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Apply: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Ethics And Risk Management Study

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Patrick Foran

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

The dispute between Jerry's Pizza and Dazzling Dough Co. there is a need to determine the legitimacy of the contract. Dazzling Dough Co. sells pizza dough to pizza makers. Jerry's pizza requested Dazzling Dough Co. to purchase pizza dough along with some other items. They responded back in the form of a contract which stated that Jerry's pizza agrees to purchase 200 pounds of pizza dough and other items for $30000. The contract was signed by Jerry's pizza, and after few days all the items were sent to them by Dazzling Dough Co. these included 125 pounds of pizza dough and 75 pounds of other items. Here, the source of dispute is the lack of proper communication between both the parties. Neither Jerry's pizza clearly mentioned the quantity of each item they requested nor the other party got clarification and clearly break down the items with the quantity they will be sent to Jerry's pizza. Jerry's pizza without knowing what exactly they are going to get signed the contract.

Both the parties' interpreted the contract in a different way and assumed that they had done their job. Dazzling Dough Co. assumed that they had communicated already what they would send and Jerry's pizza assumed that they would get 200 pounds dough along with other items, however, the contract at did not specify the quantity. Both parties have interpreted wrong on their ends. The seller must have clearly mentioned that they will be sending 125 pounds of dough and 75 pounds of other items, what they understood that Jerry's pizza wanted. At the same time, Jerry's pizza must have asked the quantity and price of each item before signing the contract. After they signed the contract, it means that they agree with the seller. Clear break down of quantity and price of each item was the missing factor in the contract that became the reason of dispute. It is proposed that revising the contract language with clarification of quantity of each item provided, for instance, “Jerry’s Pizza agrees to purchase 125 pounds of pizza dough and 75 pounds of other items (toppings, desserts and soft drinks) for $30000”. This makes the contract clear on which Jerry’s pizza could request for more before signing it.

It is unethical to enforce the terms of the contract at a party when the other party fails to understand. The fact of misinterpretation of the terms of the contract should be considered. The contract was vague in its terms and the language used had several interpretations. Therefore, both the parties should have room for flexibility in terms of the contract and can renegotiate.

The possible recommendations that can be made are to reduce the quantity of dough because Jerry’s has already bought the required quantity of dough from another seller. One more settlement option is that both the parties accept their mistakes and agree to settle the contract as none of them is solely responsible for ambiguity. If the price is overcharged, then Dazzling Dough Co. must agree to repay the additional amount. Few methods are available for dispute resolution that can be applied to this case and can be proposed to Dazzling Dough Co. Mediation will help in identifying the interest for both parties and solution will be based on that. alternative dispute resolution is recommended because it is fast, lest costly and resolve issues in a fair manner ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1QfEy8Lf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Contract enforcement and dispute resolution - OECD,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Contract enforcement and dispute resolution - OECD,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1028,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/NF9L25R5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/NF9L25R5"],"itemData":{"id":1028,"type":"webpage","title":"Contract enforcement and dispute resolution - OECD","URL":"https://www.oecd.org/investment/toolkit/policyareas/investmentpolicy/contractenforcementanddisputeresolution.htm","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Contract enforcement and dispute resolution - OECD,” n.d.). Arbitration will allow the third party to take the decision after listening to opinions from both sides ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qaL7lS4E","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution?,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2019)}","plainCitation":"(“What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution?,” 2019)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1025,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/IFA4USQT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/IFA4USQT"],"itemData":{"id":1025,"type":"post-weblog","title":"What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution? What to Know About Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation","container-title":"PON - Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School","abstract":"When it comes to dispute resolution, we now have many choices. Understandably, disputants are often confused about which process to use.","URL":"https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/dispute-resolution/what-are-the-three-basic-types-of-dispute-resolution-what-to-know-about-mediation-arbitration-and-litigation/","shortTitle":"What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution?","language":"en-US","issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,15]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution?,” 2019). Negotiation is the most helpful way in which both parties settle to one single decision without the involvement of the third party.



ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Contract enforcement and dispute resolution - OECD. (n.d.). Retrieved January 21, 2019, from https://www.oecd.org/investment/toolkit/policyareas/investmentpolicy/contractenforcementanddisputeresolution.htm

What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution? What to Know About Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation. (2019, January 15). Retrieved from https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/dispute-resolution/what-are-the-three-basic-types-of-dispute-resolution-what-to-know-about-mediation-arbitration-and-litigation/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Apply: Duties Of Corporate Directors And Officers

Apply: Duties of Corporate Directors and Officers

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Apply: Duties of Corporate Directors and Officers


The purpose of the policy is to describe the legal duties of the corporate directors and officers. The policy will help in finding out whether the staff or director is not violating any policy of the organization and will help in evaluating how such behavior of them will affect the organization and its stakeholders. The company also wants to build a policy for violating legal duties to the organization because during past year there were three directors who were forced to leave the organization because they violated their legal duties to the organization.


The board asked to work with corporation's legal counsel to the CEO to create a policy for company staff and directors about their legal duties to the corporation to avoid further problems which were faced by the corporation in the past year. The chairman wants that owners and staff are to understand their legal duties and in future avoid violating any policy of the company.

Legal duties of directors and officers

Directors and officers are responsible for the success of the organization. It is the responsibility of them to participate regularly in the activities of an organization. They are responsible for every operation of the organization. It is the duty of directors and officers to review the financial reports of the company and help the corporation in building a strong strategic plan that identifies and helps the organization in managing risks. Directors and officers are required to take additional steps to help an organization in achieving their goals. They are required to read about all the current programs of the organization. Directors and officers should participate in daily meetings and represent their ideas. Directors of the corporation are responsible for every activity of the organization. Directors and officers have some similar duties, but these duties vary from corporation to corporation (Eisenberg, 2017).

Benefits of compliance

Compliance is very important for any organization. It makes sure that your company meets industry rules and regulations. There are many benefits of compliance. Compliance helps the company to maintain their reputation in the market. It helps the company to avoid legal risks and built trust with their customers. Compliance helps in improving effectiveness and helps in reducing the costs of business. It helps an organization to save themselves from any loss by finding defects at an early stage which reduces the risk of failure (Chenoweth, 2018).

Consequences of non-compliance

Companies who don't use compliance can face a lot of problems. Non-compliance can be very costly for businesses. Companies need to provide a safe environment to their employees. Workers must be paid fairly and on time. Paying workers, not on time is a violation of policy. Many business practices are effect by non-compliance. A company can face a lot of consequences. Employees can do the case on them if they will not give them payment on time and they might have to pay heavy fines if they break the rules and regulations of the contract. A company might lose their reputation in the market, and the directors of the company might be imprisoned for breaching law. They might lose their staff because of their bad reputation. Many businesses required licenses to keep operating if the company doesn't have right credentials they might shut down. One of the real world examples of noncompliance is of the business who were found showing discrimination against an applicant's religion, nation, origin and sex can expect to pay 0.3 million dollars to compensate with the applicant. These compliance requirements can be very complex, and business owners are not fully educated about the latest rules and regulations. It is not a choice for an organization to use compliance it is mandatory for them to avoid any kind of consequences.


Eisenberg, M. A. (2017). Legal models of management structure in the modern corporation: Officers, directors, and accountants. In Corporate Governance (pp. 103-167). Gower.

Chenoweth, J., & Bird, J. (2018). Balancing the cost implications and benefits of compliance with advanced risk analysis. In The Business of Water and Sustainable Development (pp. 39-50). Routledge.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Apply: Internal And External Environmental Analysis

Apply: Internal and External Environmental Analysis

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Apply: Internal and External Environmental Analysis


The markets of today have become immensely competitive; the various companies playing in the global market fields are constantly striving to get the maximum amount of profits and grab the attention of maximum customers. Then organizations, especially those working in the global markets, thoroughly understand that in today’s world, it is extremely important that the organizations devise their strategies very carefully, in order to capture maximum amount of market share, The firms, competing in the business markets, regularly conduct careful analysis, both internal and external, to analyze various factors that can be a threat for their organization or can lead to success in the market (Huber, & Stephens, 2010). For this purpose, many organizations have a separate department which performs such functions. Many firms even hire specialist form consultancy firms to provide them insights about these factors. The same happened with me some days ago.


I work with a consultancy firm whose job is providing expert solutions to the companies with respect to their business situations and current positioning in the market. We help the organizations in improving their strategic operations by reviewing their current records and analyzing them with the comparison of their past performances. In this respect, I was hired by a newspaper company named Hoosier Media Inc. The company was worried about its declining circulation and subscriptions. The revenues of the print newspapers had gone down by 30% since the last five years and the online ads were not supporting the profits of the company either. They were accounting only for 5% of the company’s revenues. My job was to provide a detailed internal and external analysis of the whole situation and give suggestions to the company how they can improve the sales and profits of the newspaper printing company.

Economic Forces

The economic factors that are creating a disturbance for Hoosier Media Inc. are inflation, physical policies, demographic changes and level of interest.

Legal Forces

The major legal issues that the newspaper printing company might be facing is pressure by the government or certain political parties, not to print news regarding their issues.

Regulatory Forces

The regulatory issues that are currently being faced Hoosier Media Inc. are the regulatory laws and regulations imposed on it via various regulatory authorities.

How well the organization adapts to change?

It was observed that Hoosier Media Inc. adapts itself very well to the change. It was clearly observed that the newspaper printing company understands the significance of the online trends nowadays and has an online presence as well.

The success or failure of a business greatly depends on its internal strengths and weaknesses. Organizations also design their strategies according to the external opportunities and threats present for them in the market. These factors are best analyzed by using a SWOT analysis (Hill, & Westbrook, 1997).

Primary Internal organizational considerations (SWOT Analysis)


The strength of Hoosier Media Inc. is its business type. It is an infotainment company and people have the urge to remain informed all the time.


Hoosier Media Inc. is still heavily relying on the old and almost obsolete methods of print media.

Primary External organization considerations (SWOT Analysis)


The market holds many opportunities for Hoosier Media Inc. as it can develop and promote its presence over the internet in the form of a website and pages over the social media platforms.


The major threat for Hoosier Media Inc.is its competitors. The company’s competitors are far ahead of it by their online presence and continuous promotions on social media.

Major Issues and/or Opportunities for the Company

The major issues faced by the company are the online presence and growth of its competitors. Whereas the same opportunities exist for Hoosier Media Inc. to grow and promote its presence online.


Hill, T., & Westbrook, R. (1997). SWOT analysis: it's time for a product recall. Long range planning, 30(1), 46-52.

Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2010). Development and crisis of the welfare state: Parties and policies in global markets. University of Chicago Press.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Are Women Of Color Responsibilbe

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Are Women of Colour Responsible for their Position within Organizational Leadership

W7000 Advanced Academic Study Writing


The focal point of this examination think about was to investigate Women of color and their climb to senior official positions in organizations in the United States. The reason for this examination consider was to investigate the encounters of Women of color and the absence of diversity and equivalent open doors in the workplace that has restricted them from progressing to official leadership jobs (Elias, 2018). During the late 20th century, after the social liberties development, women of different ethnic gatherings acknowledged positions into a couple of upper-administration level jobs. Changes in U.S. society gave more chances to African American women, yet there has been clear proof that there is monetary minimization of Women of color and imbalance (Elias, 2018).

Women of color will in general get less cash-flow when contrasted with Westerner partners dependent on compensation and title inside associations (Elias, 2018). As society progressed and social propensities changed, the United States made the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to guarantee representatives get reasonable treatment and similar chances. The duty of the EEOC is to guarantee everybody gets equivalent treatment and nobody encounters separation, paying little mind to race, nationality, or sex. Women of color who make progress toward senior official dimension positions might be off guard.

Characterizing the idea of advancement isnt simple, yet there have been numerous methodologies and methods that assistance to evaluate it. In the zone of sexual orientation improvement, methodologies, for example, Women in Development and Gender and Development are utilized in the exploration procedure so as to survey the needs, make, screen and assess programs. To accomplish women improvement, organizations focus on different perspectives that impact womens lives decidedly or potentially contrarily. One of the UN Millennium Development Goals centers around giving equivalent access to instruction to young ladies and boys, but look into demonstrates that it isnt sufficient to send young ladies to class, arrangements must be intended for their maintenance in school and furthermore the educational module must be assessed to accommodate young ladies education. Organizations need to think about the customs and convictions of their working condition there are religious perspectives that structure hindrances to sexual orientation equity (Gilkes, 1986). So associations need to consult with various formal and casual organizations that advance imbalances. Since women are the objective populace in sexual orientation advancement, they must be completely included the procedure by being prepared to leadership positions so as to be a piece of the basic leadership process and have the capacity to structure strategies that bring change for a steady decrease of sex variations and imbalances towards women (Elias, 2018).

Research Question

Who, men or women especially women of color, is responsible for creating barriers in career advancements towards positions of leadership within the organization

Literature survey of relevant past research

Leadership, Women of Color and Barriers to Advancements

There are several barriers as to the advancements of women of color on the leadership roles in the country.

Women are often considered week and inappropriate for leadership and supervising positions that require decision making, interactive and engaging skills. Such a perception is the result of gender biasness and glass ceiling phenomenon at organizational level. However, researches and observations have shown that women tend to be more efficient and feasible when it comes to transformational leadership as compared to their male counterparts. This is probably due to their ability to be more understanding as compared to male leaders who are more commanding and authoritative rather than understanding. This has been confirmed by the meta analysis conducted by Eagly Carli in 2007.

