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Analyze And Compare Hershey Company And Mars Company

Analyze and Compare Hershey Company and Mars Company

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Analyze and Compare Hershey Company and Mars Company

Comparison of Hershey Company and Mars Company in Food Processing Industry

           The business organizations of Hershey and Mars Inc. are recognized as two major competitors operating in the food processing industry. Both are chocolate companies that involved in the intense rivalry since the early 20th century and focused to capture national and international market share as much as possible. To enhance profitability level and market participation, both organizations of Hershey and Mars Inc. are keen to ensure the development and execution of successful business-level strategy. The idea of a business level strategy is based on practical actions adopted by corporate organizations to ensure a better form of value to potential customers and obtain the desired form of competitive advantage in the market. The objective of attaining and sustaining competitive advantage can be achieved by utilizing core competencies considering consumers’ choices and product preferences ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Fy0t4U58","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Drnevich & Croson, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Drnevich & Croson, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":314,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/V4JQF7FR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/V4JQF7FR"],"itemData":{"id":314,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Mis Quarterly","page":"483-509","title":"Information technology and business-level strategy: toward an integrated theoretical perspective","author":[{"family":"Drnevich","given":"Paul L."},{"family":"Croson","given":"David C."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Drnevich & Croson, 2013). Identification and critical examination of business-level strategies of both organizations of Hershey and Mars Inc. is a critical step to make better inferences about these organizations’ market position in the food processing industry considering the factor of competitive advantage. 

Business-Level Strategy of Hershey Company

           Adoption of successful business level strategy allows the organization of Hershey to successfully thrive in the scenario of strict market competition. The practical implications of strategic management are comprehensively targeted by the company to achieve the main business objectives. A keen observation of the market trends of the food processing industry explicitly reveals that currently, Hershey Company emphases on efficacious implementation of combined business-level strategy in the form of integrated low cost and differentiation. Various practical measures are adopted to achieve desired targets of low-cost products and differentiation by the company. 

           The perspective of a functional structure is focused by the company to actively target the potential market considering elements of market competition and flexible product requirements by customers. Long-term business growth and low debt application are recognized as the ultimate goals set by Hershey Company consider the adoption of the business-level strategy. It is imperative to indicate that brand development and low-cost supply chain are aspects of primary consideration for Hershey’s top management. Adoption of integrated low cost and differentiation business-level strategies eventually made it possible for the company to find ways to develop core brands and enhance overall efficiencies. The targeted level of promoted efficiencies can be established in both forms of production and supply chain. The successful combination of integrated low cost and differentiation is characterized as a consumer-driver business-level strategy. The primary aspect of considering this combination of strategy is to magnificently streamline their production costs and offer a unique product in the market. Organization’s competencies are utilized to sell low-cost quality products to the customers by adopting the idea of differentiation in the form of supply-chain functions. The growing competition of the market made it obligatory for the company to invest in its products and offer new products to customers by adopting the business level strategy of differentiation. 

Business-Level Strategy of Mars Company

           Mars Incorporated established its position as a successful business entity in the competitive market of the food processing industry. There are diverse options of business-level strategies is available for the company to target the market according to corporate aspiration of attracting as many customers as possible. The business-level strategy of differentiation opted by the company to successfully deliver its various forms of products to the customers. The variety of its products are mainly recognized as offering chocolate, candy, food products, pet care, and drinks. 

           The central idea behind the approach of product differentiation business-level strategy is to successfully target a particular market by offering various products according to preferences of potential customers in that market. Customers, level of competition, and profit development are three main aspects of consideration for the company when it comes to applying product differentiation in the form of a suitable business strategy. The application of product differentiation by Mars Inc. mainly categorized under the spectrums of suitable product elements, customization, location, and the domain of consumer marketing. Cost value if the primary factor of consideration when the company is keen on adopting the approach of differentiation.  

Internal Analysis of Companies’ Resources and Capabilities

           Identification of available resources and capabilities of business companies is a necessary approach to recognize their potential to gain a better market share. Undoubtedly, internal sources and capabilities playing a vital role to successfully develop and execute business-level strategies. This primary idea of this form of consideration is to attract potential customers and gain a competitive advantage in the industry. Resource-based model and value chai model are two prominent practical approaches to make better inferences about the internal resources and capabilities of both the competitive organizations of Hershey and Mars Inc. 

Resource-Based Model for Hershey Company

           The central focus under the domain of the resource-based model is considering resources as the key spectrum of improved performance by the company. The framework of the resource-based model is helpful to identify all the strategic resources that can be used by the company to acquire the ultimate target of achieving sustainable market competition. Internal resources mainly in the form of stocks, employees, and all tangible resources played a significant role for the company to ensure the desired form of strategic management. Internal resources for the company are mainly categorized as tangible and intangible resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PPpQolmV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Lamme & Parcell, 2013)","plainCitation":"(Lamme & Parcell, 2013)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":315,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/TXK58PDP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/TXK58PDP"],"itemData":{"id":315,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"Journalism History","issue":"4","page":"198-208","title":"Promoting Hershey: The chocolate bar, the chocolate town, the chocolate king","volume":"38","author":[{"family":"Lamme","given":"Margot Opdycke"},{"family":"Parcell","given":"Lisa Mullikin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2013"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Lamme & Parcell, 2013). Both the domains of available internal resources are greatly utilized by the company to increase its potential position in the targeted market. Brand recognition and reputation are two significant forms of intangible internal resources that are focused by the company to increase its business approach effectively and efficiently. 

Resource-Based Model for Mars Company

           Possession of different strategic resources ultimately made Mars Inc. position strong to achieve its objectives in the form of gaining competitive advantage and enhancing overall profitability level. The mechanism of strategic decision-making completely aligns with the perspective of the successful utilization of internal resources. The management of this company significantly relies on the combination of many different resources to create a developing approach to innovation for the business. The instrument of technological advancement is used by the company to ensure the successful application of internal resources and capabilities. The central aim of adopting these measures to establish better forms of innovation to attract potential consumers and obtain a competitive advantage. 

Value Chain Model for Hershey Company

           The application of strategic analysis in the form of the value chain model is also used to define and analyze the internal structural position of the company. The main objective of this mode of analysis is to identify primary or support internal activities utilized by the corporate organization to gain a competitive advantage. Diverse business activities are established by the Hershey Company to create value in its overall business strategic approach. Successful consideration of different business activities eventually helped the management of the Hershey Organization to the final diverse products offered for the targeted customers. Proper alignment of inside business activities eventually made it possible for the company to gain outside business objectives. The prospect of outside business targets is mainly identified in the forms of attracting more customers towards products and gain a high level of competitive advantage in the market. 

Abrupt changes in the chocolate market successfully cover by the company through the development of strong integration between different internal activities. A thorough assessment of the internal strategic positioning of Hershey Company revealed that the management of this organization is impressively focused to enhance its internal resources and competencies in the form of variant activities. The central aim of this form of consideration is to align the internal strategic position with the requirements of external business requirements and challenges. The business model adopted by Hershey Company is to create a balance between potential external business challenges and internal activities to achieve the aim of improved position in a competitive business environment. 

Value Chain Model for Mars Company

           A comprehensive analysis of the value chain model in the context of Mars Company is also a vital measure to apprehends the company’s approach to utilizing its internal capabilities. It is significant to establish how internal activities are greatly used by the company to provide better products to the targeted customers in a potential market of chocolate nationally and internationally. It is observed that the company of Mars Inc. is keen to adopt ethical and fair internal strategies by successfully utilizing the competencies of workers. The agenda of following this significant practical perspective is to create more value in the form of an overall corporate scenario. The practical perspective of a supply chain is successfully handled by the company by offering different programs of integration for all the internal stakeholders ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"harCHhi7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Yeager, 2000)","plainCitation":"(Yeager, 2000)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":316,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/3XDUJ955"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/qLzeF6Hj/items/3XDUJ955"],"itemData":{"id":316,"type":"article-journal","container-title":"The Journal of American History","issue":"4","page":"1812","title":"The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey and Mars","volume":"86","author":[{"family":"Yeager","given":"Mary A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2000"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Yeager, 2000). Different practical programs are adopted by the company to create the domain of value chain in case of its systematic business operations in different countries around the globe. It is vital to mention that the growing spectrum of technology and innovation is successfully established by the company to create more value for its business. 


           To conclude the discussion on the significant business level strategies of Hershey Company and Mars Company, it is critical to indicate that the organization of Hershey is more focused to use a diverse form of business strategy to attract customers and gain market competition. On the other hand, the focal point of consideration for Mars Inc. is to utilize the idea of innovation to enhance internal competencies and utilize it according to the changing needs of the market. 


