Finding employment after prison
The topic selected for the research is “lack of employment opportunities and economic insecurity that make them unfit for the society”. The reason for choosing the topic is to address the problems faced by ex-offenders in getting back to normal life. It is important to understand the reasons which affect the life choices of ex-offenders after getting released from jails. Ex-prisoners are discriminated by the people of society that undermine their efforts of becoming part of the same society. The topic has relevance to the study area of criminal justice. The purpose of the literature review is to offer wider literature on the subject of justice reforms. It uncovers the factors that have negative impacts on the lives of ex-offenders and minimize opportunities of becoming law-abiding citizens.
Source finding analysis
Sources are found from New Jersey State Library database due to its credibility. Chosen library database is credible so reliable sources were retrieved for the research. The database is playing crucial role in helping citizens to become part of societies who have undergone some tragic issues. It also stresses on identifying the solutions for helping ex-offenders to integrate into communities. One of the biggest concerns of New Jersey State Library is to help individuals to re-enter into workforce.
Effective searches were made by entering relevant key terms such as; re-entry of ex-prisoners into workforce, factors that undermine their transition to society, unemployment after prison, anxiety, stress and re-offense due to lack of survival opportunities. By entering these terms relevant sources were retrieved for the research. OI excluded the terms ‘need for recognition’ because it didn’t opened the required sources or articles that I was looking for. I assured that the selected sources are highly relevant by reading the abstract.
Sources were evaluated by reading the abstract and findings its link with the topic. This helped in choosing the most relevant articles, journals and empirical studies. Selected sources are appropriate for the research question because they investigate the issues faced by ex-prisoners in finding relevant jobs. Title and key words of the sources exhibit relevance with the research question, which, proves that they contain relevant data. Chosen variety of sources are appropriate for the scope of project because these cover all aspects of employment after getting release from jails. The sources discuss the challenges encountered by prisoners in getting appropriate jobs. In every article and source the ethical steps mentioned by the authors were read. Such as the sources had mentioned that in studying the perceptions of ex-offenders they were informed about the purpose of research and personal information was kept confidential. Similarly, sources also mentioned that consent was obtained from the participants of the research studies before conduction of survey or interviews. This proves that the authors of the sources complied with the ethical conditions of research.
Selected sources offer adequate information for uncovering the factors that undermine the opportunities for getting employment after spending time in jails. Miller (2019) studied the characteristics that restrict opportunities of employment for ex-offenders. Some of the factors identified in the article include substance abuse, limited education and cognitive abilities, perceptions of employers about their past behaviors. this source is used for providing relevant evidence about the lack of employment opportunities which undermine possibilities of integrating into society for ex-offenders. Corbett (2017) explores that the possibilities of correction depends on the opportunities of work and survival received by ex-prisoners. The article stresses on the need for finding relationship between educational attainment and job opportunities for such people. It is assumed that offenders who are given better education are more likely to get jobs after getting released from the jails. This source is used for offering some solutions for helping ex-offenders in starting normal lives and becoming law-abiding citizens. The article also reveals that the likelihood of recidivism is reduced when ex-prisoners get better opportunities for employment. This suggests integrating programs for educating and training offenders in prisons for preparing them to integrate into society afterwards. Soeker et al., (2013) studied the perceptions of make black ex-prisoners in finding jobs. The source is used for exploring the experiences of the ex-prisoners that reflect challenges for adjusting to the society. Results depicts that lack of employers trust impact opportunities of job for ex-prisoners. Capacity building is another threat that undermines employment possibilities for these people.
Nelson (2019) identifies the solutions for helping ex-offenders in getting jobs. The article recognize federal grants as the major source for helping these people in adapting to the society. The reason for choosing this source us that fact it provides some practical solutions such as provision of fidelity bond by Michigan Talent Investment Agency (TIA). Bergen and Bressler (2016) identified some strategies and interventions that could help in overcoming the employment problem. The strategy of blue box is focused on convincing firms to look into talents without considering criminal record. The source is used for building relevance for findings solutions.
Jolson (2016) studied if ex-offenders could be successful employees or not. The source is used for determining the capabilities and skills of these people that could help them in integrating back to society. The reason for choosing the source is to find how firms and society can play better role in encouraging ex-prisoners for starting normal lives. Weissert (2016) determines that the firms and employers are using blue box against ex-prisoners, which minimize job opportunities for them. Past criminal records are affecting the recruitment process. There are fewer chances of selecting employees who had been involved in criminal activities during the past.