In their research based meta-analysis titled The female leadership advantage An evaluation of the evidence, Eagly Carli (2073) concluded that when analyzed for transformational leadership style, women were found to be more efficient and flexible. They had higher rate of adaptability and showed higher performance ratings as well. The women leaders were found to be more rewarding, supporting, flexible, coaching and understandable as compared to male transformational leaders. These women were also more efficient in problem solving skills and handling trivial situations. On the other hand, the male transformational leaders were often too rigid and commanding. They showed little flexibility and adaptability. Critically evaluating the findings by respective research, it is confirmed that women perform better in transformational leadership style.

The authors of the research also provided an overview of how gender differences impact other common leadership styles. The authors also explained that regardless of the fact that studies show contrasts in styles of leadership gender variety is minute on the grounds that the parts of leadership is the central point in deciding the conduct of a person. She finishes up by watching that women are preferable leaders over men in some ways, yet women still have disservices because of the mentality in many settings that is generally manly. If manliness somehow managed to be expelled from organizational leadership, it would give therapists a reasonable picture of any inconsistencies in leadership in the middle of men and women (Eagly Carli, 2007).

Another researcher named Maher (1997) completed a research titled Gender-related stereotypes of transformational and transactional leadership which recommends that possibly transformational style of leadership is a feminine sort of leadership style. In gatherings where resources control is under women this kind of style is well on the way to be watched. From the studies referred to above, it can obviously be seen that a vital part is played by gender in leadership styles and women are seen to be partial to transformational style when contrasted with men. (Maher, 1997)

Jacqueline Leavitt (2003) contended that a sexual orientation based change in outlook still couldnt seem to occur in the field. The creator attest that advancement associations cant accomplish sexual orientation balance except if they consult with the very organizations and social gatherings that support sex incongruities and bring change. Establishments are the principles that characterize social and monetary conduct they outline the choices with respect to individuals lives womens conditions are profoundly subject to those standards. Associations assume a vital job in evolving establishments. At whatever point associations raise an issue about foundations, they can either change or bolster it. There are still reluctances about women holding certain situations in the basic leadership examples associations also are liable to those inclinations, in a less evident manner however. So with the end goal for associations to change establishments that frustrate sex correspondence, there must be some change inside associations. Women in associations must be engaged and associated with the choices making process. Sexual orientation foundation change approach advances the strengthening of women inside the association with preparing, more duties concerning women issues, and making women-accommodating conditions and strategies at work. This methodology is otherwise called gender mainstreaming . It advances women leadership inside associations, yet records demonstrate that this methodology has not been completely bolstered.

Workplace Diversity for Women of Color

Gender and ethnic diversity in the workplace is essential to an association. Diversity programs are in position in associations to guarantee correspondence, decency, and open doors for all races and sexual orientation. (Chemers, 1997) concentrated on representatives of color in U.S. associations and the circumstances and end results of the underrepresentation of African American leaders. Creators talked about the significance of vital diversity activities in associations. Since the mid 1980s, westerners appeared to kill negative generalizations of African Americans (Chemers, 1997). Westerners embraced qualified African American leaders, and bolstered equivalent chance, however bigotry exists (Chemers, 1997). Glaring bigotry may not exist, yet speculations, for example, aversive prejudice and the cutting edge bigotry hypothesis, showed that separation does exists (Chemers, 1997). As per Grant (2012), the quantities of Women of color who are heads or who have leadership jobs inside overwhelmingly White American organizations proposed the open doors are not accessible to Women of color. Give gave a review of prejudice in the scholarly community, and the legitimate issues that Women of color confronted. Give offered recommendations that may help to improve the prejudice issue for Women of color. The authoritative change approach then again centers around the the associations ability to challenge sexual orientation one-sided institutional standards (Jonsen et al. 2010). At the end of the day, enabling women to raise their voices and test any treachery toward them, and ensuring the association is responsible to inward and outside women customers. Changing establishments and associations all together an accomplish sexual orientation value is as yet a test since inside the associations there is still some work to do toward the accomplishment of delegate chain of command and power sharing among people. Female staff ought to be prepared to leadership positions inside associations (Jonsen et al. 2010).

Outside improvement associations women must be prepared to political leadership on the off chance that they need to accomplish correspondence and diminish incongruities between sexual orientations. Women must be a piece of the basic leadership process so as to structure women-accommodating strategies and guarantee their usage (Jonsen et al. 2010). That should be possible just if women are prepared and fit the bill to be leaders which isnt a simple procedure.

(Jonsen et al. 2010) declares that women are not engaged with governmental issues in light of the fact that there are a few social convictions and inclinations that put women beside basic leadership. Such convictions as women are not keen on governmental issues or cant be political leaders. She recommends improvement associations to put resources into preparing women and setting them up to hold leadership positions so as to most likely plan strategies that will convey a positive change to the lives of women.

So as to address women improvement issues the projects to be made ought to think about all parts of the issue and have strategies and instruments that are explicit to every condition to gauge quantitatively and subjectively the necessities and changes, and assess programs adequacy (Elias, 2018).

The expert-led approach which comprised in talking the associations staff individuals to discover what they think about sexual orientation abberations in the area and what they think would work and a participatory approach which comprises in including all the stakeholders of the program in the examination procedure (Elias, 2018). So the information collection comprised in getting data from staff individuals and the network individuals too, instructors, religious leaders (Gilkes, 1986) and managers, about the issue and assessment of administrations gave to them by the association.

This is to express that so as to create effective projects every one of the gatherings ought to be incorporated into the appraisal of the requirements, the spending procedure and utilization of assets dispensed, the checking and assessment of changes. Whats more, in sexual orientation advancement women must be at the focal point of the procedure.

Leadership, Women of Color and Stereotyping

Generalizations for the most part bunch most Women of color in a similar social class and the women get imbalance dependent on generalizations (Sepand, 2015). The creators talked about the imbalances that Women of color still face when looking to grow their vocation in a prevalently Westerner association.

Black Females must beat impediments to acquire comparative professional successes as their Westerner partners (Sepand, 2015). Black Females members trusted that poor preparing, absence of mentorships, and the absence of advancements were an impression of why Black Females did not get a decent amount of chances inside their association (Sepand, 2015). The writers wrote in article about present day separation in the workplace where sexism and bigotry are accepted to be previous kinds of segregation. Analysts have recognized present day separation dependent on race and sex.

(Sepand, 2015) directed a subjective report that concentrated on femaless desire in their vocation dependent on sexual orientation, race, and class. The investigation included analyzing females and their desire for section in the workforce. The creators looked into females and found that Black Females expected to work consistently as grown-ups. Sex, race, and class are what the females accepted to be the bases of their dimension of pay (Sepand, 2015). (Catalyst, 2005) assessed a foundation intended to make progression profession open doors for Black Females going for vocations in scholastic teaches in science, innovation, designing, and arithmetic.

At Western organizations, Women of color were adversely seen when working (Sepand, 2015). The women minimized this circumstance of disparity in the work condition. Women of color who held official positions inside Westerner organizations trusted these positions gave extra chances to advancement and upward versatility (Sepand, 2015). The premise of the article was a womens activist hypothesis to break down the encounters of these women. They introduced an examination consider that indicated evident holes that exist for women dependent on sexual orientation and race. The focal point of the investigation was segregation inside associations. The outcomes showed that separation influences womens climb to upper administration positions. Women of color encountered a larger amount of segregation, particularly with respect to more elevated amount positions.

Leadership, Women of Color and Racial Discrimination

(Sepand, 2015) concentrated on the joblessness rate of Women of color regardless of accomplishing more elevated amounts of instruction and building up the ranges of abilities to acquire leadership positions. Loubert talked about the joblessness proportion the country over and the divergence that Women of color face to get a reasonable chance to construct a fruitful profession. Women make up almost 50 of the finance work and their compensation when contrasted with men has developed by 80 (Sepand, 2015). Be that as it may, governmental policy regarding minorities in society and equivalent business opportunity laws have guaranteed a positive change there remains an injustice in which pay is a worry for Women of color. Women of color who look to exceed expectations they would say issues from absence of chances, which is an alternate issue for Women of color acquiring business. Research showed that African Americans get couple of chances and vocation benefits in corporate settings when contrasted with white guys. Women did not generally have chances to work outside of the home.


As more females enter the work compel, females will look to progress into leadership positions. Leadership is the cooperation among leaders and adherents and the impact the leader has on the supporters. (Chin et al. 2007) investigated the advancement of the understudys leadership abilities before an understudy enters an expert field.

Hardly any Black Females are in leadership positions in advanced education (Sepand, 2015). Irby experienced antagonism with respect to a quest for a profession in the scholarly world field. The investigation included Black Females in advanced education who hold the places of presidents, VPs, and executives in colleges and colleges over the United States. (Sepand, 2015) examined Black Females who couldnt verify upper administration positions and the means that these females took to quicken in their vocations. African American female business enterprise expanded on the grounds that the females trusted development inside their association dependent on their experience and aptitudes was unrealistic (Sepand, 2015). The issue is that despite the fact that females are in the workplace, Black Females still fall behind men in regards to portrayal in the best levels of the American workforce (Sepand, 2015).

African American difficulties are race and sexual orientation in contrast with their Westerner colleagues. Women of color has three principle hindrances to pick up advancement and residency in the scholarly field absence of socialization to staff life, absence of significant tutoring, and powerlessness to explain a manageable research plan. (Sepand, 2015) recommended factors that may add to the accomplishment of Women of color in the scholarly community the fruition of exposition, reliable execution criteria and effective residency and advancement. SOTA offers women a sounding board to share their lived encounters.

In spite of the fact that a slight distinction exists in the immediate foundations of the women in the gathering, the point of view of how Women of color see their professional success process were strikingly comparative. The Women of color had comparable encounters with the battles to propel their vocations, adjusting work-life duties, and keeping up connections, for example, camaraderie. The women saw their encounters as exacerbated by bigot and misogynist miniaturized scale animosities in the workplace.

The outcomes demonstrated the affirmation of Women of color as leaders once endorsed by the Westerners. The women of this examination concurred that once their leadership capacity was acknowledged over expanded time, they were better bolstered as leaders in their associations. (Cohen, 2002) expressed that their companions initially needed to look past their physical appearance of being a leader as Women of color looking for leadership openings that were ordinarily involved by White men. (Cohen, 2002) offered recommendations on how Women of color can wind up fruitful without trusting their confinements, for example, working to break the solid roof by joining the networks and looking for a tutor to manage their vocations.

Working in a leadership position is a definitive job that incorporates a specific measure of intensity or impact inside an association. Prevalently Westerners hold these sorts of positions. Black Females accepted to be limited from leadership positions dependent on their sexual orientation, race, and social class. Western undermine African Americans females in leadership positions in the workplace. West utilize their benefits to overrule and control the activities of African Americans in the workplace. Despite the fact that the quantities of Black Females leaders in overwhelmingly Westerner associations is expanding, there is as yet a uniqueness and may serve the debilitation of the procedure to leadership for Black Females.


Gilkes, C. (1986). The Roles of Church and Community Mothers Ambivalent American Sexism or Fragmented African Familyhood Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 41-59.

Leavitt, J. (2003). Wheres the Gender in Community Development University of Chicago Press Journal, 207-231.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Jonsen, K., Maznevski, M. L., Schneider, S. C. (2010). Gender differences in leadershipbelieving is seeing implications for managing diversity. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion An International Journal, 29(6), 549572.

Elias, E. (2018). Lessons learned from women in leadership positions. Work, (Preprint), 1

Sepand, V. (2015).The Black Ceiling Barriers to Career Advancement for African American Women in the US.

Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 112. doi10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00326.x http//www3.interscience .wiley.com/doiinfo.html

Eagly, A. H., Carli, L. L. (2007). Through the labyrinth The truth about how women become leaders. Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.

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MMOMgMnMMMQN_NNNNNOOOiOvOOaPyPPPlQQkRSSOSSSSFTTTPUUUZVoVW W-WWPWWWWWXX9XXXXX0YYLYMYNYhVhIvPJhVhPJhVhXPJhVhzPJhVhkKPJhVhPJNKOQSoVNYZYZtZkLp8qqrOsPsRsSsUsVsXsYssgdi dagdV dgdVNYOYYYZYYYZZZAZFZiZsZtZuZZZAVAijkAKLppcppp7q8qqcqqqrcrrrs2shVhOzZPJhVhVOPJUhVhVO@BPJphhVhVO6 hVhVOjhVhVOUhVhVO6mHnHuhVhVOmHnHuhVhv92PJCatalyst. (2005). Women take care, men take charge Stereotyping of U.S. business leaders exposed. Retrieved from http//www.catalyst.org/ publication/94/women-take-care-men-take-charge-stereotyping-of-usbusiness-leaders-exposed

Chemers, M. (1997). An integrative theory of leadership. Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum.

Chin, J. L., Lott, B., Rice, J. K., Sanchez-Hucles, J. (Eds.). (2007). Women and leadership Transforming visions and diverse voices. Malden, MA Blackwell.

Cohen, C. F. (2002). Glass ceilings and glass slippers Still stereotyping after all these years In P. J. Frost, W. R. Nord, L. A. Krafting (Eds.), HRM reality Putting competence in context (pp. 205213). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.