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Drnevich, P. L., & Croson, D. C. (2013). Information technology and business-level strategy: Toward an integrated theoretical perspective. Mis Quarterly, 483–509.

Lamme, M. O., & Parcell, L. M. (2013). Promoting Hershey: The chocolate bar, the chocolate town, the chocolate king. Journalism History, 38(4), 198–208.

Yeager, M. A. (2000). The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey and Mars. The Journal of American History, 86(4), 1812.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Analyze Essay

Analyze Essay

[Name of the Writer]

[Panther ID]

Analyze Essay

In the article, “Brexit: Ministers expect no-deal challenge next month," the author discussed no-deal Brexit. U.K administration is trying to block a no-deal Brexit with the help of their MPs. They want to pass legislation so that no-deal Brexit can be revised. Pensions Secretary Amber Rudd explained that the government believes that no-deal Brexit is far worse, therefore, parliament should be united and working for it. “As members of parliament, all cabinet members should know from where they come from and then make the decision on this issue”, she said. Prime minister is thinking of ditching the Irish border backstop plan that is already rejected thrice. Still, EU is insisting to take a step on this matter again. The new deal is possible until 17 October. In April, the law was passed by MPs regarding the extension of the UK's EU membership beyond the no-deal Brexit original deadline. However, only speaker John Bercow can allow MPs to amend motions. There are various legal challenges present that can suspend parliament to make the UK leave the EU without a deal.

The article highlights the role of political power and legal concerns related to no-deal Brexit. The disadvantage of the no-deal challenge is political instability. Not all parliament members are in favor of going against no-deal Brexit and therefore, if parliament itself is not showing unity, then their strategy can be failed and MPs will be unable to pass legislation. This conflict between the members of the cabinet can also lead to legal action which will impact not only the situation of political bodies but also the image of the nation in front of the whole world. However, there is an advantage of no-deal Brexit because the EU court has given authority to the UK that they can cancel Brexit so the UK can decide no-deal Brexit by analyzing the benefits. The UK has the advantage of making policy for increasing the trade and its benefit and they feel that anti-Brexit decision is better for the economy, then they can quit the decision. In other words, the UK has acquired the power to keep the political and economic condition of the stable. These advantages and disadvantages are linked to trade and trade policy. The UK wants to increase profit by applying more tariffs and other taxes to increase the output. No-deal Brexit will be helpful to ditch the Irish border backstop plan. In addition, without applying strict policies, the UK can also introduce such policies that will be healthy for the trade between the UK and EU with the new authority of the UK. If the EU does not agree, then it can increase the problems for the UK to its trade deal with other nations and will also leave the UK to make a new customs relationship.

The trade relationship has a great link with the Brexit between U.K and U.S. This is because without the EU agreement, the U.K cannot pursue their trade relationship or trade policies with other nations. It means that the relationship between the US and the UK is highly dependent on the no-deal Brexit. However, if U.K and E.U come to an agreement, then U.K can introduce their own trade policies and strategies not only for the U.S but also for other nations. Therefore, there should be an analysis of the stuff crossing the border after Brexit that no hard border is made to avoid any negative circumstances at the border.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Brexit: Ministers expect no-deal challenge next month—BBC News. (n.d.) Retrieved on: October 12, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-49329630

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Anna HÃ¥kansson Case Study

Anna Håkansson Case Study

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Anna Håkansson Case Study


The case study represents an issue of identifying cultural and religious aspects of the middle east country called Bahrain. Since Anna Hakansson is sent to Bahrain to negotiate certain terms of a contract with the senior managers of Bahrain Investment Bank, she is also told to learn about the Arab experience and culture. As a Swedes, she is unfamiliar about their culture or religious aspects along with the way of their lives. She only has limited information which is gathered from certain colleagues and people with first-hand experiences. She also read some interesting articles about the Arab culture from Google and learned about the essential traits and characteristics of Islam, and it's followers. The discussion of this case study would illustrate whether the information gathered along with the Hofstede’s cultural dimension chart is enough for Anna to be entirely prepared for this visit to Bahrain.



Anna Hakansson prepared adequately for her business trip, but she could have done a better job by learning about the language in Bahrain and not only their culture, experience and some religious aspects. As she is to negotiate with the managers of the Bahrain Investment Bank, she needs to learn some Arabic to be able to convince the managers of their deal. Moreover, learning about their ethics would also be useful and can go a long way. Arabic culture is embroidered with a considerable amount of detail which focuses on all the very historical aspects of their religion. As mentioned in the case study, Anna learned that Arabs are more family-centered and have great respect for their elderly. The men are the decision makers outside while the women are dominant and decision makers inside the home. The role which each person play to run a society is vital to understand.


There is a lot of cultural difference in Sweden and Bahrain. After reviewing the Hofstede’s cultural model, a lot of variation can be identified for all parts of the graph such as masculinity, and decision making (Obeidat et al. 2012). Men are more dominant outside home in Bahrain while both men and female are dominant outside their homes in Sweden. The aspect of equality and freedom is more prominent in Swedes culture. There are more restrictions in the Arabic culture while the Swedish culture is freer. If the core cultural dimension is used rather then the Hofstede’s framework, Annas consideration for differentiating both cultures might not differ since it is no different in both models. Both models illustrate the same amount of ethical experiences of Arabic and Swedish culture. Even though there might be some difference between the lack of respect given to the seniority in Sweden but the ones provided in Bahrain are to a considerable extent.


What Hakansson can do to minimize the creation of stereotypes is by understanding and learning as much about their culture and ethical values (Cuddy et al. 2015). Even if something offensive and inappropriate might strike them, at least Anna would be able to understand and be prompt to minimize the damage. Being able to understand the differences between the two cultures would give her a considerable amount of push in having this negotiation successful. Some of the most difficult and challenging complexities and contradictions which Anna might not be able to understand or grasp about the Arabic culture might be there religious values and there language. Which is why an interpreter along with a book which explains the fundamentals of their religion and cultural values would be an essential part to bring along on this business trip. Hofstede’s model can only help to a limited extent to which she can understand the difference between the role of men and women in their society.

However, to understand the intellectual fundamentals behind their culture, she would have to have a first-hand experience herself rather than to learn about it from articles and colleagues. Apart from what Anna has already done to get prepared for her trip to Bahrain, she would have to develop an understanding of the business culture in Bahrain that can be helpful to a considerable amount. She would have to learn about the rules and regulations which they have in discussing business negotiations. Also, it would be critical for her to understand the ethical constraints holding against and for making such a negotiation. As Arabic culture and religion have certain restrictions over banking aspects, it would be wise for Anna to learn about those constraints before making a deal as it could offend them and make a wrong impression (Tlaiss, 2015). Following these steps can help Anna prepare for her trip to the middle east.


The aforementioned evaluation of the case study states some knowledgable facts about both the Swedish and Arabic culture. It gives an understanding of Hofstede’s cultural model by differentiating between Swedish and Arabic culture. By following the above, Anna would be able to learn a lot about the Arabic culture along with successfully negotiating the business deal with the managers of Bahrain Investment Bank. Despite all the differences between the two cultures, she would be able to understand the importance which makes it so significant. Having to go through a first-hand experience herself, she would be able to become self-aware of the situation promptly and the recommendations she might give. She will be prepared for the next time she visits a country in the middle east for a business trip.


Cuddy, A. J., Wolf, E. B., Glick, P., Crotty, S., Chong, J., & Norton, M. I. (2015). Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(4), 622.

Obeidat, B. Y., Shannak, R. O., Masa’deh, R. E. M. D. T., & Al-Jarrah, I. (2012). Toward better understanding for Arabian culture: Implications based on Hofstede’s cultural model. European Journal of Social Sciences, 28(4), 512-522.

Tlaiss, H. A. (2015). How Islamic business ethics impact women entrepreneurs: Insights from four Arab Middle Eastern countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(4), 859-877.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Annotated Bibliography

Are female leaders effective in organizations?

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)


Women are underrepresented in organizations in formal roles at leading positions. But at the same time more women are ascending to the top positions in many organizations. Both men and women are important and contribute to the progress of organizations and their development.

Many consider that women turn out to be effective leaders in organizations and promote diversity. While others claim to notice anomalies under women leadership. This paper aims to analyze the role of women in top leadership positions in terms of effectiveness and leadership.

Annotation 1:

Glass, C., & Cook, A. (2018). Do women leaders promote positive change? Analyzing the effect of gender on business practices and diversity initiatives. Human Resource Management, 57(4), 823-837. doi:10.1002/hrm.21838

Aim: In America number of women that reach the leadership positions is low. As more women are ascending to the highest positions, researchers have started to analyze the consequence of gender diversity at the leadership level or organizations. Many think that gender diversity have no special consequence in terms of leadership and benefit for the company, while other consider diversity the base for creativity and innovation. It has been observed that women emphasis more on innovation than on the financial matters, this raises questions about the impacts of women on firms and its policies. Strategies of firms are guided by chief executive and director board. It is still unknown that how demographic characteristics of CEO and boards of directors effect the corporations.