Jolson (2016) and Weissert (2016) identifies the themes of discriminatory behavior of employers towards ex-offenders. They are relying on past criminal records and convinced to reject them for their past offenses. This undermines the opportunities for getting jobs. Some disagreement is shown by Saunders and Stacer (2017) by stressing on racial discrimination. This reflects that the cause according to this source is different from other articles that only discusses employment issues faced by offenders collectively. This source claims that only black and Latino ex-offenders are denied jobs and secure living after completing their punishments.
The sources that I have found from the database have significant relevance with my selected research topic. The chosen sources helps in understanding the problem and leading factors behind them. Saunders and Stacer (2017) identified racial discrimination as the central factor, which undermines employment opportunities for the black ex-offenders. The source is important for understanding how employment opportunities could vary among ex-offenders depending on their race and ethnicities. This source is used for comparing how it is more difficulty for the minority populations or immigrants to get jobs after completing sentence. Blesset and Marie (2013) explored the realistic challenges faced by ex-prisoners in integrating to society. The source reveals that the firms are promoting the concept of workplace diversity but they have not included ex-prisoners in this criteria. It therefore reveals that ex-prisoners face more challenges for getting works. Flake (2015) confirmed that ex-offenders are discriminated during the process of getting jobs. This reflects that the central causes of this discriminatory behavior are lack of trust and criminal record of the offenders. Their past attitudes make it difficult for them to find jobs.
Integration of different sources has offered adequate evidence for providing that being convicted of felony in the past ban them from engaging in job occupations. The purpose of choosing these sources is to cover different aspects related to the topic. The sources states that by offering education to offenders in prison and job security they are encouraged to become good citizens CITATION Von16 \l 1033 (Bergen & Bressler, 2016).
The information that find most interesting is the need for provision of education and development programs for helping ex-offenders in integrating in society and overcoming negative behaviors. This proves that the restrictions on ex-offenders minimize their chances of becoming good citizens. The analysis of the sources suggests implementation of education program for prisoners that are focused on teaching the strategies for overcoming offensive behaviors.
By reviewing the sources retrieved form the database I have learned that people face significant challenges in finding jobs when they are released from prisons. Worker programs for ex-prisoner had positive impact on changing their personalities. I learned that prison education is an effective tool of eliminating the possibilities of recidivism. It is the responsibility of the state to offer adequate opportunities for finding jobs to ex-offenders. People who complete their imprisonment need more financial and moral support form the people. By removing discriminatory attitudes against ex-offenders they would manage to start a respectable living and change their offensive behaviors. Evidence depicts the ex-offenders who are socio-economically deprived are more likely to commit crimes. I learned that promoting positive behavior among ex-offenders it is essential to offer them opportunities of better lifestyles. This is because offenders who live in slumps or deprived neighborhoods are more re-engage in criminal activities.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Solinas‐Saunders, M., & Stacer, M. J. (2017). Teaching & learning guide for: Fighting labor market discrimination with ban the box (BTB): Are there racial implications? ociology Compass , 11 (12535).
Weissert, E. P. (2016). Get Out Of Jail Free? Preventing Employment Discrimination Against People With Criminal Records Using Ban The Box Laws. University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 164 (6), 1529-1555.
Bergen, V. C., & Bressler, M. S. (2016). "Ban the Box" Gives Ex-Offenders a Fresh Start in Securing Employment. Labor Law Journal , 67 (2), 383-395.
Blesset, B., & Marie, P. (2013). The Invisible Job Seeker: The Absence Of Ex-Offenders In Discussions Of Diversity Management. Public Administration Quarterly , 37 (3), 433-455.
Corbett, E. S. (2017). "We Been Hurt, Been Down Before. When Our Pride Was Low, Lookin' at the World Like "Where Do We Go?'": An Exploration of Educational Attainment and Post-Release Employment Outcomes for Connecticut Department of Correction Ex-Offenders . ProQuest LLC , 157.
Flake, D. F. (2015). When any sentence is a life sentence: employment discrimination against ex-offenders. Wash. U. L. Rev , 93 (1), 1-59.
Jolson, M. A. (2016). Are Ex-Offenders Successful Employees? California Management Review , 17 (3), 65-73.
Nelson, D. (2019). Federal grant helps ex-offenders find jobs. Grand Rapids Business Journal , 37 (28), 4.
Miller, D. (2019). Employer Reservation And Ex-Offender Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research & Practice for Adult Literacy , 29-46.
Soeker, M. S., Carriem, F., Hendricks, M., Joynt, T., & Naidoo, N. (2013). Breaking into the world of employment: The vocational experience of South African male ex-offenders. Work , 44 (2), 201-211.
If you have any queries please write to us
Join our mailing list