Maher, K. J. (1997). Gender-related stereotypes of transformational and transactional leadership.Sex roles,37(3-4), 209-225.

Running Header Are Women of Colour Responsible for their Position within Organizational Leadership


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United States ArmyT Title

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Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 9 Words: 2700

Argosy University

Argosy University

Your name


Research problem

This dissertation was written by Victoria C. Sepand in 2015. The problem discussed in this dissertation is that women are judged by their color, race or gender in their jobs. Especially the black women are criticized the most in their work environments. The qualitative study of this paper reveals the problems faced by the women within organizations. The paper also shares the career journeys and experiences of the participants interviewed. The results of interviews were analyzed and compared to the current literature or policy practiced in many companies that mentoring, training and women-friendliness are the most common and effective methods for the progression of women in the workplace. The results of the analysis done in this paper showed that to implement the above mentioned methods in the company there should be more structure and more understanding of race and gender biases and the concept of favoritism should be eradicated.

Theoretical foundation

The theoretical foundation is the knowledge gathered about the problem defined in the dissertation. In the dissertation the information was gathered by interviewing a set of individuals to share their experience and answer some questions regarding the impact of an organization policies and the environment on the career advancement of an employee. Mostly the interviews were conducted by black women from different industries. This point enabled the researcher to critically evaluate the organizational culture or their behaviors towards the black women.

The women who were interviewed were young and middle aged black women who have achieved a managerial or senior posts at their organization. The age range selected for the dissertation was mid-thirties to early sixties. The five women selected for the interview are: Andrea, who has been in the non-profit sector for fifteen years and is currently CEO of a

Non-profit in Los Angeles. Before providing her services in Non-profit, Andrea had been the employee at two different American corporations. Gwen works as a lawyer for a firm in Los Angeles and has been practicing law since 1981. Kimberly is the executive director of a Los

Angeles regional office for a national non-profit. She has been with the organization for more than fifteen years. Michelle has been in the banking and financial services sector for fourteen years. Now she is a vice president at a large bank in Los Angeles. Rose works as a corporate partner at a law firm in Los Angeles and she has been performing her services since 1996. The interviews were conducted on phone and the agreement forms were sent via email before the interview. The questions were designed and structured in such a way that the retrieval of the relevant information about the discrimination in the workplace or barriers faced by women become easy. No visual or audio recording was done during the interview but written notes were taken.

Relevance of Literature to research question

The analysis of the interviews clearly supported the research problem. All the women who were interviewed said that the people of organizations become mentor for only those employees who look like them. A barrier of gender or color was always felt through out the career. The women who were interviewed said that white male executives would reach out or preferred young white male to give them new challenges or for mentoring them. This discrimination forced the black women to work even harder so that they could get recognized and avail opportunities to get success in their careers.

Synthesis of Literature 

The thesis is well synthesized and well structured. The overall synthesis or conclusion of the dissertation is that it is difficult to understand the problems experienced by the women when trying to tackle the gender, color and workplace discrimination or thriving for career advancements opportunities. It is the responsibility of the companies to ensure such environment that is free of discrimination regarding color, gender or any other barriers for women. Companies should develop such mentoring programs that educate the employees that the concept of discrimination is wrong and none is superior to the other on the basis of color. Companies should provide advancement opportunities for black women and eradicate the biases coming from race, class, and gender privileged individuals in the organization.

Discussions or recommendations Thesis under review was well structured and organized. Whenever we generate a thesis a specific format is followed. First we provide the introduction then literature review, methodologies, analysis and conclusions. These are the five basic steps used in the development of the thesis to make it organized and well formulated. All the points evolved around the thesis problem statement which shows the precision of the dissertation throughout the document.

Chronology of data is providing the facts according to their order. Every thesis uses a chronological theme and the theme used in this thesis is the traditional theme called linear chronology. In this theme all the data or chapters written revolve around the one single point that is thesis statement. All the facts are provided in relevance to the thesis problem. In this dissertation introduction defined the issue of discrimination happening in companies due to color and gender. The literature review and methodology showed that how quantitative data was gathered through interviews from five different women. The deduction or analysis part was also well structured which showed the problems of women and proved the thesis statement to be true. All these steps form a linear chronology used for the representation of the data or information in the thesis (Sepand, 2015).


Sepand, V. (2015). The Black Ceiling: Barriers to Career Advancement for African American Women in the US.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Argumentative- Essay

Amazon Inc.

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Amazon Inc.

Amazon.com has become an iconic example of e-commerce primarily operating as an online bookseller. Now the company deals in books, movies, electronics, toys, housewares and other goods directly and also plays the role of a middle man between its customers and thousands of retailers. The company is headquartered in Seattle, Washington and is an online retailer, Web services provider and also the manufacturer of electronic book readers. The company also provides a web-service also referred to as a cloud computing service. The online presence of the company is considerable; almost 1 percent of internet traffic travels through Amazon data centers. It is also the leading manufacturer of Kindle e-book readers and it brought a significant upsurge in e-book publishing. In this way, Amazon became the disruptive force in the book-publishing industry. Amazon is the market leader that has outpaced the e-commerce industry resulting from its effective strategic planning, stellar financial performance and incomparable leadership, however, numerous scandals and ethical challenges hinder its ability to stay at the top in terms of reputation and ethics.

Amazon is absolutely more innovative when it comes to developing and expanding new commercial markets for consumer products. Consider the success of Fresh, Kindle and Prime. Amazon is the company that exploits technology at its best and sells everything utilizing its e-commerce presence. They are also innovative in logistics design and material infrastructure, such as their design, deployment, and use of their warehouses and "lockers". The company uses big data technology that exceeds the processing capacity of its database systems. In 2017, the company won the title of the World’s most innovative company. An article by Greg Satell reflects on how it is not just one practice but the entire culture at the company is tangled with the business practices that upsurge innovation (Satell, n.d.). The precision in taking, tracking and managing orders, and drone deliveries are reflective of Amazon’s utilization of the state of the art technologies to bring novelty in the ways it provides services to attain customer satisfaction. The new automatic fulfillment centers also allow for more product storage. The new drone technologies by Amazon including Amazon Prime Air, Amazon Fire Phone, and Amazon Dash Button are key to the success of this e-commerce giant (Thierry & Lescop, 2009).

Amazon is a great company that has continued to achieve impressive growth figures in this competitive business scenario through its viable and innovative business model. Amazon competes with online retailers as well as brick and mortar retailers. The top competitors of the company are Alibaba, Walmart and eBay, etc. Concerning the digital operations of the company, it competes with the top digital players such as Google, Microsoft, Oracle, and Salesforce.com, etc. Its competitors differ in various segments since the company operates in three major segments electronics, media and other merchandise. However, in terms of revenue, it is ranked first amid its competitors. In the online retail industry, the company is not only ranked first in the United States but also globally as it runs multiple online stores. As of 2018, the global net sale of Amazon was $77 billion. In September 2018, the company reached the market capitalization of $1 trillion. Thus, speaking of financial performance, Amazon.com has outpaced all of its competitors.

Amazon is the titan of online retailing and it dabbles in so many industries. The immense portfolio creates a special place for the company in people’s hearts. Survey reports numerous respondents claiming that they cannot think of life without Amazon. It is also a boss in logistics, payments hardware, and media and data storage, competing with some major players in the markets. This demonstrates Amazon’s ability to design goods and services based on an extensive understanding of consuming minds and the market segments it targets. About two-thirds of American households rely on Amazon for almost all kinds of purchases. In addition, the company aims to sell goods at a very low price. Amazon’s services are designed with the philosophy of customer first alongside offering exceptional business services. The company is also able to attain its dual ambitions of conquering the modern commercial world and customer obsession. The company has been able to achieve success owing to its ability to create goods and services according to customer needs.

A number of issues exposed to press releases, employee reviews, and numerous scandals raise the question of Amazon’s reputation as an ethical organization. The company dropped from the list of Top 10 ethical companies owing to the numerous complains about its CEO and sale of fake products on its website. It is still ranked second in terms of the corporation but due to the growth, financial performance and products and services. The ranking in terms of ethical business practices, corporate citizenship, and character is low, as reported by the Axios Harris Poll 100 (“Just how big is Amazon’s ethics challenge?” n.d.). The same survey ranks Amazon.com as one of the most innovative companies offering a diversity of products and services, and for many customers, it is impossible to survive without this shopping giant. A number of issues have been reported not limited to controversies, counterfeiting, labor issues, privacy attacking technologies and monopolistic behaviors. It has also been accused of tax-avoidance practices in the US and UK. It is also presumed by many that Amazon's reputation will hinder its massive growth in the next decade. However, it is worth mentioning that it is not listed amid the unethical companies.

Amazon aims at selling quality products to its customers. For this purpose, it keeps a quality check on the sellers. The company has set a number of rules and regulations on the website and guides sellers to keep a check with those requirements to avoid any product block. Amazon imposes restrictions on different products and brands and at the same time take actions on poor product quality that may range from canceling the product to freezing or limiting publishing permissions. However, by the time Amazon marketplace is occupied by a large number of suppliers and the company is not able to keep up with the standards of quality it claims of maintaining. A huge number of complaints, customer surveys and reviews reveal that suppliers listed on the website are involved in selling counterfeit products. Although, there is always a way for customers to make a complaint and report any sale of phony products.

One of the major strengths of Amazon is its marketing strategy. The company uses various platforms to promote its products and services and it successfully leverages the strength of different social media platforms to promote its products. Its marketing strategy utilizes a number of marketing channels such as social media and online advertising, associates programs, television advertising, sponsored search and many other initiatives. The marketing strategy relies on six pillars, a diverse and huge portfolio of products and services, exploiting various affiliate resources and products, using a customer-friendly interface, easy scaling from small to large, utilizing existing communication systems, and universal mentalities and behaviors to attain the desired results. The marketing strategy is based on all these pillars and the global marketing expenses of Amazon have shown a great rise from 2015. The increasing advertising and other promotional costs result in the higher number of sales recorded on the first day of sale on Amazon Prime. The success can be attributed to the extensive marketing and sales operations of the company.

Amazon.com has faced severe criticism over the quality of treatment to its workers especially the workers at the warehouses. Former employees of Amazon have utilized the power of social media to unveil the working environment and employee treatment. A group named The FACE (Former and Current Employees) of Amazon is dedicated to this purpose. In addition, employees’ reviews and surveys unearth unfair conduct that makes Amazon a notoriously difficult place to work. Employees have also made complaints about poor-work life balance. The employee ranking system hurts underachieving employees gravely and the feedback tools create room for co-workers to critique each other openly. For this reason, the attrition rate of the company is higher than its competing Tech companies. In 2018, an article exposed the poor treatment towards the driver workers at Amazon deliberating on favoritism, intimidation, missing wages, alleged abuses, and strict time constraints making them vulnerable to road accidents. There are also records of numerous suicides and hunger strikes against the inhumane policies of the company.

Amazon claims to offer numerous benefits to its employees in the form of highly competitive pay, disability insurance, health insurance, and retirement savings plans, etc. the company also claims to offer 20 weeks of paid leave and flexibility to new parents to cope up with the responsibilities of growing families. Amazon program “Pay to Quit” offers financial benefits to inspire employees to leave to rethink what they want to do that is a great initiative to allow employees for better career planning. In addition, according to the Vice President of Human Resources at Amazon, these benefits and perks are the same for the employees at fulfillment centers and customer service employees (Keblis & Chen, 2006). However, Amazon workers planned various strikes claiming they are not considered as humans, but robots at the fulfillment centers and warehouses. Employees are dealing with poor work-life balance and at the same time, they deal with inequality in terms of wages. Employees fail to deal work with efficiency and they have to go another way to avail of their rights. According to employees, Amazon has become a symbol of inequality and workers seek government assistance for their basic needs. The company has also faced criticism for the inhumane treatment that causes employees to quit.

Jeff’s secret to success is that some decades ago, he had a better idea of how the business will inevitably be done in the future. It would’ve happened anyway, but he happened to be the one to do it first in a big way. He persevered. He had access to funds and was charismatic enough to convince others to invest even when his company was unprofitable. His reputation as a successful entrepreneur is tied with an enthusiastic persona. He has been able to build this business empire grounded on his abilities to take risks, experiment and innovate. Jeff is amid the most renowned entrepreneurial leaders and his approach to doing business is an excellent example for aspiring business leaders. He has been able to create a customer-centric culture at Amazon through 14 principles of leadership which every organizational member must learn and apply in their daily activities. To name some of them, Invent and Simplify, Bias for Action, Frugality, Customer Obsession, Learn and Be Curious, Earn Trust, Dive Deep, and deliver results. These fourteen leadership principles play a huge role in the success of the company. The company also expects the candidates to exhibit some or most of these candidates seeking jobs at Amazon.

Amazon does not make it the top when it comes to investments in community and CSR practices. According to the Axios Harris Poll 100, 19% of the consumer thinks that Amazon will respond to social issues. Resulting from the arising complains and interrogations on company reputation, in 2014, the company appointed a social responsibility director to respond to the criticisms. In addition, a number of initiatives emerged to enhance the working conditions such as the Amazon Frustration-Free Packaging initiative. Other programs aimed at community development include Girls Who Code, Amazon Career Choice Program, Amazon Literary Partnership, Amazon Device Donation Program, Texas Wind Farms and use of Solar Power. Moreover, in 2016, Amazon launched the initiative with Feeding America to donate extra food to starving. Employees are also encouraged to contribute to participate in various volunteer programs. Work from home opportunity is provided to customer care employees through its Amazon Virtual Contact Centre. The company aims to host solar energy systems by the year 2020 in most of its fulfillment centers. Various charitable programs are also part of CSR initiatives.