This study aims to address these gaps and identify how gender of board and CEO creates impact on various departments of company .i.e. Governance, equity and product development. Goal of research is to study to analyze impact of these three factors on gender diversity and organsation.

Method: Two merged data sets were used for this analysis. One was unique author constructed data set that contained CEOs information and of board of directors from period of ten years from CNN’s money website. Second dataset KLD was made available using WRDS that provided the information regarding annual data of companies that pertain to governance, environment and diversities. Data used was objective that also gets used by the investors.

Results: Women CEOs have scored higher than the men CEOs against each variable outcome, corporate, governance and community strength. It was found that as women on board increase, corporate strengths regarding governance and product, decrease for women. Female CEOs also supported diversity than homophily.

Conclusion: Diversity has positive impact on range on business practices like diversity, community, corporate governance and product strengths. Women CEOs benefit more from influential allies than men CEOs. Thus increasing women proportion of women on board can improve the functioning of the firm.

Strength: This paper states clear in depth analysis of women CEOs and their impact on the firms in relation to environment and positive outcome.

Limitation: This study is limited in terms of large organizations of corporate. Analysis needs to be done on leadership combinations in similar context.

Usage: I will use findings of this paper to prove that how women can impact the organization and its environment in different areas of organization, and how female CEO’s can be great leaders and increase innovation of the company.

Annotation 2

Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00326.x

Aim: Aim is to analyze the impact women leaders have on organization, especially in Information technology sector. And if traditional female values cause hindrance in creating global competitive organizations.

Method: Research was based on studying research of other researchers and building the relationship between the point of views concerning basic psychological and behavioral differences between men and women in work environment.

Results: Men and women are different in nature, men value, efficacy, power and achievement. Women on the other hand value communication, common purpose, and understanding. Male and female values are blending.

Conclusion: In old male dominant work environment women values were not considered important. But technological advancement has changed the value system and future values will further help women to play their part in organizations.

Strength: Paper provided good historical background of change in values in terms of gender.

Limitation: Title of paper offers study on women leadership and their roles in organizations but in reality it explored historical background about change in values, women leadership was not discussed properly in this paper. Also no personal methodology was used to verify the facts about change in values.

Usage: I will use this paper to explain the transition of values in organizations in terms of gender difference, by giving historical background.

Annotation 3:

Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of women quarterly, 31(1), 1-12.

Aim: Females in US are considered to have right skills for leadership and effectiveness but they still come second to men in competition to attain leadership positions. This paper aims to study these themes of advantage and disadvantage that in contradiction to each other. It compares both genders that reflects prejudice against female leaders.

Method: This article is based on meta-analysis of 45 organizational studies. Majority of organizational managers included in study were from business and educational sector. Average age of managers were 44 years. 53% of the studies analyzed managers from US and 47% from other nations.

Result: Female leaders are more transformational than male leaders in terms of support and encouragement. In comparison to men they were more contingent in their reward behaviors. They also show active and passive management.

Conclusion: Women are more likely to be future leaders in huge proportion. Prejudice against women leaders has become lessened however still majority of American still prefer male president over female president. Gender based relations and perceptions about them are changing but still haven’t reached the state of equality.

Strength: This meta-analysis was conducted with through research and each point is validated with various researches.

Limitation: It is not specified that global samples of data are primarily from which region of the world. This leaves room for further research based on specific region to examine the patterns of prejudice against women leaders. .

Usage: I will use it to establish relation between acceptability of people and women leadership.

Annotation 4:

Haslam, S. A., & Ryan, M. K. (2008). The road to the glass cliff: Differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 530-546.

Aim: Men are appointed to the during stable positions on the organizations in terms of finance and standing on the other and women are appointed in organizations in time of financial downtown even if they were showing consistent poor performance in the time preceding appointment. This glass cliff phenomena is investigated in this paper through three experimental studies

Method: In first experimental study management 95 graduates of high school participated, 85 in 2nd business leader and 83 in leaders of hypothetical organizations whose performance was improving or declining. In experiment participants received vacancy from organization that were declining or improving. Participants were evaluated on base of gender and appointment on company.

Results: Results showed that appointment of female candidates who were equally qualified to men participants, exceeded when company was suffering from loss.

Conclusion: In short glass appointments are based on various beliefs like (a) Women have distinctive leadership abilities. (b) Job is stressful for women (c) to provide women with leadership opportunity.

Strength: This is first study that has studies the phenomena of class cliff. Previously regarding women leadership only glass ceilings were studied.

Limitation: More studies are required to study the glass cliff phenomena in terms of age, experience level of women. Also study is needed that reveals glass cliff in terms of regions and cultural practices.

Usage: I will use this research to make point that women are often appointed not always on base of qualification but on personal beliefs that try to define women’s capabilities. Women are given chance more in declining troubled organizations that proves that still women face prejudice and they are considered less capable.

Annotation 5:

Stanford, J. H., Oates, B. R., & Flores, D. (1995). Women′ s leadership styles: a heuristic analysis. Women in Management Review, 10(2), 9-16.

Aim: Women have different leadership style than that of men. Women are creating huge impact on business and world’s economics. This paper aims to scientifically inquire the leadership style women.

Method: It is heuristic exploratory study in which small sample of women business owners and managers was examined for their leadership styles. In this study social interaction is scrutinized and recorded in descriptive detail. Open-ended questionnaire was also used to initiate discussion of various characteristics of leadership and participants aware asked to describe their opinions. After data collected it was converted in written form for analysis.

Result: It appeared that women value the advice of their employees and build relationship based on mutual trust. The depicted attitudes of collaboration and encouraged their employees. They were effective communicator and believed in talking things out.


Women leaders operate from reward or referent power base. They believe in encouragement of employees to achieve the organizational goals.

Strength: This research will prove to be preliminary investigation in studying women style of leaderships for the future researches. Sample size was 500, which strengthens this research.


This sample was randomly selected for research. And demographic criterias were not considered for this research.

Discussion: More studies are required study understand women various dimensions of women leadership and issues that they face for breaking the glass ceilings and glass cliffs. Further research should be don while focusing on the demographics factors.


Women possess amazing insight and leadership capabilities to run organizations. Organizations can benefits from leadership skills of women. However in the past they were not given fair chance to illustrate their leadership capabilities but things are changing and women have started to climb the ladder. They are breaking glass ceilings but still face glass cliffs. Overall public have started to accept them in leadership roles. They offer different type of leadership styles than men, which is their asset in effective leadership.


Glass, C., & Cook, A. (2018). Do women leaders promote positive change? Analyzing the effect of gender on business practices and diversity initiatives. Human Resource Management, 57(4), 823-837. doi:10.1002/hrm.21838

Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of women quarterly, 31(1), 1-12.

Haslam, S. A., & Ryan, M. K. (2008). The road to the glass cliff: Differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 530-546.

Stanford, J. H., Oates, B. R., & Flores, D. (1995). Women′ s leadership styles: a heuristic analysis. Women in Management Review, 10(2), 9-16.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Annotated Bibliography

Spearman, L., Norwood, D., & Waller, S. (n.d.). DOES THE CREAM RISE TO THE TOP? Journal of Contemporary Athletics, Volume 10, Number 2 .

In this article, the scholars discussed the opportunities available in America. America is the country with opportunities and success as long as someone works hardest. The sports is the field that also required so much effort for individuals to being recognized in the field. American propagate baseball. Scholars have suggested that college baseball is not as open as popular than it should be. The main reason behind the fact is the budget related to the sport. Traveling team may become exclusive and expensive. The research is made through the secondary data and qualitative interview protocol. The results show that as traveling team baseball or even local baseball is becoming exclusive and expensive which causes the unequal distribution of resources. The analysis shows that Participants believe that anyone can get into baseball, but privileges are unavailable which is the main problem. They can only dream about participation or becoming part of the college team. Being a part of the traveling baseball team is one of the plus factors for the recruitment of the baseball team at the college level. There are many implications for practice. Scholars suggest that the process and distribution of resources should be focused to increase the participation of the students. Otherwise, baseball is a famous sport in America, but these factors will make it difficult for students to join the sport. It indicates the one major factor for my topic that is the unequal distribution of resources for all the students which lead to difficulties for the recruitment of students at the college level. Traveling team baseball need time and money. Therefore, there is inequality then it will be difficult for the students from lower or middle class to engage in the sports. If the equal distribution is made, the middle and lower class participation can be increased.

BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 DeMarco, R. (2017). A Schism in Youth Baseball and its Lingering Effects. UST Research Online , 87.

In this article, the scholar Demarco discussed the history of baseball. Scholar explained the changes in baseball happened in the last five decades. America is the country of competition where free trade agreement is an example. Youth baseball is the element that remains part of the competition in America. Since 1950s baseball appeared as a little league organization and major league baseball at the national as well as international level. In the last thirty years, Concept of the traveling baseball team is introduced. Traveling team is not introduced into baseball only, and many other sports have this new pattern. This change also brings the different point of view of the parents toward the present baseball recruitment pattern. In the research data is collected through the interview of the parents as parents are one of the factors that decided the behavior of students towards the sports. Research results show that the students involved in the baseball majorly depend on the point of view of their parents acquired toward the traveling team. Some parents think it was good old days and see traveling baseball team too expensive and less efficient with so much wastage of time while some parents showed excitement towards traveling baseball team and they are looking forward to their children to participate in the sport. The study is important for me as previous research indicates the factor of unequal distribution of resources. This article provides the other factor that is the involvement of the parent that bring changes for student participation. Parent makes it difficult for the children for athletic recruiting. It can be because of their financial status as well. Parents who have limited sources and cannot afford traveling team, they may stop or limit the involvement of their children in sports. The other factor is also valid as parents do not understand the concept traveling team and prefer the old game pattern. They do not allow their children to participate in a sport outside the college boundary of the city.

Ogden, D. C., & Warneke, K. (2010). Theoretical Considerations in College Baseball's Relationship with Youth Select Baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior , Vol. 33 Issue 3, p256-275. 20p.

In this article, a study is made which is directly related to the traveling team baseball. Parents, as well as young students from both high schools and colleges, find baseball as the opportunity for high-level competition. They are ready to spend their money and time to avail the opportunity of competition. The study is conducted to analyze the assumptions by the players and their parents of those who selected the baseball as a beginning of opportunity at the college level. The result shows that most of the students at college level select baseball as they take it as a successful source for high-level competition. Survey conducted through eighteen different colleges where about five hundred students participated. Results indicate that the baseball players learn about their position that us catcher, pitchers, and shortstops at an early age. While about forty percent in the baseball are the students that were involved in any other sports and they switch to the baseball as they found it more competitive and progressive. The scholar recommended that sports organization should take the factor into account so that students may specialize in one of the sports and they stay in it. Switching from one sports to the other may cause the inefficiency as well as low opportunities for the students who deserve more. The study directly discuss the traveling team, and it highlighted the factor that can be a problem for recruitment at the college level, and the factor is switching into baseball from some other sport. The students who move from one sport to others may be because of many factors. It incudes college environment, for instance, almost every college is famous for one of the sport while other sports are not promoted within the school. Therefore, students who want to be in competition get involved in the sport that their college is famous for. Other than that is the popularity, when the student finds one sport more famous tha the other, he tries to fit himself in that sport.

Dutove, J. (2016). Sport Parent Sideline Behavior in Youth Baseball and Ice Hockey.

In the article, sports behavior of Canadian youth and parents are being discussed. Scholar claim that more than seventy-five percent of Canadian children prefer to participate in youth sports. With this much high percent indicates the positive behavior of the parents for the sports especially traveling team baseball and ice hockey, but unfortunately, many parents with poor sideline are also present. They can distract from the positive attitude for the participation of their children or their desire for youth sports. The study is conducted with the help of sports management and psychologist to examine the factors that determine the behavior of parents for baseball and ice hockey. In the process, 415 hockey parents and 625 baseball parents were examined. The result shows that the factor behind the parent's behavior highly depends on their own personal experience for the support and the present situation like occurrence new sports types ‘traveling sports, stakes" become the reason of their negative point of views for one of two sports. The research is useful to eliminate the factor of parent involvement in sports by educating them. It can help for college students of Canada to participate more in the sports. This study is important for my topic as it shows the result which can help or even discourage the students for baseball recruiting. From this and one of the previous article, it is indicated that parents are one of the most important factors for the athlete's recruitment. Which means participations with the traveling team can be beneficial for the recruiting of student only when the parent's involvement is positive. Also, we can conclude that students can become the part of traveling baseball team only with the involvement of parents and when they get participated in traveling baseball team and then recruiting at the college level can be easy.

Ramos,Renee.Latino/a College Student-Athletes: Influences on Recruitment, Enrollment and Degree Completion .2018

The article is related to Latino collegiate students. America is a diverse country where the Latino population is increasing in the past few years. The increase in the Latino population does not impact the participation of Latino students within the sports. The study used ecological system theory and also the correlation between students behavior with culture, different system, family development, and educational policy. Different factors like perceived challenges, comparison with other institution, and other support issues are examined in the research. Perceived challenges include family background, financial status and access to the opportunities. The comparison is a crucial factor as it develops the competitive spirit in the students. Support issue plays a vital role because when there are a clear path and instructions from the institute and coaches for the student's guidance, it helps them in athletic recruiting. Interviews from six former Latino students were also conducted to get an efficient result. The interviews result shows that the different theme impacts the students. It includes Influencers and exposers to the college, identities through ethics and race representation, educational perception, opportunities and support from the organization as well as family, lastly relationship with teammates and coaches. These are the elements that restricted or can enhance the participation of the Latino student to the sport at the college level. Their present participation is less which means these factors are not taking into account and their negative impact is creating hurdles for the students. Scholars suggested that the administrations and coaches should play their role by connecting the Latino students to institutional sports. Parents involvement and visibility of these students can give a positive result. Lastly, club coaches and inter-college competition like traveling team can develop the interest of the students. The research is relevant to my topic as it indicates that it is not enough for the part or traveling team, many other factors help in recruitment. Firstly family background can help in participation in the traveling team, but if there is no proper guidance and connection with college organization, it may make it difficult in baseball recruiting

Strandbu, Å., Stefansen, K., Smette, I., & Sandvik, M. R. (2019). Young people’s experiences of parental involvement in youth sport. Sport, Education and Society, 24(1), 66–77.

The article focuses on the student's viewpoint about their parent involvement in sports. Parent involvement is one of the crucial factors that define the effectiveness and involvement of their children in traveling baseball. Therefore scholars made the research to examine the student's point of view over the behavior of their parents for sports. For the research, scholars collected the data from sixteen focus group interviews. The result shows that the students understand the various aspects of the sports activity which distinguish between the undesirable and acceptable form of involvement of parents. When parents take sports activity as an activity which is good for health and can enhance physical strength, then the parents are so much involvement with their children in sports. When it comes as a professional, parents make choices, and they draw limitation and boundaries for their children. Therefore young students should not consider their parent's involvement just as a subject but also as active con-constructors of their role. The research is useful to identify the traveling team baseball impact on college students because research shows that parents basically take sports as an activity which is good for their children's fitness rather than let them choose it as a profession. Therefore in case of traveling baseball team, it can create hurdle as parents can create boundaries for their children for the recruitment from college club or organization. It is as simple to understand that if parents are just not interested in supporting their children for participation in sports at the professional level, the traveling team will be just a dream. Also traveling team baseball is one of the effective ways for the student to learn more and enhance skills which means students may lead to lack of polished skills and experiences.

Hextrum, K. (2018). The Hidden Curriculum of College Athletic Recruitment. Harvard Educational Review, 88(3), 355–377.

In this article, Kirsten explains about the institutional avenues that creates a limitation in upward mobility pf opportunities. Scholar considers the issue by identifying the hidden curriculum of traveling baseball recruitment which can favor the students, especially for the privilege background students. The information is collected from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1. Interviews were conducted from different universities. The hidden curriculum is classified into three phases by the Kirsten. These phases include socialization, covert, and overt selection. The issue of discrimination on the basis of status is highlighted in the research. Interviews indicated that the elite class has more opportunities and access toward recruitment than the middle class of white people. To avoid the situation, social reproduction is required. Here one interesting result is developed that although elites have more access toward the recruiting themselves white, middle class emerge more. Findings show that the available public curriculum to increase the students involved in the sports comes from the NCAA; it is the sports governing body. They regulate various features of athletic recruitment while the hidden curriculum is the access of universities for student's recruitment. Three phases of the hidden curriculum are discussed, in which socialization means the attitude, behavior, and norms of the students for the sport. Social behavior derives the other two phases in which students from different backgrounds get access and a comfortable environment for participation. Therefore socialization helps in social reproduction. Scholar recommended that the colleges and universities should develop a transparent and uniform method for athletic recruiting and there should no biases during the selection. The study is useful for my topic as a result can be used to compare the traveling baseball team and the college recruitment process. It is not enough to be the part of traveling baseball team as when you want to be athletic recruiting then it is the college that plays a crucial role. It means that the three phases discussed by the scholar must be understood and take into account so that it can help to get recruited at a college level. Here one thing should be noticed that the scholar talk about the socialization and traveling team can show its significant role as a traveling team gets more opportunities to interact with different people. It enhances communication and decision-making skills. Therefore traveling team somehow become part of social reproduction which in result put a positive impact on student's recruitment at the college level.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Dutove, J. (2016). Sport Parent Sideline Behavior in Youth Baseball and Ice Hockey. Retrieved from http://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/11299/181722

