Adaptation In Easy A
Adaptation in Literature
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The concept of adaptation and adapted text in the literature is used to denote the transformations of a literary work to the needs of a particular society, a particular cultural model, or a communicative situation; the process of processing the original literary work, its alteration, rewriting to achieve certain goals. The concept of adaptation in linguistics The adaptation of a literary text is based on the concept of adaptation as such. In a broad sense, adaptation is a universal concept that is used in various fields of scientific knowledge. The need to adapt the literary text is due to the need for the product to perform certain functions, primarily communicative. The success of communication and interaction between the author and the recipient largely depends on the communicants' ability to present the content of the text properly, to adapt the content of the message to changing conditions of interaction.
In linguistics, adaptation is understood as simplification, reduction of the text, bringing it in line with the characteristics of the recipient's perception. Adapted text, in turn, can be understood as text brought into line with the needs of the reader, recipient; text "close" to the audience. The adapted text is created on the basis of another literary work, which is primary in relation to it Methods of adaptation of literary text. “However, in both academic criticism and journalistic studying, modern popular adaptations are most often put down as secondary, derived, “belated, unintellectual, or culturally substandard”
The logical organization of textual material on the basis of the abstract / concrete. Increasing the level of abstraction of the text, as a rule, leads to a complication of the discourse and, conversely, the specification of the content of the text allows us to simplify its perception even by an untrained audience. The basis of this technique is the peculiarities of the development of human thinking, the ability to abstraction arose in mankind during a long evolution, respectively, abstract thinking is a more complex form than concrete thinking.
The organization of lexical material. The lexical means, which can complicate the perception of the literary text, include exotisms, terms, barbarisms, outdated words, dialectics, jargon. Accordingly, in the process of adapting such tokens, it is recommended to use synonyms or explanations of unfamiliar words. In addition, it is recommended to avoid the use of words of a limited sphere of use (terms, professionalisms, dialect), if possible, to replace them with literary equivalents. If necessary, words are added that allow explicating the meaning of the expression. The morphological organization of the text is carried out with the help of giving speech dialog, concretization of the presentation, which allows us to make the story not only informative, clear, but also convincing, expressive.
In addition, in the process of adapting the text, obsolete grammatical forms are replaced by modern, consistent with modern morphological norms. The syntactic organization of the text is achieved by replacing complex syntactic constructions with simpler, more detailed paragraph division of the narrative. Common sentences are broken down into simple ones . The simplification of sentences complicated by turns, homogeneous sentence members, introductory words and constructions, etc. can be an effective tool for adapting text at the syntactical level. In some cases, it is advisable to eliminate the inversion, the reverse order of words in a sentence.
As a result of such syntactic organization of works, the assimilation of information is facilitated. The formal organization of the work: the deployment and collapse of information, storyline (s). Deployment is relevant if there is a need for a more simplified description of relevant information, events that allow us to understand the integrity of the work. When collapsing, the text is converted in the direction of reducing its volume. As a result of the implementation of these adaptation strategies, an adapted text is created that must meet a number of requirements. The main requirements that are put forward for the adapted text include the following: Clarity, accessibility, comprehensibility - the quality of the text, which ensures its easy perception by the reader; Accuracy, conceptual and substantive - the correspondence of the plan of expression of speech to the system of expressed concepts, objective material reality.
It is important to add that when adapting literary texts, the requirement of accuracy appears to be very vague, this category refers to the correspondence of a word to the ideological concept of a work, the main idea of the author. Informative, satisfactory information density - this criterion is characterized by the amount of information new to the reader in the text. When adapting the text, great attention is paid to the information content of the text for the recipient. New information in the text should be presented "dosed". Both redundancy and lack of information lead to a decrease in the quality of the adapted text. Reliability is a characteristic of a text that reflects its ability to control reader’s perception, interpretative activity in accordance with the producer’s intentions. Thus, on the basis of the study, we can conclude that the adaptation of literary discourse is a simplification of the text, bringing it in line with the needs and characteristics of the recipient. In the process of adaptation, various strategies of the lexical, syntactic, discursive and over-discursive levels are applied.
Balestrini, N. W. (Ed.). (2011). Adaptation and American Studies: Perspectives on Research and Teaching (p. 1). Winter.
Hutcheon, L. (2012). A theory of adaptation. Routledge.
Mikhail, B. I., & Petro‐Nustas, W. I. (2001). Transcultural adaptation of Champion's health belief model scales. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(2), 159-165.
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