In a nutshell, there is no doubt that Amazon is the market leader in terms of its excellent financial performance and ability to keep up with the ever-changing business demands. Nonetheless, it can be analyzed that company fails in many areas; customers love to buy from Amazon but are offended by the ethical reputation of the company. Exceptional customer service, a huge portfolio of goods and ease in the form of one-day delivery, same-day delivery and handling complaints has made Amazon retain a huge consumer base. However, the company not only fails to keep its people happy but also at dealing with criticism arising from many business practices. Amazon can be the market leader, but not an all-rounder.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Just how big is Amazon’s ethics challenge? – RetailWire. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2019, from https://www.retailwire.com/discussion/just-how-big-is-amazons-ethics-challenge/

Keblis, M. F., & Chen, M. (2006). Improving customer service operations at amazon. com. Interfaces, 36(5), 433–445.

Satell. (n.d.). How Amazon Innovates | Inc.com. Retrieved November 11, 2019, from https://www.inc.com/greg-satell/the-secret-behind-amazons-uncanny-ability-to-out-innovate-just-about-every-other-company-on-planet.html

Thierry, I., & Lescop, D. (2009). Open innovation within business ecosystems: A tale from Amazon. Com. Communications & Stratégies, (74), 37.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 7 Words: 2100


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Course Title

Instructors Name


Costco follows some major practices to make sure that a business is successful. The practices may include keeping operating cost at minimum in addition to their no-frills warehouse. Another core principle is the way Costco treats its employees. It views every employee as a critical part of the business but not as a commodity from the perspective of corporate. This makes a good sense of the business because each person deserves respect. Customer and employees services they provide creates an impression seen when making purchases at Costco. Costco aims to offer a guarantee of value and satisfaction when purchasing membership because they make the experience of the customers to be a positive one.

In an attempt to show love to new employees, Costco begins with competitive wages on the solid ground immediately and goes on with the wage scale that will make the new employees move up over a short period. Their policy is to endorse from within so that workers who do well get the first crack at advancement chances. Also, comprehensive advantage packages are presented for part-time as well as full-time workers. The impacts of the practices make people stick on the job. The turnover ends up becoming low which is always uncommon in the retail industry.

Moreover, the employees end staying long in the corporation. Other practices Costco does to show love to the employees is the provision of silver name badges to employees who have attained 25 years of service in the corporation. The practices can be noticed at the local warehouse on friendly employees.

I chose the Costco article because the services it renders to its employees, as well as customers, is pleasing and when applied in a business can help improve the performance of the business. I as well chose it because it is the largest retailer in the world with uncommon turnovers in addition to large quantities stock it deals in at a discounted prices. Therefore, the corporation would offer a good example and also act as educative reference to the business sector.

It is important because it makes the entrepreneur see new opportunities by seeing the big picture of something new and trying the market that has never been tried. Costco also changes the way the entrepreneur thinks to make them win the business game. It makes entrepreneurs demand the best from their suppliers which is the way of sowing entrepreneurial seeds by insisting to vendors to push for the innovative envelop to become efficient. This will lead to perpetual high-level yields of productivity and efficiency. Costco also helps the entrepreneur to add business and consumer services while reducing the cost. The member care is as well improved as a result of bulk consumer services and goods.

Some of the impacts of Costco to the business community include extraordinary show up of the publics interest in attracting industry as there have been sharp and fairly rise in retail sales in the business community. Costco has led to economic growth since retail is in a position of attracting people from the outside community depending on the local needs although retail business is not a primary driver of the economy. Costco has led to the prioritization of employees as the essential stakeholders in the business community. This is because they directly influence the performance of the business. Costco has shifted the purchasing habit in the business community thus changing the market base. Its presence helped other stores in the business community to get more customers. Presence of Costco has as well led to the inflation in the business community. It is because it has caused an increase in price by its competitors. This is because Costco is related to high grocery prices at incumbent retailers mostly in high grocery store densities and in a small population.

In conclusion, practices done by the Costco Corporation should be implemented in business sector for a business to be successful. This is because it will increase the relationship of customers and employees leading to improved performance in the business.

Works Cited

Kaufman, Allen, and Ernie Englander. A team production model of corporate governance.Academy of Management Perspectives19.3 (2005) 9-22.


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Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Article Analysis




Effect of S-400 Deal on US-Turkey Trade Negotiations

A glaring example of implications of globalization and its effects on international dealings can be observed through a recent trade deal between Turkey and Russia. Both turkey and the United States are members of NATO since its early inception. They have previously had very close relations through defense exchange programs. Both countries are significant trade partners. They trade with each other in finance, wholesale, and manufacturing industries. Turkey and USA carry out their mutual dealings in technology, culture, and tourism. The defense technology sharing was one of USA and Turkey’s major trade dealings but since Turkey's acquisition of S-400 air defense technological system, the relations however, have changed in the global context.

Both USA and Turkey being the members of NATO from early '50s held a strategic relationship in terms of Technological sharing and foreign direct investment. They have shared a mutual interest in counter-terrorism and technological advancements. The relationships have been of special importance in the defense sector. It can be seen through the fact that F16 fighter falcon was co-produced by America’s Lockheed Martin and Turkey’s Turkish Aerospace Industries. Moreover, Turkey is also one of the eight countries to partner with United States on F-35 strike fighter program ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3FXXRBaP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zanotti & Thomas, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Zanotti & Thomas, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":149,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/ZXQE63VX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/ZXQE63VX"],"itemData":{"id":149,"type":"article-journal","title":"TURKEY: BACKGROUND AND US RELATIONS (UPDATED)","container-title":"Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East","page":"251-311","volume":"9","issue":"2/3","author":[{"family":"Zanotti","given":"Jim"},{"family":"Thomas","given":"Clayton"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} ( Zanotti & Thomas, 2019). In the past decade, both country's presidents have visited each other and focused on further strengthening the relationships.

However, negotiations and relationships between the two countries have since been on a decline after Turkey's agreement with Russia to buy its Surface to air defense system. The United States has raised concerns over this issue that it will put a technology made by Russia directly into one of key NATO allies. Since Turkey has ammunition and aircrafts deals with the USA as well, their concern is that Russia will have access to US-based aircrafts as well. As a result of this act, the Trump administration has blocked the supply America’s most advanced F-35 fighter jets as well as they have stopped the training of Turkey’s pilots who were training in US ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"WfYkYDSB","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":141,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"itemData":{"id":141,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Turkey Gets Shipment of Russian Missile System, Defying U.S.","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"World","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"The purchase of the sophisticated S-400 antiaircraft equipment was fiercely opposed by NATO and by Washington, which is expected to respond with sanctions.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/12/world/europe/turkey-russia-missiles.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Gall","given":"Carlotta"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,12]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gall, 2019). Turkey was initially planning on buying 100 of those F-35 aircrafts. This technological tug of war between these two countries can cause the loss of one of the most important strategic partners of USA. America is also planning on imposing sanctions on Turkey under section 231 of America's Adversaries through Sanctions Act ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zTP7mYUE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zanotti & Thomas, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Zanotti & Thomas, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":149,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/ZXQE63VX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/ZXQE63VX"],"itemData":{"id":149,"type":"article-journal","title":"TURKEY: BACKGROUND AND US RELATIONS (UPDATED)","container-title":"Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East","page":"251-311","volume":"9","issue":"2/3","author":[{"family":"Zanotti","given":"Jim"},{"family":"Thomas","given":"Clayton"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zanotti & Thomas, 2019). Officials from America have hinted that these sanctions will be imposed on turkey as soon as the defense system lands on their country.

The effect of globalization and advancement in technologies is creating tensions between two strategic partners. This technological tug of war will have some worldwide effects, like the ongoing civil war in Syria. The relations can be better understood from a fact that turkey was a major supporter of the American stance on Syria and had a conflict with Russia on it. Back in 2015, the tensions between the countries peaked when Turkey Shot down a Russian fighter jet on its border ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FzizCcvm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":141,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"itemData":{"id":141,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Turkey Gets Shipment of Russian Missile System, Defying U.S.","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"World","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"The purchase of the sophisticated S-400 antiaircraft equipment was fiercely opposed by NATO and by Washington, which is expected to respond with sanctions.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/12/world/europe/turkey-russia-missiles.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Gall","given":"Carlotta"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,12]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gall, 2019). But under the current circumstances, these countries are again coming close to each other and creating a bond through technology. The failing ties and governmental relationships between the two countries are not down to just technology sharing. Turkey blames the United States for attempting a failed coup to remove Mr. Erdogan. On the subject of sanctioning Turkey over this air defense technology sharing, president Erdogan warned the US that, "They should think deeply because losing a country like Turkey will not be easy" ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ZfP412NE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Gall, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":141,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/4N6J3SCD"],"itemData":{"id":141,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Turkey Gets Shipment of Russian Missile System, Defying U.S.","container-title":"The New York Times","section":"World","source":"NYTimes.com","abstract":"The purchase of the sophisticated S-400 antiaircraft equipment was fiercely opposed by NATO and by Washington, which is expected to respond with sanctions.","URL":"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/12/world/europe/turkey-russia-missiles.html","ISSN":"0362-4331","language":"en-US","author":[{"family":"Gall","given":"Carlotta"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,12]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Gall, 2019). This tension among allies can strain relationships between two strategic military alliances that are bonded together for the past five to six decades. Historically during the cold war, a site in Turkey was also a storage facility for American tactical weapons.

Negotiations to calm the issue

However, realizing the importance of their relationships, both countries have remained open to dialogue. They have carried on their dialogues for the acquirement of Raytheon’s Patriot anti-ballistic missile systems. They have imposed importance on the solution of problems through bilateral negotiations. As a part of Turkey's dream of achieving long-range missile defense system, they are keen on getting the Patriot system. US have also offered free trade negotiations to Turkey if they abandon their pursuit of S-400. Lindsey Graham, a US senator on the request of President Donald Trump, telephoned Turkey's foreign minister. He said that “My pitch to Turkey was, let’s stand down on the S-400, let’s start free trade agreement negotiations.” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QBxn2kmI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}US to Turkey,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“US to Turkey,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":152,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/LRIIFV9P"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jpfyfVgo/items/LRIIFV9P"],"itemData":{"id":152,"type":"webpage","title":"US to Turkey: Don't use S-400, let's talk free trade","abstract":"US is willing to 'start free trade negotiations' if Turkey does not activate the S400, says senior Senator Graham - Anadolu Agency","URL":"https://www.aa.com.tr/en/americas/us-to-turkey-dont-use-s-400-lets-talk-free-trade/1542227","title-short":"US to Turkey","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",9,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“US to Turkey,” n.d.). His statement further concluded that we want a win-win situation with Turkey. This will integrate their economy and further strengthen their relationships through technological trades. Easing off the tensions, Donald Trump also blamed the country's former presidents for bitter relationships between the NATO allies. According to Trump administration, it is not Turkey or President Erdogan’s fault. They blame it on Obama administration that they denied a strategically important ally when they wanted to buy the patriot. France has also offered to help and settle the situation by offering SAMP/T air defense system as they realize the issue, and importance of Turkey to NATO's missions and aims in the Middle East.

If both countries want to continue their progress and strengthen their relationships more, they will have to develop interactions and continue their negotiations in other aspects of trade dealings. Importance of strategic relationship between the countries cannot be overlooked. Only technology sharing and direct contact on the government front can overcome tensions between the countries. The two countries have to come together for the betterment of their people.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Gall, C. (2019, July 12). Turkey Gets Shipment of Russian Missile System, Defying U.S. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/12/world/europe/turkey-russia-missiles.html

The US to Turkey: Don't use S-400, let's talk free trade. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2019, from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/americas/us-to-turkey-dont-use-s-400-lets-talk-free-trade/1542227

Zanotti, J., & Thomas, C. (2019). TURKEY: BACKGROUND AND US RELATIONS (UPDATED). Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 9(2/3), 251–311.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Article Anaylsis

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Article Analysis


Managing a business is not an easy task; a businessperson needs to focus on many things at the same time in order to get the business running. A person should have a great insight into the current practices going on in the market and the trends currently prevailing among the customers. In order to sell their products more successfully or give awareness to the potential customers about the services being offered, organizations make use of various marketing techniques.

Marketing is actually the set of activities carried on by organizations in order to promote the buying and selling of a product or service. The process of marketing includes a number of activities like advertising, selling, and delivering the product to the right customer at the right time. An important component of the process of marketing is marketing science. Scholars, experts, and marketers are putting a great deal of effort in the area of marketing science. There are a number of research projects that have already been completed and hundreds of research projects that are being carried on currently, in different areas of the world on the topic. A number of articles have also been published on the topic of marketing science and its implications in the field of marketing. I recently went through one of such articles, titled "Marketing Science and Big Data” (Chintagunta).