Hextrum, K. (2018). The Hidden Curriculum of College Athletic Recruitment. Harvard Educational Review, 88(3), 355–377. https://doi.org/10.17763/1943-5045-88.3.355

Latino/a College Student-Athletes: Influences on Recruitment, Enrollment and Degree Completion - ProQuest. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2019, from https://search.proquest.com/openview/922daeb642488d022e1515ac1dd7485b/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

Strandbu, Å., Stefansen, K., Smette, I., & Sandvik, M. R. (2019). Young people’s experiences of parental involvement in youth sport. Sport, Education and Society, 24(1), 66–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2017.1323200

BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 DeMarco, R. (2017). A Schism in Youth Baseball and its Lingering Effects. UST Research Online , 87. https://ir.stthomas.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com.pk/&httpsredir=1&article=1087&context=caps_ed_lead_docdiss

Ogden, D. C., & Warneke, K. (2010). Theoretical Considerations in College Baseball's Relationship with Youth Select Baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior , Vol. 33 Issue 3, p256-275. 20p. https://web.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=01627341&AN=53449216&h=Xwg7USUigZ%2fsoXNq%2fhoXBcRORT%2bCCdjJ1TEiHhF%2bqhlHhJ70lViJjV76ydxzzsdguTWsUaeORUDzQoDfimDigA%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d01627341%26AN%3d53449216

Spearman, L., Norwood, D., & Waller, S. (n.d.). DOES THE CREAM RISE TO THE TOP? Journal of Contemporary Athletics , Volume 10, Number 2 . http://lequezspearman.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Meritocracy-in-NCAA-Division-I-Baseball.pdf

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 8 Words: 2400


Annotated Bibliography

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Ang, S. J. (2017). Small Business Uniqueness and the Theory of Financial Management. Journal of Small Business Finance, 1-13.

Financial management problems faced by small businesses are different from those faced by large businesses. There is no specific definition of a business to be deemed as small. The term may be misconceived because certain firms that fall in the lower quartiles of certain databases are considered to be small. A small business will not have any securities traded on organized exchanges. These securities include both debt and equity-based securities. The owners must have undiversified personal portfolios which means that business investment will constitute a big portion of their total investment. Assets held by small businesses are more specific in terms of geographical area, products and customers as compared to large businesses. Owners have unlimited liability which will mean that whole loss will be compensated by selling the personal assets of owners. The start-up for small business is riskier as compared to large businesses. Starters are willing to take higher risks to generate higher returns from their businesses which is a completely different approach as compared to the managers of large businesses.

Holtz-Eakin, D. (2017). SHOULD SMALL BUSINESSES BE TAX-FAVORED? National Tax Journal, 387-395.

Many people support the special treatment of small businesses in terms of preferential tax treatment for these businesses. Standard methods of supporting large businesses will not work for small businesses. Current tax- bases subsidies are not supported by the equity and financing subsidies. There is a need for a proper model for the formation of small businesses and to calculate their contribution in the economy as a whole. This model will help us to know the benefits of formation of small businesses for the economy as a whole. The parameters have to be defined which will play crucial role in developing small businesses and resolving the issues regarding policy making.

Tan, L. M., & Braithwaite, V. (2018). Motivations for Tax Compliance: The Case of Small Business Taxpayers in New Zealand. Australian Tax Forum.

There are different factors affecting the small business owners based on taxation including psychological and social dispositions. Study shows the small business taxpayers can take more than one stance towards taxpaying. Cooperation and defiance can be observed at different times from small business owners regarding taxation matters. The stance taken by them depends on circumstances under which discuss is carried out. Tax collection authorities should be trustworthy and fair to close the perceptual distance between businessmen and authorities. Defiance shows that businessmen do not like the way an authority carries out its duties and it can be reduced by treating businesses fairly and improving tax knowledge. When businessmen start to question the existence of some authority, this grievance cannot be managed easily.

Olsen, J., Kasper, M., Enachescu, J., benk, S., Budak, T., & Kirchler, E. (2018). Emotions and tax compliance among small business owners: An experimental Survey. International Review of Law and Economics.

The power of tax authorities to make sure that people adhere to developed policies and people’s trust in tax collection agencies shape the behavior of taxpayers whether compliance or defiance. Financial decisions involve certain level of emotional response but little is known about relation between taxpayer emotions and their behavior towards tax payment. The study tested whether emotions affected the relationship between perception of tax authorities and behavior of tax payers. Results suggested that higher power induces negative emotions from taxpayers in the form of tax evasion. Trust generates positive emotions in the taxpayers.

he, W., Wang, F.-K., Chen, Y., & Zha, S. (2017). An exploratory investigation of social media adoption by small businesses. Information Technology Management, 149-160.

Social media has transformed into an online platform for business to advertise their product and services and to manage relationships with their customers. There has been an increase in the number of small businesses adopting social media but there is not much research available on the factors affecting decision of adopting social media by small businesses. In order to explore these factors, 27 small businesses were interviewed and a model was developed which included critical factors affecting success for small businesses on social media.

Odoom, R., Anning-Dorson, T., & Acheampong, G. (2017). Antecedents of Social Media Usage and Performance Benefits in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.

There is not enough research on the effects and implications of social media adoption by small businesses. This study used interactivity, compatibility and cost effectiveness as motivations to using social media which will improve business performance. 210 enterprises were used to find out that usage of social media have a positive effect on small businesses and interactivity is the key motivation for them to use social media for their businesses. Facebook usage was more beneficial as compared to usage of twitter in terms of business benefits.

Benitez, J., Castillo, A., Llorens, J., & Braojos, J. (2018). IT-enabled knowledge ambidexterity and innovation performance in small U.S. firms: The moderator role of social media capability. Information and Management, 131-143.

A sample of 100 small US firms was taken to analyze the impact of IT enabled knowledge ambidexterity on performance in terms of innovation. Findings suggest that strong IT infrastructure allows businesses to explore new knowledge to innovate more and in a better way. Capability of business to work properly on social media plays a moderating role in this equation. IT infrastructure and social media capabilities work together to allow knowledge ambidexterity.

Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmed, N., & Bakar, A. R. (2018). Reflections of Entrepreneurs of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises concerning the Adoption of Social Media and its Impact on Performance Outcomes: Evidence from the UAE . Telematics and Informatics.

Most studies undertaken on adoption of social media among individuals and businesses are undertaken in the developed economies. In this study, SMEs in the middle east region have been explored to see the impact of social media adoption in small businesses. There is a positive impact on performance of small business after the adoption of social media.

Ali, H., Omar, E. N., Nasir, H. A., & Osman, M. R. (2017). Financial Literacy of Entrepreneurs in the Small and Medium Enterprises. Advances in Business Research International conference (pp. 31-38). Springer.

Any small and medium enterprise has to be managed by an owner having appropriate financial literacy to manage financial matters. This includes purchasing, allocating and providing appropriate resources to the departments and having knowledge of how the business is performing in terms of accounting, costing and budgeting. Financially literate entrepreneurs are able to survive in the market for a longer period of time as compared to illiterate entrepreneurs. This study has concluded that entrepreneurs must have the accounting knowledge and budget control knowledge is the most essential in this regard.

Afrifa, G., & I.Tingbani. (2017). Working Capital Management, Cash Flow and SMEs’ Performance . International Journal of Banking,Accounting and Finance.

This study shows that there is a positive relationship between working capital management and SME’s performance by considering the effect of cash flow. Panel data regression analysis has been used to analyze 802 British small and medium enterprises from 2004 to 2013. Results show that cash flows are very important while assessing the performance of the SME’s. Working capital management has a negative effect on SME performance but cash flows have a significantly positive relationship.

Martinez-Sola, C., Garcia-Teruel, P. J., & Martinez-Solano, P. (2018). Cash holdings in SMEs: speed of adjustment, growth and financing. Small Business Economics, 823-842.

This study discusses the effect of growth opportunities, financial barriers and financial problems on small and medium enterprises. A sample of Spanish small firms have been used for analysis from 1998 to 2012. Results show that there is a target level of cash holdings to which firms try to converge. Firms having higher growth opportunities adjust rapidly to their target cash holdings and are able to take advantage of profitable investment opportunities. A faster cash adjustment has been observed for all firms in time of financial distress.

