the state when women were given freedom to participate in politics and help the government in reforming the culture. At that time women of China were given the opportunity to leave their submissive lives and play their role in the betterment of the state ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"L07Wp3OX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wong, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Wong, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":53,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/TC3GTIFJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/TC3GTIFJ"],"itemData":{"id":53,"type":"article-journal","title":"Representations of emperor Wu Zetian in Ming-Qing fiction:'Ruyijun zhuan'and'Jinghua yuan'","container-title":"Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, The","page":"90","volume":"49","author":[{"family":"Wong","given":"Tin Kei"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wong, 2018). On the other hand, Pharaoh Hatshepsut ruled the land when women were encouraged to live as housewives and live a submissive lifestyle. At that time in Egypt the only good job for women was considered to bake bread and cake, but still, Pharaoh managed to rule when women were given no importance as rulers (Horning, 2017).

Wu had made some significant reforms and attained many achievements, but she was also ruthless in the matter of power. She used some unfair means to keep the power only to her. For instance, she killed her relatives and took advantage of her position and power. On the contrary, Pharaoh never used ruthless and un fair means. She was an authoritative leader but never used her position and power for wrong deeds. She was a transformational leader and managed to rule Egypt for twenty long years.

The similarities between both the rulers were that Wu and Hatshepsut initiated some new agricultural projects in China and Egypt which gave an entirely new image to the respective states. For example, Wu laid her major effort on the farming projects. She ensured the successful construction of irrigation systems in China and tested the abilities of local officials to cultivate land, and she made sure that citizens of China should be highly benefited from the agricultural projects. For example, she provided aid to the peasant farmers so that they could increase their production which will eventually help the whole state economically. Similarly, Hatshepsut strived hard for the development of agricultural projects in both the lower and upper parts of the country. She provided the irrigation systems to the framers through which they could easily avail the water services to irrigate their crops ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gOtNyshT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Horning, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Horning, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":54,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/I6WD22YU"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/I6WD22YU"],"itemData":{"id":54,"type":"book","title":"Ancient Egypt: The Land of Pyramids and Pharaohs","publisher":"Greenhaven Publishing LLC","ISBN":"1-5345-6246-X","author":[{"family":"Horning","given":"Nicole"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Horning, 2017).

Wu and Hatshepsut had a common school of thought to appoint only the powerful and educated people for the government tasks. Wu even initiated the idea of interviewing the candidates before hiring them to judge their personality traits. Pharaoh Hatshepsut re-established the trade relations in Egypt which immensely increased the economy of Egypt.

Pharaoh and Wu came from two entirely different cultures, and their significant difference was on religion. The ancient Egyptian religion revolved around the divinity of its current rulers whereas the chines religion revolved around the worshiping of their ancestors. The similarity between these cultures was that their primary source of income was the agricultural projects and both the cultures had ruler system in common. Emperors and Pharaohs were seen as the rulers in China and Egypt respectively.

The leadership qualities of both leaders should be applied to the modern era. The best example is of Ellen Kullman, who is the chief executive of General Motors and she is beautifully running her business. The things that we can learn from the histories of these two great leaders are that modern companies should implement the excellent leadership qualities of Wu and Pharaoh. Females who are currently leading the governments and businesses can take a lot of benefit from the leadership qualities of Wu and Pharaoh ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ldQEushr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(McKenna, 2009)","plainCitation":"(McKenna, 2009)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":52,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/M4EHSHAH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/6hWtnKoy/items/M4EHSHAH"],"itemData":{"id":52,"type":"book","title":"The 100 most influential women of all time","publisher":"Britannica Educational Publishing","ISBN":"1-61530-058-9","author":[{"family":"McKenna","given":"Amy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2009"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (McKenna, 2009).


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Horning, N. (2017). Ancient Egypt: The Land of Pyramids and Pharaohs. Greenhaven Publishing LLC.

McKenna, A. (2009). The 100 most influential women of all time. Britannica Educational Publishing.

Wong, T. K. (2018). Representations of emperor Wu Zetian in Ming-Qing fiction:’Ruyijun zhuan’and’Jinghua yuan’. Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, The, 49, 90.

Subject: Culture

Pages: 2 Words: 600

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