Marketing sciences is the approach to the area of marketing, using the scientific methods and techniques, instead of relying upon the methods used in arts and humanities. Marketing science includes understanding the needs and demands of the customers and developing the strategies and ways through which they can be fulfilled. It can easily be understood as the application of scientific techniques and tools for solving various problems related to marketing.

The article under discussion, “Marketing Science and Big Data” focuses on the world of marketing science and its implications in various fields. One of the major components of marketing science is data, and large organizations make use of big data to disseminate their message in order to increase their sales. Such a large amount of data also requires great responsibility. The organization using this data needs to be very careful while using it so that the privacy and confidentiality of the customer's data are not breached.

Talking specifically about the organizations working in Canada, the article also puts a light on the various organizations working in the country that make use of marketing science and its implications in various fields. Canada is a country that has many large organizations working on it. These organizations make use of big data for various purposes, so that they can promote and sell their products. However, these organizations make sure that this data is used very carefully and ethically so that the conditions of data secrecy and confidentiality are fulfilled.


Hence, in a nutshell, it can be concluded that marketing science is an important aspect of the life cycle of almost every organization. Marketing science is not actually marketing, but a part of the whole marketing process. Every good company is focusing on it currently so that it can grab the attention of a maximum number of customers. One of the important parts of marketing science or this whole process, is data collection and analysis. Big companies collect large amounts of data that is further used for the purpose of predicting various trends in the market. However, it is the liability of these companies, to use this data responsibly and care about the privacy and confidentiality of a person’s information, otherwise, huge issues can arise out of it, not only for the customers, but the organization as well.

Works Cited:

Chintagunta, Pradeep, Dominique M. Hanssens, and John R. Hauser. "Marketing Science and Big Data." (2016): 341-342.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Article Critique

Public Relations and Journalism



Public Relations and Journalism

Article Comparison

This paper is aimed at exploring the similarities and differences between two literature pieces based on the significance of ethical and moral considerations and mutual relationship between public relations and Journalism. Needless to say, both professionals spend most of their professional lives dealing people on behalf of their organizations therefore they must be fully knowledgeable about the moral and ethical values and their prospective impact on the public. In order to explore this significance, two research articles will be selected and after dissecting them critically, their prospective similarities and differences will be presented. In the end, rationale of this paper will be defined with respect to my personal perspective.

Step 1: Study 1 (Place, 2019)

Theoretical Perspective

Four psychological and philosophical theories of ethical and moral development were used to support this research; Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, Aristotle’s philosophy of moral virtue and social learning theory. These theories attempted to clarify the meaning and gradual development of moral attitude in individuals along with the potential factors that affect the acquisition of moral attitude.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development emphasizes the development of mental frameworks called schemas in the acquisition of moral values. He stated that schemas are complex mental frameworks that enable individuals acquire new information regarding personal and environmental factors, objects, events, and situations and allow us to respond to these stimuli in the most expected way. Schemas are formed in the childhood and are quite rigid hence moral training and guidance at the very early stages of life has long lasting impacts on the future moral development of individuals.

Kohlberg was famous for his groundbreaking theory of moral development. He presented three stages of moral development in his theory; pre-conventional, conventional and post conventional. In pre conventional stages individuals have no sense of morals and ethics and they obey laws because of avoiding punishment and to gain mutual utility. In the post conventional stage, morality is developed and one obeys laws to label him as good boy/ good girl and maintain order in the society. In the last stage, one obeys laws because he realizes their importance that they are aimed at ensuring holistic wellbeing of individuals and he also thinks that laws are breakable if nothing good is being delivered to the society.

Aristotle, in his famous book Nicomachean Ethics introduced a term called moral virtue as an innate disposition that enables us to act in socially appropriate manner between the extremes of excess and deficiency. He further stated that moral virtue cannot be attained through reasoning and instructions rather practice is what makes it a habit. He regarded moral virtue as an attitude towards right and wrong, good or bad, pain and pleasure and desirable and undesirable. Hence, one should focus on practicing moral attitude towards daily dichotomous situations in order to nurture moral values.

Social learning theory of Albert Bandura stressed the importance of social and cultural aspects for the moral development of individuals. Bandura was in view that human beings learn certain behaviors from other individuals through observation and modeling. For example, a child will learn to speak truth if he observes his parents speaking truth even in extreme situations and reward him whenever he commits certain desirable action. Hence, observation and modeling coupled with the reinforcement make us learn moral attitudes and behaviors in both personal and professional lives.

Methodological Perspective

This study was qualitative in nature in which sample was drawn from the population using snowball and convenient sampling. Sample consisted to 35 Public Relation Officers from various states of US, Mid West, East Coast, and West Coast with typical demographics including age, gender, socio economic status, qualification, experiences, geographical areas, and type of organization. Data was obtained through semi structured interviews and was analyzed using thematic analysis.

Findings and contributions

Themes emerging during thematic analysis demonstrated that following factors affect the moral development of Public Relations Officers; duration of job, reflecting upon moral grey areas, dialogue, engagement, organizational culture, leadership style and navigating moral trials by fire experiences. These themes stressed the importance of personal and organizational factors in the development of workplace related moral values in the Public Relations Officers (PROs).


Findings of the study are rightfully based on the social learning theory, cognitive and Aristotle’s philosophy of moral development. Duration of job refers to the duration of practice of moral principles which is the best way to develop moral virtue according to the teachings of Aristotle. Moreover, self reflection and organizational cultures are some implications of cognitive and social learning theory.

Implication in real life public relations

This research study contributed to the existing knowledge about the development of moral values and demonstrated that PROs can learn these essential attributes through greater practice time on the job, reflecting upon moral grey areas, dialogue, engagement, organizational culture, leadership style and navigating moral trials by fire experiences. These findings can be used to train PROs by organizational management and to guide other relevant policy issues.

Step 2 Article 2 (Clementson, 2019)

Theoretical Perspective

This article is aimed at addressing the long-distant tension between two groups; journalists and public relations professionals. From the centuries, a super-colossal fluctuation has been inspected between journalists and public relations practitioners including cooperative or adversarial, hate-love, hostile or mutually dependent, antagonistic or symbiotic, contemptible or uncooperative, and trusting or contentious. These relationships were defined using two types of theories in the literature section; social identity theory and the inter-group deception.

Social identity theory states that when there is seen a competition between two groups, members of the in-group demonstrate negative attitude towards members of the out-group considering them contemptible and inferior. Members of in-group become highly motivated to maintain identification with their group and frequently make active attempts to differentiate themselves from members of the out- group. Hence, negative attitudes of journalists and Public Relation Professionals towards each others can be explained through this theory.

Theory of intergroup deception states that members of two different groups who historically distrust each other will expect deception from each other. Hence, the veracity of the members of in-group is not the matter of concern for them rather out-groups members are expected to threaten the fidelity in professional scenarios. However, when both the groups are subjected to work as an in group, they work collaboratively in order to derive desired outcomes. Hence, it can be said that negative attitudes of journalists and public relation professionals towards each other can be explained using the theory of intergroup deception.

Methodological Perspective

It was a quantitative study in which cross-sectional experimental design was used to explore the attitudes of public relations and journalism students towards each other. A simulated interview situation involving crisis scenario of a scandal at a famous national restaurant was filmed and watched by 190 undergraduate students who were selected through random sampling technique. Students belonged to varying study programs, gender, age, ethnicity and region. After making the subjects watch simulated video interview, they were interviewed for 2.5 minutes and made to fill the survey questionnaires using various standardized instruments; Perceived trustworthiness of the spokesperson, Perceived trustworthiness of the organization, Liking the spokes person and journalist and Identification with a psychological group.

Findings and contributions

Study findings indicated that in crisis communication, public relation professionals share affiliation with their counterparts i.e., journalists and dislike malfeasance from their in-group members. This is what we call black sheep effect; besides this, findings of the study also verified the social identity theory but disregarded inter group deception.


Findings of the study were partially consistent with the theoretical perspective presented in the literature review section. Findings supported the social identification theory and black sheep effect whereas theory of deception was disregarded by participants because they did not mistrust the spokesperson that belonged to an out-group. Hence, we can say that this study opened up new ways for the researchers to explore the theory of deception in relation to public relations professionals and journalists.

Implication in real life public relations

Findings of the study can be used to guide the management of public relations organizations and journalists to develop various training programs aimed at reducing the negative attitudes of both the professionals during field practice. Various ethical training programs can be used in the field setting in order to minimize the long-standing opposition between two parties that can be subjected to work collaboratively.

Step 3, comparative analysis


Both of these studies were based on the ethical considerations in public relation professionals. These articles used psychological theories in literature review section such as Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, social identity theory and the inter-group deception theory. It can be said that these articles had strong psychological grounds because moral values are purely philosophical and psychological in nature. Both studies had generalizibility issues because sample was selected from one specific country. Moreover, both of them had implications in the field regarding policy making, guiding practice and training. We can also infer that both of the studies verified the theoretical perspectives presented in literature review. Hence, from the methodological, limitation and implication perspective, we can assume these articles similar in nature.


The first study used qualitative methodology i.e., semi structured interviews in which more in-depth subjective information was obtained regarding the phenomenon of interest. This study also used qualitative tools of data analysis i.e., thematic analysis in which relevant themes were obtained after interpretation. On the other hand, second study used quantitative methodology in which participants were divided into two groups and underwent experimentation and questionnaire survey. Besides this, appropriate statistical tools were used for data analysis such as Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) to obtain results. The second prominent difference between these studies was the method of sample selection; first study used snowball and convenient sampling i.e., researchers included subjects in the study that were referred by other participants or institutions whereas the other one used random sampling technique in which participants were selected randomly without keeping any strict inclusion criteria in mind. Hence, it can be concluded that basic differences lie in the sampling techniques and methodological contexts.

Rationale of this assignment

In my view, the basic rationale behind this paper is to make us realize the significance of theory and research in practice. Since, I analyzed these two literature pieces contemplatively and understood the underlying theories before jumping to the methodology; I learned that theory provides basis to the research and research guides practice, organizational decision making and policy making. I can imagine how these articles could have helped the organizational managements to improve moral and ethical development of their employees particularly with reference to Public Relations and journalism. Besides this, for the time being, I attempted to think and behave like a researcher who vowed to analyze each and every component of literature pieces profoundly.


Place, R. K. (2019). Moral dilemmas, trials, and gray areas: Exploring on-the-job moraldevelopment of public relations professionals. Public Relations Review 45, 24–34.

Clementson, E. D. (2019). Do public relations practitioners perceptually share ingroupaffiliation with journalists? Public Relations Review 45, 49–63.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Article Critique

Article Critique

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Article Critique

The Amazon is a big region, spanning various South American countries, and is inhabited by citizens of modern cities of the 21st century, as well as indigenous hunter-gatherers that wear little or no clothing. About the only thing that links the myriad of cultures is the tropical latitude band and the climatic conditions that dictate a certain tropical lifestyle. Amazon has an intentionally designed culture with very few perks. It you want a sense for the place, read the leadership principles. Now, imagine that the person in charge of enforcing “The Principles” is a combination of Stanford MBA and Marine Corps Command Master Gunnery Sergeant. He has high standards, expects brutal honesty based on cold logic and first principles, and expects rapid execution and complete commitment when a decision has been made. He doesn't need to shout, he doesn't need to threaten, but being ill prepared, undisciplined, or making excuses will incur a cold logical smiting that will haunt an individual.

Honest failure is acceptable, but a failure due to a lack of dedication and commitment is not. There isn't a lot of room for grand thought or philosophical debates, or staking out a personal vision or strategy. Anything less than a complete commitment to the customer, backed by data, and core to the mission is unacceptable. Amazon isn't big on innovation for its own sake, the efforts of the company are focused on solving customer problems in ways that serve the company by interconnecting profit centers and businesses across the company.

Speed is always valued over quality, which can lead to a lot of wasted effort and potential. It's frustrating at times. One of the better descriptions that can be heard of Amazonians over the years is missionary/mercenary. Zeal and an almost romantic commitment to core principles, with ruthless, brutal and calculating execution against mission and goals.

One thing to consider: the average Amazonian only lasts about 18 months at the company. The impressions of anyone there less than 3 years with a grain of salt. The 3rd year is the hardest, but if anyone make it beyond that point you've figured it out. Like it is said, “it's not for everyone”!

A lot of positive and negative has been said about work life and work at Amazon in media so the details of every aspect would not be discussed here but a few selected areas need to be pointed out. Picking first 10 points as they come to mind.

Work: Amazon is a leader in retail and cloud. To become a leader an individual solved problems that no one solved in the industry. By being at Amazon you get to work on problems that are new. This is one reason why I will like to stay at Amazon. Why go somewhere and resolve a problem that Amazon has already solved.

Not all teams are equal: This is true and true for every company. Not every team works on “cool” stuff but what makes Amazon different is the ease with which you can move around teams (Linden, Smith, & York, 2003). If you don’t find good work in one team then there are thousands of more teams to choose from.

Field: At high level it is retail and cloud but to solve the related problem you end up working on practically everything.

Burn out: Let’s say you like to run along with your buddy. One day you take some route which is scenic. On the way you climb a mountain to some distance. You love it. It is so beautiful. Now you start taking the same route every day. You like the scenic route and you climb further every day. Your buddy on other hand starts to get tired. He starts alternating between a flat trail in park and the mountain road. Amazon is same way. You have a tough problem to solve every day. At some companies you will get a mundane problem on one day and a tough one other. How long you can keep doing it is up to you. Some engineers burn out in a year and others continue. To give you some perspective in my current team everyone has been in Amazon for close to a decade. In my previous team except me no one was over 2 years at Amazon.