N.Wadesango, N.Tinarwo, L.Sitcha, & Machingambi, S. (2019). THE IMPACT OF CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT ON THE PROFITABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES. International Journal of Entrepreneurship.

Small and medium enterprises are important to any country because they provide certain level of jobs. These SME’s should implement sound policies regarding their cash management to have success. Most cash management techniques are found to be affecting profitability and sustainability of these businesses and if they do not apply effective cash management techniques, they will fail.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Afrifa, G., & I.Tingbani. (2017). Working Capital Management, Cash Flow and SMEs’ Performance . International Journal of Banking,Accounting and Finance.

Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmed, N., & Bakar, A. R. (2018). Reflections of Entrepreneurs of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises concerning the Adoption of Social Media and its Impact on Performance Outcomes: Evidence from the UAE . Telematics and Informatics.

Ali, H., Omar, E. N., Nasir, H. A., & Osman, M. R. (2017). Financial Literacy of Entrepreneurs in the Small and Medium Enterprises. Advances in Business Research International conference (pp. 31-38). Springer.

Ang, S. J. (2017). Small Business Uniqueness and the Theory of Financial Management. Journal of Small Business Finance, 1-13.

Benitez, J., Castillo, A., Llorens, J., & Braojos, J. (2018). IT-enabled knowledge ambidexterity and innovation performance in small U.S. firms: The moderator role of social media capability. Information and Management, 131-143.

he, W., Wang, F.-K., Chen, Y., & Zha, S. (2017). An exploratory investigation of social media adoption by small businesses. Information Technology Management, 149-160.

Holtz-Eakin, D. (2017). SHOULD SMALL BUSINESSES BE TAX-FAVORED? National Tax Journal, 387-395.

Martinez-Sola, C., Garcia-Teruel, P. J., & Martinez-Solano, P. (2018). Cash holdings in SMEs: speed of adjustment, growth and financing. Small Business Economics, 823-842.

N.Wadesango, N.Tinarwo, L.Sitcha, & Machingambi, S. (2019). THE IMPACT OF CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT ON THE PROFITABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES. International Journal of Entrepreneurship.

Odoom, R., Anning-Dorson, T., & Acheampong, G. (2017). Antecedents of Social Media Usage and Performance Benefits in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.

Olsen, J., Kasper, M., Enachescu, J., benk, S., Budak, T., & Kirchler, E. (2018). Emotions and tax compliance among small business owners: An experimental Survey. International Review of Law and Economics.

Tan, L. M., & Braithwaite, V. (2018). Motivations for Tax Compliance: The Case of Small Business Taxpayers in New Zealand. Australian Tax Forum.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

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Verbeke W, Volgering M, Hessels M. Exploring the conceptual expansion within the field of organizational behavior: Organizational climate and organizational culture. Journal of Management Studies; 35:302–329.

In this article, the authors come up with how to explore organizational behavior in the best way. The authors aimed to find out how organizational culture and climate can help in creating a desirable organizational behavior. The relationship between organizational culture and the performance of employees. In the research, the authors have used different examples to determine how different organizational cultures were used to make the organization to perform better. The research is good for this project because it has a direct relationship with what we are going to tackle. It provides a basis on which one can understand organizational dynamics and how managers make sure that they can maintain a good relationship with the employees. By exploring the conceptual expansion within organizational behavior, the authors have laid a foundation on which one can understand how different organizations work.

Biswas, S. (2009). HR practices as a mediator between organizational culture and transformational leadership: Implications for employee performance. Psychological Studies, 54(2), 114–123. 

The author of this article intended to find out the relationship between transformational leadership and culture of an organization. The culture of an organization greatly determines the type of leadership that will be used. Leaders behave in a given manner based on the leadership style that they have been using. Employees will also behave in a certain manner by looking at what their leaders want them to achieve for the organization. This in turn helps in coming up with an organizational culture that can define the manner in which people relate within the organization. The article directly relates to this topic as it focuses on the relationship between culture and effectives of employees. Both our project and the article have the same purpose and it provides the basis on which we can carry out our research.

Denison, D.R., Mishra, A.K. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization Science, 6(2), 204–223. 

The author of the article focuses on how organizational culture can be used to achieve a better level of effectiveness. The author finds out that there is a big relationship between the culture in an organization and the effectiveness of the employees and other stakeholders. Depending on the things that the organization is doing, a culture can help them perform better. The author argues that managers choose specific organizational culture over others because of the effectiveness that they expect in return. This is a process that is done by looking at what the employees find appealing to them. The research is a also a reflection of our project and provides answers to some of the questions that we will ask as we get to understand organizational culture in a better way.

Hermalin, B.E. (2001). Economics and corporate culture. In Cartwright, S., Cooper, C. L., Earley, P. C. (Eds), Handbook of organizational culture and climate: 2: 217–261. 

The author of the article is an accomplished researched who has interest in organizational culture. He has done various research projects with the intention of finding out how the culture of an organization can help improve the effectiveness of employees and the organization in general. In the study, the author finds out that corporate culture is a change aspect of organizations that help in determining the success of the organization. The study is instrumental as it shows the manner in which our project will be carried out. We will know the things that we need to focus on during the research as it outlines the different aspects of culture that any person needs to put into consideration if they are to succeed in the study. It is a study that will also provide a basis for findings that will be used in this project.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600


Gender Inequality at Workplace and its consequences on Women’s Wellbeing



Research Concept

Human beings are generally termed as the product of their genetic predispositions that they attain from their ancestors and their environmental factors in form of interactions with parents, siblings, peer group, colleagues and other members of the society. When an individual is born, he has nothing but a blank slate (empty mind)—the tabula Rasa of John Locke; enriched with innate predispositions in form of reflexes aimed at ensuring his survival (Smith, 1898).

With the passage of time, individual meets new people, interacts with them, starts verbal and gestural communication, learns socially and morally appropriate standards and benchmarks of behavior and his tabula rasa undergoes eventual imprinting (Smith, 1898). Hence, social interactions play significant role in the development of human personality; positive and constructive interactions lead to a healthy personality development whereas negative and unfavorable interactions lead to develop undesirable personality.

In a nutshell, nature of social interactions attempts to develop our personality. Personality is referred to as the combination of human rationality and explicit behaviors. Wellbeing is the most general pleasant sense that is utilized by the Psychologists to define an individual’s state of self; his thinking patterns, feelings, emotions, perceptions, preferences, outlooks, orientations, attitudes, intellectual tendencies, coping, satisfaction, motivation, memory, learning, planning and behaviors.

A human is said to have a satisfactory well- being when his environmental constraints and challenges are neutralized by his internal strengths and external support systems. Wellbeing is typically divided into physical and psychological domains (Diener, 1994). Physical wellbeing is the sense of satisfaction and positive emotions associated with the fulfillment of physical needs such as hunger, thirst, intimacy, safety and security. On the other hand, psychological wellbeing is referred to as the sense of positivity and fulfillment about one’s state of mind. For instance, a person who makes careful decisions in hard times and becomes mindful about both positive and negative consequences of the action; is less likely to feel stressed when he is offered with a failure. This state defines his psychological wellbeing (Diener, 1994).

My second variable is the gender inequality which is defined as the lopsided treatment of society towards specific gender group. Gender is defined as the host of obligations, attributes, responsibilities and roles that are unintentionally and unrealistically associated with the individuals having different biological sex—without any scientific validation (Nakdimen, 1984). The gender beliefs have become so incorporated that they perpetuate into the cultures and generations aversively.

Gender provides a strong basis to discriminatory practices as well. For instance, women are thought to be emotionally weak as compared to the men due to which men are mocked when they develop mental or emotional disturbances and seek professional help (Nakdimen, 1984). Women, on the other hand, are considered as household entities and are favored less in employment and business platforms.


The above mentioned section provides brief definition of the problem phenomena such as gender inequality and wellbeing. In this section, a more profound explanation will be presented based on the psychological theories and models about psychological wellbeing and gender discrimination.

The most well- acknowledged and groundbreaking theory of wellbeing was presented by Carol Ryff in 1989, named Six Factor Model of Wellbeing. In this theory, Ryff presented six factors that determine the psychological wellbeing of individual; self acceptance, purpose in life, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relation with others and autonomy (Ryff, 1989). Relating this theory to the workplace, it can be inferred that organization must offer individuals with such practices that nurture their self acceptance, enhance their purpose in life, enable them to improve their environmental mastery through skill development and professional competence, ensure their growth as a person and offer a positive climate where they could build healthy interpersonal relationships with each other. When an organization fails to nurture the psychological wellbeing of his employees, the outcome becomes obvious—decreased productivity of employees.