Work hours: A person working at Amazon has WFH option if they need to. You have decent number of vacations and time offs. Never seen any manager who does not let you take vacations or time offs (McCord, 2014). There could be some days when you may not be able to take vacation based on how many others in team are on vacation or if you are the only resource on some critical project but it is very rare.

Technology: Choice is made based on problem. All common technologies and some more in use at Amazon. Said that Amazon is not a good place to work if a person work only in “Java” or specific technology.

Salary: While not the highest in the industry it is not less. Amazon stocks have in general done better than other companies so that is a big plus.

Perks: Compared to other companies (Google, Microsoft, etc) it is less. No free food or gym or other nice things that some other companies provide. Anyone would love it if they were there but it is not important enough to say company is good or bad.

Job security: Unlike other companies the Amazonians had not seen mass layoffs at Amazon during recession. There are engineers who are let go due to performance reasons but again that is not common.

Location: Like to travel? Amazon has offices in multiple countries and cities. You are free to change teams and location does not restrict it. Amazon even takes care of moving you.

In short, working at Amazon gives you a unique insight into the world of software development that you will rarely get at other companies. The problems that you’ll come across will teach you so much. In retrospective, Amazon was one of the best things that happened to me. And a lot depends upon the team you are in. Some of my friends had excellent managers.


Kantor, J., & Streitfeld, D. (2015). Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace. Retrieved 30 July 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/16/technology/inside-amazon-wrestling-big-ideas-in-a-bruising-workplace.html

Linden, G., Smith, B., & York, J. (2003). Amazon. com recommendations: Item-to-item collaborative filtering. IEEE Internet Computing, (1), 76-80.

McCord, P. (2014). How Amazon reinvented HR. Harvard Business Review, 92(1), 71-76.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Article Review

Article Review

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Article Review


Technology is making progress by leaps and bounds in current times. This progress and advancement in various areas of science and technology has brought a great revolution in the lives of people. It has paved many new ways for mankind in many aspects. Technology has not only given millions of new inventions to the world but also speeded up various processes. A single task that was accomplished in many days previously, is now completed within some minutes. In addition to this, this advent in technology has also brought efficiency in many processes that are linked directly or indirectly to human life. A prominent example of this can be seen in the form of data management.

In previous times, it was very difficult to manage data. Various manual approaches were adopted for the management of data in different areas. Most of these approaches comprised of merely writing down the information on paper and keeping it safe after filing it. However, since the introduction of the latest technological practices, the approaches to store that data have also changed. Now the data or important information is entered and stored in soft form inside servers. The size of servers varies according to the size of the data. Although it has brought great convenience for the big organizations and companies to store and process the information, it has also placed a big responsibility on them. The following piece of writing will discuss the same issue of ethical responsibility of the organizations regarding the protection of the data of their clients. It will also discuss the case of data breach from a well-known organization or website and how the issue should have been addressed. Moreover, the research paper will look into the details of the Biblical worldview about the various perspectives of data protection.


The article selected for the purpose of discussion for this research paper was published on the official news website of CBS news, earlier this year. This article was published with the title “Hundreds of millions of Facebook user records were exposed on the Amazon cloud server” on April 4, 2019(Silverstein, 2019). As soon as the news was published, it sparked outrage all over the world. Millions of Facebook users protested against this negligence and demanded an explanation from the owner and CEO of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg.

Summary of the Article

The news article, titled “Hundreds of Millions of Facebook User Records Were Exposed on Amazon Cloud Server”, revealed many shocking facts about one of the biggest data breaches in the history of the world. Jason Silverstein, the correspondent of CBS news and the writer of the article, revealed that the biggest data breach involved two of the most important technological giants of the current time, Facebook and Amazon. The data breach involved the exposure of the data of more than 540 million users or subscribers of these social media websites. These figures were revealed by a well-known cybersecurity research team, UpGuard. This data breach involved the public exposure of the data of more than 540 million users of one of the biggest social media websites, Facebook and on the biggest online shopping website, Amazon.

Ethical Problem in the Use of the Data by the Organization (Facebook)

The data breach described in the article raised many questions on the security practices of one of the biggest social media websites, Facebook. There was strong outrage and anger among the users of Facebook. A similar reaction was observed from the users of Amazon as well. The experts in the area of cybersecurity pointed out some serious issues in data protection and security from the social media’s security team. The ethical standards of cybersecurity demand that the data of users is kept safe. But since the data breach incident of Facebook, people have stopped trusting the security practices of one of the biggest social media websites.

Relation of the Topic with the Biblical WorldviewThe Biblical Worldview or the Christian worldview is a practice that indicates how an individual, group of people or the whole world should behave in the light of the true Christian beliefs and teachings. The Holy Bible teaches us many things regarding privacy of information and guides us to keep the secrets of others as we like to keep our own secrets. An example of it can be found in the following verse of Luke chapter 6.

“Do to others as you would have them do to you” (Luke 6:31)


It can be concluded that data security is one of the major concerns regarding technology, especially data in the current times. Many companies and organizations that deal with big data take serious security measures in order to keep the data of their clients and customers safe. However, sometimes, this data is breached and the company has to bear a loss in the form of loss of customers, financial losses, and even legal and criminal investigation. Such a scenario has been described in a recent article published by CBS news under the title, “Hundreds of millions of Facebook user records were exposed on Amazon cloud server”.


Hermenegilde, B. (2011). Do To Others As You Would Have Them Do To You" Analysis of Luke 6: 27-36. A Theological Challenge to Tribalism, Injustice and Poverty In Burundi.

Silverstein, J. (2019). Hundreds of millions of Facebook user records were exposed on Amazon cloud server. Retrieved 11 December 2019, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/millions-facebook-user-records-exposed-amazon-cloud-server/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900


Article Review




Article Review

Suzyanty Mohd Shokory and Nur Riza Mohd Suradi jointly authored an article which was entitled as “Transformational leadership and its impact on the extra-role performance of project team members: the mediating role of work engagement.” The article was published in the journal named “Academy of Strategic Management Journal” in the year 2018. The article has described that an organization’s structure can shape the roles of the project manager and project team throughout the duration of a project, through the utilization of the meditator of work engagement. The research study may have been an attempt by the authors to shed light on the importance of transformational leadership on the extra role performance of the project team members, however, it highlights the importance of the meditator of work engagement which helps the two parties to work efficiently and ensure the success of the project.

The summary of the research article is that the authors have shed light on the importance of transformational leadership on the performance of the team members of a project. The research study is specifically focused on the construction industry of Malaysia and the authors are of the view that there has not been enough research on leadership and its impacts in the construction industry. Another important point highlighted by the authors is that the previous research in the field of leadership specifically focused on the direct impact of leadership on the performance for the employees and rarely gave any importance to the psychological factors contributing to the success of the project. The purpose of this specific research study is to focus on the transformational leadership style of the manager of the project, which influences the project team members and motivate them to give the extra-role performance. Another important thing explored by the authors of the research study is that work engagement is the mediator psychological factor which provides an explanation of the relationship of the extra-role performance of the project team members and the transformational leadership of the project managers. The authors of the research study wanted to explore if the psychological factor of work engagement does affect the relationship of the transformational leadership and extra-role performance of the project team members (Shokory, & Suradi, 2018).

The research study was conducted by collecting data from thirty-nine teams in Selangor, who were associated with different contractors. The teams were also registered with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB). There were one hundred and ninety-five members of the project teams who participated in the research study by fulfilling the self-administered questionnaires. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was then utilized to analyze the responses of the project team members shared through the questionnaires. In addition to it, the researchers utilized the Monte Carlo analysis, in order to examine and study the impact of the work engagement meditator on the relationship of transformational leadership projects managers and extra-role performance of the project team members. The research study utilized the multilevel modeling approach, in order to understand and analyze the impact of different transformational leadership styles of the project managers on the extra role performance of the project team members. The findings of the research study revealed the fact that the transformational leadership of the project managers significantly impacted the extra role performance of the project team members. Moreover, the psychological factor of work engagement also significantly mediated the relationship of the extra-role performance of the project team members and the transformational leadership of the project managers (Shokory, & Suradi, 2018).

The article is related to what we are learning in the course of “Managing Project Teams,” in the way that it highlights the importance of the transformational leadership in ensuring the effectiveness of the performance of the project team members. Moreover, it is also highlighting the importance of the mediating factor of work engagement in the relationship of the project managers and the project team members to ensure the success and productivity of the project. The fragmented or pyramid structure of the organization discussed in the article helped to shape the project manager and project team member roles throughout the duration of the project. The meaning and implications of the contents of the article are that the project managers should adopt the transformational leadership styles, in order to motivate the project team members to work efficiently, as well as give an extra-role performance in order to ensure the success of the project (Trees, 2017). I did not find any flaws in the article and the authors have conducted the research study as well as explained it in an elaborate manner. The article has been authored in a quite descriptive manner and there is nothing left out, which could have made it better (Shokory, & Suradi, 2018).

The authors could expand on the results by discussing its implementation to other fields of work and business, instead of keeping it limited to the construction industry of Malaysia. They could have discussed the impacts of the research in terms of the healthcare sector. The article’s information relate to my professional life in the way that being a student of business management, I have to learn the impacts and effects of project management on the performance of the team members (Fibuch, & Ahmed, 2018).

Transformational leadership has emerged as the greater source of impacting the extra role performance of the project team members. It enables them to work efficiently and ensure the progress of the project. Moreover, the work engagement meditator also plays an important role in improving the relationship of transformational leadership and the extra role performance of the project team members.


Fibuch, E., & Ahmed, A. (2018). Use Project Teams To Direct Change. Physician Leadership Journal, 5(5), 60-64.

Shokory, S. M., & Suradi, N. R. M. (2018). Transformational Leadership And Its Impact On Extra-Role Performance Of Project Team Members: The Mediating Role Of Work Engagement. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 17(5), 1-6.

Trees, L. (2017). Organizations Win When Project Teams Learn From Collective Experience. KM World.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Article Review 1

Article Review

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Article Review

Forganni and Reed (2009) highlighted the ethical issues regarding the circumvention strategies being adopted by the exporters as the antidumping measures. With the increase in trends of importing the lower priced goods from emerging markets, it resulted in the formation of antidumping laws since the beginning of this century. However, despite the increase in laws and regulations regarding such practices, exporters and business managers have devised various strategies in order to circumvent those laws. Examples of these strategies include trans-shipment, assembly operations and slightly altering the products (Forganni & Reed, 2019). Circumvention, a practice of escaping antidumping laws, is illegal but the study determines to what extent it is immoral. Since the ethics of circumvention is a question of ethics, this calls for discussion and debate of circumvention with an attempt to arrive at a global consensus of mutual international rules regarding circumvention (Forganni & Reed, 2019).

The article sums up the related and useful information with regard to the antidumping laws and circumvention to determine ethical Laws are developed by regulatory organizations like WTO to protect the developing nations against the emerging markets by promoting the international trade activities and at the same time protecting the interest of the local industry. Emerging markets like China and the developing nations, due to many factors such as cost of production and low cost of labor are able to make low-priced products (David & David, Global and International Issues, 2013). China is also known for human rights issues such as copyright, trademark and patent issues. Exporters in the developing nations, considering the factor of low price get those products that are usually below the average fair price and hurt the local industry, generally producing at a high price. Exporters have also found several ways to pit laws for their personal interests of profitability. This is the topic of business ethics and the corporate social responsibility that aims at protecting the interest of society.

Circumvention has become an intentional business activity especially in countries like China, and it is a part of China’s business climate (David & David, Global and International Issues, 2013). The literature presented in the article highlights that the theory of civil disobedience can be used to determine the ethics of circumvention in the context of EU-China trade relations. Circumvention is used as a practice to gain financial returns, however, ethical business practices are rewarding in the long-run and exporters and businesses need not be unethical to be profitable (David & David, Business Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Sustainability, 2013). However, as the author discusses the concept of ethics differs from person to person, exporters or business managers who indulge in circumvention justify their acts that the anti-dumping laws prove to be a barrier to the development of their nation (Forganni & Reed, 2019).

The EU implemented many antidumping laws from 1994 to 2014 and it is at the top in implementing the antidumping measures. The EU has implemented anti-dumping measures on Chinese exporters to constraint the export of Chinese goods. In addition, China has always been the focus of EU circumvention investigations that were successful in limiting the Chinese. Another study also confirmed that these antidumping measures were successful in limiting Chinese exports to the EU market (Jabbour, Tao, Vanino, & Zhang, 2016). In addition, the performance of the remaining exporters increased. The study also highlighted that the domestic European companies enjoyed temporary benefits but it created negative impacts on the importers and resulted in a gap between the European firms and Chinese exporters (Jabbour, Tao, Vanino, & Zhang, 2016).

Moreover, according to literature, antidumping laws are unethical which would also be the opinion of exporting companies and the activity of circumvention cannot be declared as unethical. The claims used by the exporters or managers of exporting companies to justify their activities is that circumvention is not only benefiting them but also boosting their country’s economy (Forganni & Reed, 2019). For many managers, antidumping laws are not only unfair to the company but also to the country and being socially responsible is about providing jobs and aiming to support country’s economy (Forganni & Reed, 2019). And this is why the ethics and fairness of circumvention of antidumping laws differ from stakeholder to stakeholder. The authors successfully build upon an argument that the decision of ethics and moral of circumvention remains a question owing to the difference of power between the developed and developing market actors.

The authors have contributed the knowledge of the field that can help one decide the ethics and morals of the evasion of antidumping laws. The arguments and facts presented in the article are confirmed by other studies and authors that build the credibility of article researchers. The strength of the article lies in its ability to highlight all the concerned issues and bring to light the trade relations to FU-China that are very suitable for the topic under discussion. Authors devised a way to solve the issues of morality associated with circumvention, and difference of opinion for both developed and developing nations. The study also brings to light the underlying factors and causes of ethical issues associated with circumvention. Overall, the findings of the article can be helpful for the policy makers and business managers in determining the ethics of their own practices. The previous studies only focused on the ethical issues associated with the antidumping measures, however, this study contributes to the filed by highlighting ethics of circumvention.


BIBLIOGRAPHY David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2013). Business Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Sustainability. In F. R. David, & F. R. David, Strategic management: Concepts and cases: A competitive advantage approach (Sixteenth ed.). Pearson.

David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2013). Global and International Issues. In F. R. David, & F. R. David, Strategic management: Concepts and cases: A competitive advantage approach (Sixteenth ed.). Pearson.

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Forganni, A., & Reed, H. (2019). Circumvention of Trade Defence Measures and Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 155(1), 29–40.

Jabbour, L., Tao, Z., Vanino, E., & Zhang, Y. (2016). The good, the bad and the ugly: Chinese imports, EU anti-dumping measures and firm performance. University of Nottingham Research Paper Series China and the World Economy, (2016–16).

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Article Review 2

Article review 2

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Article review 2

Strategic Planning is a crucial function of an organizations management and it helps in setting goals, objectives, and priorities. In order to make strategic planning effective, vision and mission statements are created. These play a vital role in setting objectives and providing a road map which everyone needs to follow. A vision statement of an organization answer the basic question, "What do we want to become?" A clear vision statement leads to an effective mission statement (David, & David, 2013). Considering the importance of vision statement, it is the first and foremost step in the strategic planning and they have always been considered as element of strategic management. This paper seeks to review an article by Jerry Allison that highlights the missing link of vision statements with strategic communication and organizational culture (Allison, 2017). The article extends the theory in concepts of strategic communication, management and organizational culture and employs a research practice that is free of researcher bias.

The article written by Jerry Allison highlights the impacts of the vision statement of an organization on relatively new and emerging concepts of strategic communication and organizational culture. The author does not ignore the concept of strategic management that has always been associated with vision and mission statements. The article spreads the influence a vision statement can hold for an organization and the ways it is linked with the other areas of management. The article progresses in three different steps, first it links vision statement with other disciplines, second, it adopts a new practice of text mining, and third, it develops a hierarchical classification of vision statements which serves to demonstrate the relationship of statements with each other. In addition, the author claims that the study will help future researchers to reduce visions statements to a form where these could easily be quantified for the purpose of research (Allison, 2017).

The strategic communication of an organization involves all the forms of communication taking place in an organization. Strategic communication is a new field and it is formed by the intersection of management and communication theory (Hallahan et al., 2007). In order to find the link between strategic communication and vision statement, the author uses the methodology of text mining and analyzed 789 vision statements of different organizations. Most of these organizations were based in the United States. The analysis resulted in two parent classes and seventeen subclasses of vision statements (Allison, 2017). Employing this methodology words used in the vision statements of organizations were examined. This taxonomy of vision statements gave several insights about the vision statements of organizations. It outlined that these statements are developed to frame each organization in the correct context. This confirmed that vision statement of an organization are an element of strategic communication that serve to explain the purpose of the existence of a firm. These statements are a kind of message that is communicated to all the stakeholders in order to maximize implementation. The hierarchical classification of vision statements established by the author not only proves its connection with strategic communication but also proposes how it links with organizational culture.

Organizational culture is an arrangement of common values and beliefs and acts as the guiding principle. The vision statement of an organization also acts as a guiding principle since it is a shared assumption of where the organization will be moving in the coming years and where it wants to be. This is the vision created at the time of formation of an organization. Studies recommend that management must create shared values at the time of the creation of the organization in order to build a culture that let the organization work towards its objectives. In this way, different vision statements can relate to different organizational culture.

The overall paper makes a great role in the literature of new management fields of organizational culture and strategic communication. The author has adopted a new methodology developing a hierarchical taxonomy of vision statements, founded on the wordings founds in statements. The taxonomy gives an overview of the links found between several vision statements. It will also assist future researchers in analyzing vision statements in a quantitative manner that was not a very familiar concept. Not only this, but this paper also associates vision statements with the organizational culture that has not been done earlier (Allison, 2017). Until now, the vision statement was merely a concept of strategic management but this research pushes that it serves a greater purpose. At the end of the paper, the author has succeeded in making a connection between vision, organizational culture, and strategic communication.

The taxonomy also helps to comprehend the vision statements from a different and a much simpler perspective. Secondly, it further permits different empirical studies by classifying visions statements and correlating them with other measurements such as the size of the organization. Previously the literature highlighted the significance of finding a link between strategy, culture, and structure. However, this study serves the purpose of defining the link between these three with the help of a strategic concept i.e. vision statement (Allison, 2017). The propositions made in the paper also extends the studies in fields of organizational culture employing vision of different organizations. One of the most useful information that was extracted from the analysis of this study that the firms generally do not create vision statements purposefully but copy the statements of other similar organizations in the industry. It has suggestions for the organizations that the kind of vision statement assumed and applied must bring into line with the organizational culture and strategy to enhance organizational effectiveness.


Allison, J. (2017). A vision statement taxonomy: linking strategic management, strategic communication, and organizational culture. Global Journal of Management and Marketing, 1(2), 1-19.

David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2013). Strategic management: Concepts and cases: A competitive advantage approach. Pearson.

Hallahan, K., Holtzhausen, D., Van Ruler, B., Verčič, D., & Sriramesh, K. (2007). Defining strategic communication. International journal of strategic communication, 1(1), 3-35.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Article Summarize

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Article Summary

“Autoworkers Union Goes on Strike Against G.M.”

NY Times

September 15th, 2019

Article Link:


Company Profile:

General Motors Company or General Motors is commonly referred to as an American multinational corporation that designs, markets, manufactures, and even distributes vehicles, parts of vehicles and sells financial services.

General Motors owns Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, and GMC.

Production Output: 8,384,000 vehicles (2018)

The relative number of employees: 173,000 (2018)

CEO: Mary T. Barra

Headquarters: Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan, US

Revenue: US $147 Billion (2018)

Article Topic/Issue

The United Automobile Workers union (UAW) that worked in factories for General Motors went in a strike at midnight this week. It was because of the lack of response from GM officials for their demands of increased wages and benefits, more jobs and reopening of idle manufacturing plants. This action was taken a day after their current agreement with GM expired.

Book Topic:

“Diversity, Affirmative Action, and Equality - Barriers to Equal Opportunities,” ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Employment and Employee Rights - Foundations of Business Ethics. Wiley, 2008, page 173.

Article Summary & Analysis:

Nearly 50,000 members United Automobile Workers union (UAW), working for General Motors went on a strike on Monday morning. These members worked across the Midwest and South to picket lines factories. According to the regional leaders of UAW, the strike was authorized following a unanimous vote on Sunday morning, since the current bargaining agreement by the union with General Motors expired on Saturday. The UAW has been demanding GM to improve workers’ wages and reopen idled plants to add jobs in the region. Furthermore, they also demanded that the difference in pay and the relative pay rates for newly hired workers and veteran workers should be narrowed-down or closed completely. They demanded that GM give its employees better healthcare cost coverage and allow for increased workforce productivity and flexibility. In a statement released by GM, it offered to invest around $7 billion in opening up plants across the country and also add 5,400 new jobs. It also promised to increase the pay and benefits of current workers.

An analysis of the situation reveals that it was GM, not UAW, who were unable to do as comply with the basic rights of their employees, i.e. “equal pay for equal work, comparable pay for similar positions, and equal opportunities for promotion, as well as employment security.” Employment and Employee Rights - Foundations of Business Ethics. Wiley, 2008, page 173. Thus, the company should take responsibility for their actions and give UAW their employment rights in order to have them continue working for them.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Article Summary

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Article Summary

Why Does Apple Control Its Competitors?

The New York Times

May 2, 2019

Article Link:


Company Profile:

Apple Inc. is parent business organization founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne.

Main products offering by this company are Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, Apple TV, HomePod, Software, Electric Vehicles. The main online services associated with Apple Inc. are recognized as iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, and iCloud.

There are 123,000 full-time employees working for this organization.

The current CEO of Apple Inc. is Tim Cook

Cupertino, California, United States is the headquarter of Apple Inc.

Revenue for this company observed as 258.5 billion USD.


The organization of Apple Inc. is using its unique product line to create value for the customers. Application of operating system and innovation are key competitive advantages for Apple Inc. These significant aspects make it possible for company to get market control over its competitors.

Book Topic:

A competitive advantage becomes a sustainable advantage when other companies cannot duplicate the value a firm is providing to customers.

Management, 10th Edition, 2017, page 113.

Summary and Analysis:

The focal point of this article is to identify those developmental aspects that are used by Apple Inc. to successfully meet the standards of competitive advantage. The management of Apple is focusing on different screen-time control instruments to enhance the productivity of its products and services. The operating system introduced by Apple Inc. in the market is the main competitive advantage that enhances value of products for the customers. The operating system used by the company makes it impossible for customers to get an app outside of the App store. The buying standard is controlled by Apple through the competitive perspective of operating system.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Artificial Intelligence

Critical Thinking: Artificial Intelligence

(1/4 page down from top)

Your Name here

(1/2 page down from top)

EDFS 309: Scholarly Personal Narrative Writing

Dr. Robert Nash & Sydnee Viray

Date Here

(All double-spaced)


Artificial intelligence has emerged, revolutionized information technology, engineering, and business. The dawn of this technique for computing problems and providing speedy and accurate results are essential to determine future aspects of business and economy. A critical analysis of possible problems and possible solutions is very necessary to tackle problems with efficiency. In this article, we will discuss the problems, their evidence, and detailed analysis of their impacts on the economy and business. Also, analysis of possible solutions to the problems to determine adaptability and feasibility of a particular technique based on problems and market requirements. The article analyzes the topic while taking the perspective of obstacles and hurdles in the path of adopting and implementing AI for a real and significant revolution.


The paper is based on critical thinking by following PEAS framework. The framework works by carefully modeling problems and their solutions while addressing provided shreds of evidence and analytical reasoning. AI works by training computers using machine learning and deep learning processes using specified algorithms to enable fast computing and decision making. Governments and big corporations have started utilizing this kind of intelligence to improve business financially. The trend is increasing day by day as not only big multinationals are using this, but also AI-based apps are now in the pocket of an ordinary person. An extensive overview of possible problems and the related optimal solution is provided below.


This section outlines possible problems that are found in the domain of artificial intelligence when it comes to its applicability in the industry. The article discusses 3 main problems related to business and management, which cause hindrance in AI implementation. The very first problem is about the main building block of AI, which is data handling. AI models require huge data sets for training, and the quality and availability of data is a central issue.

AI can do efficient learning and speedy analysis, but the requirement of relative algorithms is one limitation. As conventional computer systems work in binary using Boolean logic hence decision making power while mapping the human thought process is not applicable.

Further, the lack of AI understanding among management authorities and the presence of non-technical staff in big numbers is also an issue. In this case, AI finds it hard to get preference in business work for implementation.


Data is the main source, and as we have discussed, the availability of clean data is central to the further utilization for other purposes. Often data extracted from internet sources in labeled in the form of images, texts, and other notations due to IoT (Internet of Things). This constitutes structured data that can be handled and utilized without difficulty. But there is a huge amount of data that cannot be labeled due to the scarcity of enough people to label it. This is unstructured data and needs labeling to make it easily usable for implementation. Amazon Web Service is one example of a data stream having a huge amount of structured and unstructured data.

Talking about the incapability of conventional computer systems to adopt AI-based algorithms is their use of the conventional Binary system. According to binary computation, computer systems deal with only two states, 0 and 1, which are not comparable to the human brain’s ability to make decisions.

Lack of AI know-how in a company structure or the business of a company finding it hard to align its interests and business with artificial intelligence is evident. On the contrary, there are many companies which benefited from AI by aligning their business according to this new use of technology. Tata steel is one example which is a company of size more than 9000, mainly of subsidiary employees. The main AI application they worked on is the optimization of the raw material recipe. Biotech, a US-based company, introduced an automated wet lab and recommendations engine for the experiment. Both the organizations included AI in their business to improve the potential worth of the company. In several cases, organizations using AI competed with their adversaries and outnumbered them in resources and net worth. So, a general attitude of an organization towards the implementation of AI, despite many limitations until know, is very important.