Moving towards gender discrimination; the Terror Management Theory (TMT) provides the best possible explanation behind the indulgence of human beings in discriminatory practices. According to TMT, from the time of birth, human beings are innately predisposed with the fear of being dead. They develop substantial unintentional death anxiety that compels them to adopt necessarily unrealistic worldviews for protecting their sense of self- esteem, sustainability, certainty and worthiness—allowing them to believe that they play significant role in the meaningful world (Greenberg et. al., 1986). For that matter, they tend of identify themselves with the powerful social group or class; considering out groups as fragile and weak. This might be the potential reason behind discriminating others even without an apparent cause. Males nurture their sense of dominance and terror management through sexism and this belief runs into cultures and society as an aversive phenomenon.


After presenting the problem variables thoroughly, this section will attempt to link the gender discrimination and mental wellbeing. As mentioned earlier, our psychological wellbeing is the combination of self acceptance, purpose in life, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relation with others and autonomy. Here, the most significant factors in relation to workplace setting include positive relations, personal growth and sense of autonomy. At workplace, when an employee is dignified, respected, involved in important decision- making, recognized, given rewards and incentives, provided with the advancement opportunities and prevented from bullying or disrespect; the outcome results in the development of enhanced wellbeing of individuals which in turn increases his job satisfaction and organizational commitment and he plays significant part in the development of organization (Travis, 2014). Contrary to this, based on the gender discrimination phenomenon, employees, particularly women are treated unequally in the workplace terms of pay gaps, lacking autonomy and recognition that threatens their wellbeing to substantial degree. It decreases their productivity and professional competence that in turn interferes with their skill development and finding suitable employment.

Support and Viability

Now that it is clear that how gender discrimination at workplace affects the wellbeing of women; six peer reviewed pieces of research would be identified and explained in order to settle the arguments on the logical and rational grounds of scientific literature. Identified articles with their profound elaboration are defined below:

A survey study (Ahn et. al., 2016) attempted to study the impact of income inequality on the life satisfaction of employees. In this study the comparative analysis was made between the life satisfaction of men and women workers from 1997 to 2008 under the influence of pay gaps. Results indicated that during these years there had been dramatic gap between the incomes of male and female workers that attempted to decrease their life satisfaction to a considerable degree. It was found that income inequality directly affects the physical and mental wellbeing status of US workers. Income inequality might be in terms of fixed wage or incentives and individuals measure their wellbeing through comparing their lives with workplace employees rather than average population.

Basleven & Kirmanoglu (2018) attempted to measure the life satisfaction of working and non- working employees with respect to gender inequality. It was a survey study and data was collected using questionnaires from working and non- working women all over the Europe. Hence, this study eliminates the threat of sample biasness. Findings indicated that working women reported more wellbeing as compared to the non- working women in those countries where there is less gender discrimination in form of pay gaps whereas non- working women reported more wellbeing as compared to the working women where there is an increased gender discrimination in form of pay gaps.

Rivera & Tilcsik (2019) studied the prevalence of gender equality in North America through developing a scale point system. This scale indicated the level of discrimination from 6 to 10 points. It was then distributed to the bulk of male and female college students in North America. Findings indicated that female students reported more gender biasness in terms of intellectual abilities as compared to the male students. This study indicated that in the current era, gender discrimination is still prevalent in institutions which then lead to develop inequalities in the workplace.

Travis, M. (2014) designed a study to explore the pay disparities among males and females and named her study as disabling the gap between men and women. Along with the peer reviewed journal articles, she included numerous news articles, blogs and legislation codes to support her arguments. She argued that government and institutions have moved forward to mitigate the pay gaps between men and women and more is yet to come. Her findings indicated pretty much optimistic findings particularly among the literature indicating enhanced gender inequalities.

Vokis et. al., 2017 examined the gender inequalities in European countries and collected both primary and secondary data for data analysis. Sample consisted of highly educated men and women. Findings indicated that women realized that men are the breadwinners of their families while women are homemakers; this notion required much more efforts for the women to struggle and counter the existing trend. However, women who are highly educated are preferred more for a job position where higher salaries are offered.

Williams & Rosenstock (2015) studied the effects of pay disparities on the health outcomes of men and women. They also used survey design for data collection and descriptive statistics for analyzing the obtained data. Findings indicated the pay gaps resulted in healthcare disparities among women particularly with reference to their mental health; anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts and aggression. These disparities can be eliminated if women are treated comparable to men in the labor market.


Williams, J. A., & Rosenstock, L. (2015). Squeezing Blood From a Stone: How Income Inequality Affects the Health of the American Workforce. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4), 616-621. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302424

Vokic, N. P., Coric, D. S., & Obadic, A. (2017). To be or not to be a woman? - Highly educated women's perceptions of gender equality in the workplace. Revija za Socijalnu Politiku, 24(3), 253-276. doi:10.3935/rsp.v24i3.1432

Travis, M. (2014). Disabling the Gender Pay Gap: Lessons From the Social Model of Disability. Denver University Law Review, 91(4), 893-923. doi:http://web.b.ebscohost.com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=16&sid=fa1feb70-209d-40fd-9134-1913c47c98e2%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=101389741&db=a9h

Rivera, L. A., & Tilcsik, A. (2019). Scaling Down Inequality: Rating Scales, Gender Bias, and the Architecture of Evaluation. American Sociological Review, 248-274. doi:10.1177/0003122419833601

Baslevent, C., & Kirmanoglu, H. (2017). Gender Inequality in Europe and the Life Satisfaction of Working and Non-working Women. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(1), 107-124. doi:10.1007/s10902-016-9719-z

Ahn, H., Roll, S., Zeng, W., & Frey, J. (2016). Impact of Income Inequality on Workers' Life Satisfaction in the U.S.: A Multilevel Analysis. Social Indicators Research, 128(2), 1347-1363. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-1082-7

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57 (6), 1069–1081. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069

Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research. 31 (2): 103–157. doi:10.1007/BF01207052

Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T. & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In R.F. Baumeister (ed.), Public Self and Private Self (189-212). Springer-Verlag (New York).

Smith, Sir William (1898). Cornish, F. Warre (ed.). A Concise Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London: Spottiswoode and Co., 608–9.

Nakdimen, K. A. (1984). The Physiognomic Basis of Sexual Stereotyping. American Journal of Psychiatry. 141 (4), 499–503. doi:10.1176/ajp.141.4.499.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Answer 2 Questions In 1 Hour

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Business and Management

Answer # 1

Bill Swanson

Based on the case and information available about the case, the punishment of Bill Swanson was the downward modification of the compensation and retirement package. In addition to it and in case of business ethics, the way he and his reputation and career got damaged and harmed was another punishment for him. This was an ethical and natural punishment that hit him because of his act done.


The punishment of downward modification of compensation and retirement and package could be considered appropriate punishment. But it had not to be ignored that legal actions had to be taken against him. So that others were keeping themselves away from such acts.

Answer # 2

Wal-Mart’s Gender Discrimination

Several evidences can be found which finds that Wal-Mart engages in gender discrimination. The one and most common and highly know is the lawsuit filed by around 100 current and former workers of Wal-Mart against the store, that they are paying for unequal pay while facing the issues of lack of opportunity. Beyond this, another evidence is the complaint of Stephanie Odle due to which she had been fired by the company. In this claim, she claimed that Wal-Mart is engaged in Sex Discrimination. In the case, she (assistant manager) found that the company is engaged in a higher payment to male employees who serve on the same position while having less experience than her, but still getting paid for higher salaries than her. She claimed that the male employees on the same position with less experience were making $10,000 a year which is more than what she makes. Furthermore, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Wal-Mart had been found discriminated against 178 female workers by paying less than men and denying promotions due to their gender.

Defenses of Wal-Mart

The first defense is that the Wal-Mart spokesperson “Randy Hargrove” reported that Wal-Mart had not experienced a positive experience of millions of women working at Wal-Mart.

But, based on my perception, this could not be ethically a defensible defender about the case.

Another defense of the company was to ensure and communicate to everyone that the company ensures a better corporate culture that is one that promotes equal opportunity and fairness as well as auditing everything such as pay and promotion policies.

Ethically, it can be a defensible defense because bringing changes is considered as the best possible solution to a problem or concern.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Answer 5 Question.

Response to Questions

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Response to Questions

Response to Question 1

The American legal system aims to protect the rights of all Americans and orders to respect the other person's space. The laws in the US legal system are made to guard the rights of American citizens and assure basic human rights are met. The laws are a manifestation of the foundation of the American legal system.