In this section, pieces of evidence will be analyzed carefully based on creative thinking and analytical reasoning. We will analyze whether labeling of data and its collection are really big problems in the way of AI implementation to improve business and fixing managerial issues. Data is not always present in an organized form; rather, it is scattered in the form of raw, unstructured pieces of data. Due to excess internet traffic, raw data is present in huge quantities. Deep learning machine models are trained in order to extract usable data for processing. In fact, this is not as easy as said generally because data filtering requires a lot of searches. Data can be collected from the information which is present on public forums or purchasing it from other parties, but still, not all types of data can be retrieved with these techniques. Hence to use AI for business purposes like quick manipulation of data, extracting numbers for comparisons and analyzing market trends and practices for superfast statistical analysis, and data handling is very necessary.

As far as computational and decision-making abilities of AI algorithms is concerned, limitations are present. These limitations lie in the domain of information technology, and computer scientists are working on multi-state systems and networks to tackle them. The use of artificial neural networks is one of them. These networks are implemented using quantum computational algorithms using quantum computers to enable more speed, efficiency, and decision making.

Lack of AI practices in accompanies due to many reasons. One reason is the possible threat of robots overcoming human affairs and ultimately superseding in all the aspects. We will analyze the reliability of that concern critically. By looking from a deterministic point of view, companies using and benefiting from AI, including Facebook, Google, and Amazon, are making technical and financial development way higher as compared to others. Google has launched its AI-based applications like Cortana, Hound, and Socratic, which are used by millions of users all around the globe. Lack of AI practices may not cause sudden loss to the company but will result in ousting from the completion. As an example, Zymergen, a biotechnology company automated its wet labs, coupling them with machine learning infrastructure, and reportedly getting experimentation throughput 10 times higher. The evidence suggests the need for AI applications for better growth and results. Robots overcoming human beings because of the advent of AI cannot be justified as AI still lack computational abilities to map human decision-making mechanisms.


For handling problems related to data extraction from web sources and labeling it according to its characteristics to make it useable, a number of techniques can be adopted. One solution is the deployment of a team, an expert in data science to do the job or assign the job to another company. This may give in highly accurate labeled data but is time-consuming and expensive. In the case of an external team, one cannot track the progress of the team. Another possible solution is the programming of the data using automated scripts. This will result in extremely fast results by virtue of automation. Human intervention is still not exempted in this case because automated scripts are needed to and other issues related to security management. So, this is a good solution and must be adopted.

The use of artificial neural networks for catering AI algorithm’s limitations is a good option. These networks are based on quantum mechanics, which is more useful and has the ability to control more states at one instant. These networks use a 'qubit' which is a quantum bit instead of a binary bit. Not only these networks can operate using two states at a time, but they also incorporate their superposition. This enables quantum supported AI algorithms to solve problems that are very complex and cannot be comprehended using ordinary computers. No doubt, this is one feasible solution, but only when it is used for highly dedicated use because of its great cost and architectural requirements. Quantum computers, specifically designed to support such computations, are also highly sensitive to the environment. A slight change in the environment can change the results, so it is affordable for governments, big multinationals, and for purposes like geography, astrology, and in the studies of sub-atomic processes. For other businesses, however, the use of conventional AI is still useful and appreciable.

The solution to lack of AI trends in market due to misunderstanding and technical unawareness is education primarily. An overview of artificial intelligence., its mechanisms and benefits it may bring to improve business and solve inefficiencies in management, is necessary for the market stakeholders. They must be provided with enough pieces of evidence in support of the use of AI by comparing conventional practices with some big players of the industry who have not only successfully applied but also doing extensive research in the field.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Artificial Intelligence (AI)


Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Computer Science that deals with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers. It has revolutionized the field of Computer Science by producing robots of many simple and complex types. Robotics is the scientific discipline that is responsible for producing robots, but their cognitive aspect is related to AI. Therefore, the engineers of Robotics and AI work in integration to produce robots of cognitive capability. Artificial Intelligence is orthodoxly related to installing human cognition in computers as much as possible. It is one of the latest technologies in the contemporary world. A person who works in this field is called an Artificial Intelligence Engineer. The average salary of AI engineers is 110,000 USD per annum. An AI engineer enters the industry as a graduate having particular abilities regarding this field i.e. basic knowledge about programming, software, linear algebra, calculus, and statistics. An AI engineer is expected to have more capabilities than just technology-related knowledge, therefore he acquires these capabilities by getting enrolled in a Master's Program or joining a professional company (Russell, & Norvig, 2016). The following details discuss the qualifications of the people working in or the need for Artificial Intelligence.


Qualifications of a person are required to meet the expectations of a particular job, if he/she can meet the requirements or fulfill those requirements, s/he is considered qualified for that job. Therefore, before deciding someone’s qualifications, it is essential to determine his duties and responsibilities. An Artificial Intelligence Engineer has the following roles and responsibilities that s/he is supposed to fulfill effectively in his designated area to be a successful member of the AI community:

The study and transformation of Data Science Prototypes

The research and implementation of the Appropriate ML algorithms and AI tools

The development of Machine Learning Applications

The selection of Datasets and Data Representation Methods

The training and restraining of systems when needed (Jarrahi, 2018).

Apart from that, an AI engineer should be well equipped to work efficiently with Electrical Engineers and Robotics Team, and s/he should stay updated about all the developments in the field to be a successful Artificial Intelligence Engineer (Ghahramani, 2015).

Qualifications of the People Working in AI

Being one of the latest technologies and having a wide scope, AI offers high profile jobs to its employees. Therefore, when a person wants to become a formal part of this field, it requires some prior abilities and capabilities so the employee would be able to meet the expectations of this field and will not spoil any project (Munich, 2017). The fundamental requirement of AI is a Bachelor’s degree from a recognized university in subjects like Computer Science, Mathematics, Information Technology, Statistics, Finance, or Economics. The noted subjects enable a person to comprehend and run simple operations at the computer. All these disciplines make a person eligible enough to learn the advance knowledge of Artificial Intelligence (Jarrahi, 2018). Artificial Intelligence engineers need knowledge of some extra skills to become successful in this file. The required skills are categorized into two types:

Technical Skills

Being a technical field, Artificial Intelligence demands from its employees (engineers) the knowledge of some technical skills. Theoretical and practical knowledge about these topics is essential for an Artificial Intelligence engineer:

Software Development Life Cycle

Modularity, OOPS, Classes

Design Patterns

Statistics and Mathematics

Machine Learning

Deep Learning & Neural Networks

Electronics, Robotics, and Instrumentation (Not a Mandate)

An engineer having the knowledge of these topics should also have command over the following skills:

Programming Languages (R/Java/Python/C++)

Artificial Intelligence literacy means the full command over programming languages like Java, Python, and C++. Some people rely on only Python, but you should know that the more knowledge about the field will widen your scope. Artificial Intelligence requires the most updated and knowledgeable engineers.

Linear Algebra/Calculus/Statistics

Matrices, vectors and matrix multiplication are also popular terms in Artificial Intelligence. AI engineers know their use and application. Models like the Hidden Markov Model, Gaussian Mixture Models and Naïve Bays are generally known by AI engineers.

Applied Math and Algorithms

Algorithm theory and its use is the part of an AI engineer’s knowledge. Subjects such as Gradient Descent, Convex Optimization, Lagrange, Quadratic Programming, Partial Differential equation, and Summations are discussed in Artificial Intelligence and people show their expertise in these subjects (Munich, 2017).

Neural Network Architectures

Artificial Intelligence is the mimicry of human intelligence. Human intelligence has a complex neural structure that is the subject of the Biologists and the Psychologists. The AI engineers are scientists or doctors of computer, therefore, they work on a computer neural structure. The term of Machine Learning is used to analyze computer intelligence or Artificial Intelligence (Jarrahi, 2018).

Language, Audio and Video Processing

An AI engineer has a permanent communication with codified material. All the computer material appears as text, audio or video. Artificial Intelligence engineers cannot work if they have not the command over Gensim, NLTK and techniques like word2vec, Sentimental Analysis, and Summarization. Therefore, every AI engineer is supposed to have full command over these skills (Strohmeier, & Piazza, 2015).

Business Skills

Business Skills are another essential quality of an Artificial Intelligence Engineer. Globalization has shrunk the world and Information Technology has played an important role in it. Now, only a multi-talented person has a scope in this age of competition. Artificial Intelligence demands all qualities from production to promotion and selling of ideas (goods) in one person (Munich, 2017). Artificial Intelligence engineers should know the following business skills:

Analytic Problem-Solving

Effective Communication

Creative Thinking

Industry Knowledge.

Analytic Problem-Solving

This capability helps the AI engineer to cope with technical and non-technical issues that occur randomly. The way of working in AI is different from the traditional workplace where the technical staff is concerned only with producing the items and those items are sold by the marketing staff. AI engineer works on new ideas that he/she thinks that are the demand of the society. Although s/he works on new ideas, different complexities create a challenge for him/her that s/he has to solve at his/her own (Strohmeier, & Piazza, 2015). Therefore, the people working in AI are trained for such circumstances.

Effective Communication

Effective Communication is essential to deal with a variety of clients and to work in an organization. The 21st century is typical in challenging traditional techniques and strategies in almost every field including business. Communication skills help AI engineers to explain the worth of the ideas and products that they produce or introduce in the industry. AI engineers are taught effective communication skills with special consideration because neither they can sell their products to clients nor they can deliver their ideas to their colleagues and boss without this capability.

Creative Thinking

Variety and diversity are the only things that attract the client in this smart world. An AI engineer cannot rely upon set ideals and defined truths about market or business. This is the reason that AI engineers know the mental drills that can help them to do the job more effectively. Brainstorming and other mental drills are used to critically analyze the techniques to do the business in a better way (Munich, 2017).

Industry Knowledge

Industry Knowledge is key to business. It has two faces; one indoor and the other outdoor. Indoor means that AI engineers do not show indifference to the operations and trends in their related industry, and they stay updated. Outdoor means that they know the market trends. No one can be a successful business person unless s/he has full command over industry trends and directions in the market. Artificial Intelligence requires its employees to have in-depth knowledge of the industry to sell the items successfully (Strohmeier, & Piazza, 2015). Social media surveys and many other techniques are used to know the industry trends.

Artificial Intelligence engineers qualify for the job in the field after having full command over all the above skills plus the prescribed academic qualification. Some people enroll in the Master's program to learn these skills whereas, others join industries to get qualified for Artificial Intelligence. The aspirants of Master’s degree can choose one degree from Data Science, Machine Learning (i.e. Edureka’s Machine Learning Engineer Masters Program), or Computer Science.


Artificial Intelligence, as its name refers, is a deliberate attempt to install cognitive capability in a computer. There have been given many attempts that have proved partially successful too. Automated machines and talking robots are manufactured with the collaboration of AI engineers, Electric Engineers and Robotics engineers. AI engineers are the people who work in Artificial Intelligence and do experiments as well. Artificial Intelligence engineers have a minimum Bachelor's degree qualification in the disciplines like Information Technology, Mathematics, Statistics, Economics, or Finance before they apply for a job in this field. Academic qualification is not enough to be a successful Artificial Intelligence engineer rather many additional skills are the requirements of this field which are but not only, programming skills and language, mathematical capabilities, command on networking as well as business, analytical, communication skills and industry. Hence, while defining the qualifications of the people working in or needed in Artificial Intelligence, we say that if one has the above mentioned skills and competencies, then he/she can hope to become a successful engineer in the field of Artificial Intelligence.


Ghahramani, Z. (2015). Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence. Nature, 521(7553), 452-459.

Jarrahi, M. H. (2018). Artificial intelligence and the future of work: human-AI symbiosis in organizational decision making. Business Horizons, 61(4), 577-586.

Munich, S. (2017). A Roadmap to Becoming an AI Engineer. Retrieved 17 November 2019, from https://www.datarevolutionhr.com/view-article.asp?article=136j4z64eilql2c

Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. Malaysia; Pearson Education Limited.

Strohmeier, S., & Piazza, F. (2015). Artificial intelligence techniques in human resource management—a conceptual exploration. In Intelligent Techniques in Engineering Management (pp. 149-172). Springer, Cham.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500


Name of Student

Name of Professor

Name of Class

Day Month Year

Business and Management

Question No 1The argument in defense of sweatshop failed because of the deteriorating business ethics and culture. It is found that the company was not paying well to its employees despite developing market. There were deplorable working conditions. There was no significance of human rights, specifically labor rights. Although there were no business ethics introduced, still it was against the assumed code of conduct.

Question No 2:

Race to the bottom is a phrase that describes the deregulation of business environment and reduction in the tax rate so as to retain economic activity in particular jurisdiction. It refers to the idea that minimum wage per hour in Vietnam in dollars is $116 that makes up VND 2.60 million to 3.75 million. The minimum wage per hour in Mexico in dollars is approximately $4.39 (88.36 pesos) to $ 5.10 (176.72 pesos).

Question No 3:


Realistic, adaptable, and cool-headed, you can sometimes seem socially reserved, appearing distant and unengaged until you suddenly and decisively spring into action with a clear plan for what should be done. …………The way you see it, though, you would not necessarily be so detached towards others if only they would act a little more logically and make more sense.

One of the famous personalities of my personality type is Bruce Lee.

Question No 4

Samantha Elauf was not hired because she used to wear the head scarf or hijab. In her case, the Supreme Court decided that an individual is allowed to practice her religion freely without being fearful of rejection and unemployment. I agree with the decision of the court because I found it both ethically and legally right, ensuring the freedom of practicing religious rules.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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