Tort Law is an excellent example of American law; it allows the individuals to bring the lawsuits against any party that causes damage, injury or harm. Tort Law, in the US, protects people against any civil damage or injury and provides them a remedy against their losses. Thus, this law exists to pay damages to people who suffer from any property damage or a wrongful act by some other party. It includes negligence, liability, and intentional harm. Frequently occurring torts include assault, false imprisonment, and battery, etc. Constitutional law in the US acts as a channel and protects the constitutional rights of its citizens ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Mod9hPfR","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Constitutional Law\\uc0\\u8212{}HG.org,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Constitutional Law—HG.org,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"mkNsIyJx/A2MVuSB6","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rhLtY1cq/items/YFS9AS78"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rhLtY1cq/items/YFS9AS78"],"itemData":{"id":259,"type":"webpage","title":"Constitutional Law - HG.org","URL":"https://www.hg.org/constitutional-law.html","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Constitutional Law—HG.org,” n.d.). It enables the people and organizations to bring lawsuits to courts in case of infringement of their rights. For example, a landowner can bring the case to a court of law if his personal property has been used for the construction of the highway.

Thus American legal system aims to ensure equal protection of rights of all.

Response to Question 2

The contract is a legal agreement between two parties, enforced by the law. If the promise made in the contract is breached, the harmed party can claim damages from the court of law. A legally binding agreement or contract is more than that of a promise between friends and is made up of certain elements.

A contract bounds two parties legally and safeguard their resources. A legally enforceable contract is based on the five essential elements. According to the Contract Law, these include the offer, acceptance, consideration, capacity, and mutuality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nYQo4qBS","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Contract,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Contract,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":"mkNsIyJx/F43x5FeS","uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rhLtY1cq/items/FGBMTD8G"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rhLtY1cq/items/FGBMTD8G"],"itemData":{"id":261,"type":"webpage","container-title":"LII / Legal Information Institute","language":"en","title":"Contract","URL":"https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/contract","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Contract,” n.d.). Offer is the first stage in contract, for instance, an offer made by an application developer to develop an application against a certain sum of money. When both parties demonstrate their agreement, it is referred to as acceptance. The value that each party offers to another is denoted as consideration, for instance, money, property, etc. It does not have to be money every time. Each party must have a legal capacity to enter into a contract, for instance, a minor cannot take part in the contract. Every party must also take part in a contract willingly, for instance, one party may not hold the right to cancel the contract. Thus, missing any of these essential elements make the contract null and void.

Response to Question 3

The term ‘minor’ is generally used in the law to represent a person who is under 18. Generally, a contract with a minor is considered voidable. Minors do not hold the legal capacity to enter a contract, however, in some conditions as discussed below.

Courts allow minors to exit the contract at their discretion. In addition, according to law, contracts with minors in case of certain goods and services essential to minor’s wellbeing, are enforceable ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dSJC5erW","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Can a Minor Enter into a Contract? - HG.org,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Can a Minor Enter into a Contract? - HG.org,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":383,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/svENvmyw/items/EABV7P79"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/svENvmyw/items/EABV7P79"],"itemData":{"id":383,"type":"webpage","title":"Can a Minor Enter into a Contract? - HG.org","URL":"https://www.hg.org/legal-articles/can-a-minor-enter-into-a-contract-34024","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Can a Minor Enter into a Contract? - HG.org,” n.d.). For instance, contracts pertaining to food, shelter, and clothing. Besides, if minors enter into a contract with banks, they are subject to the same obligations and penalties. Minors can also enter an employment contract that is enforceable according to the court of law. Minors can ratify the contract after they reach the age of majority. Furthermore, there are two ways a minor can void the contract, requesting the court to void the contract and to raise the affirmative action. Thus, a minor can enter into a contract, ratify the contract and can also void the contract.

Response to Question 4

Privity of contract refers to the legal relationship between the parties of the contract. This relationship prevents any third party to enforce the contract (Neyers, 2007). This is the general rule in Contract Law that does not allow any party other than the party to contract, to seek enforcement of the contract.

There are some exceptions to the doctrine of privity of contract law, allowing the third party to enforce the contract. One such case is Collateral Contracts. The third-party can sue the seller over faulty products. Besides, contracts that involve an agent acting on behalf of the principal is also an exception to the general rule. The beneficiary of a trust can also sue the trustee. In some cases, restrictive covenants on land are enforced against a third party. In case of negligence resulting in personal injury, the third party can sue the negligent party. Thus, rights and obligations to third parties are given in some circumstances.

Response to Question 5

If a party fails to act upon the terms mentioned in a contract, it is denoted as the breaching party. In case of breach of contract, a civil lawsuit is filed by the non-breaching party to obtain remedies.

The remedy is compensation offered to the non-breaching party; these remedies can be in many forms. One type of remedy is monetary damages; breaching party is held responsible for the losses. Another remedy is to force the breaching party to act on the terms listed in the contract, referred to as specific performances. Non-breaching party is also released from the obligations of the contract in case of breach ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9rMvoU9y","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}Remedies for Breach of Contract\\uc0\\u8212{}Judicial Education Center,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“Remedies for Breach of Contract—Judicial Education Center,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":385,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/svENvmyw/items/UQLN849K"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/svENvmyw/items/UQLN849K"],"itemData":{"id":385,"type":"webpage","title":"Remedies for Breach of Contract — Judicial Education Center","URL":"http://jec.unm.edu/education/online-training/contract-law-tutorial/remedies-for-breach-of-contract","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",12,21]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Remedies for Breach of Contract—Judicial Education Center,” n.d.). If it is difficult to estimate damages, the non-breaching party is awarded a specific amount of money.

These are a few common remedies available in case any of the parties breach the contracts.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Can a Minor Enter into a Contract? - HG.org. (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2019, from https://www.hg.org/legal-articles/can-a-minor-enter-into-a-contract-34024

Constitutional Law—HG.org. (n.d.). Retrieved December 19, 2019, from https://www.hg.org/constitutional-law.html

Contract. (n.d.). Retrieved December 19, 2019, from LII / Legal Information Institute website: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/contract

Remedies for Breach of Contract—Judicial Education Center. (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2019, from http://jec.unm.edu/education/online-training/contract-law-tutorial/remedies-for-breach-of-contract

Neyers, J. W. (2007). Explaining the principled exception to privity of contract. McGill LJ, 52, 757.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Answer Question

[Your Name]

[Instructor Name]

[Course Number]


Business and Management

Answer No 1

False Ads

The false ad is a type of ad which conveys something that is not the actuality or reality. It means that a false ad is the one that contains something different from reality. False ads or tort of publishing any advertisement which contains an untrue and misleading representation which has made knowingly to promote the sale of a product or service.

The first ad is a social media ad that offers comparatively inexpensive advertisement. This ad is used to reach a particular segment for getting them engaged. While the second one is a display order which includes advertisement in digital and newspaper ads. This is the updated version of ads which involves buying a specific space on a site to target a particular group.

The first ad can be considered false because it covers the things that are beyond the reality means showing something else than what they actually offer. While the second one is not false because it conveys almost exactly what the company offers.

Answer No 2

Data System Administrator

Telecommunicating employee can take advantage of scam by utilizing the data he/she has access to for the purpose to fulfill his or her concern. He/she can use the data of the company for the personal concern like he/she can increase overtime duration to increase their salary.

Yes, the farmer employer or background check reveals this to the new employer because it is legal that any employer hiring an employee has the right to gain information about the employee from his/her employer he/she has worked with last time.

Website Address: https://lp.findlaw.com/


Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Answer Question

Student name

Submitted by



Is Ethical behavior of a company is profitable ?

The genuine ethical foundations of business , apparently, have yet to be formed. However, it is now clear that a systemic three-tier approach is needed here, involving the state, society, and entrepreneurs themselves. Ethical problems in business are most acute in the clash between the two sides of the activity of one firm: the achievement of economic indicators (costs, revenues, profits) and the fulfillment of social obligations to its employees, partners and society. Ultimately, however, ethical behavior and maintaining a reputation is more effective than winning a competition using unethical means.

So far, many companies understand only charity and sponsorship as ethical behavior. But gradually, more and more are becoming aware of the benefits of voluntary compliance with civilized business standards: from basic honesty in business relations to the realization of their social role for those whose life and work depend specifically on the activities of your company.

Nowadays, cherishing the honor of a company is not a luxury, but a necessity, because if you do not respect and deceive your customers and suppliers, then at one point they can turn their backs on the “unethical company” and go to its competitors. In addition, enterprises are increasingly paying attention to non-financial sources of growth, namely the formation and development of human capital. The main areas of investment are social programs aimed at developing the company's personnel, protecting health and creating safe working conditions.

In addition to customers, there are other parties in the business environment that impose ethically legitimate requirements on the company. They are channeled into companies through market mechanisms and social relationships. The customer may choose not to buy the product, the employee may choose another employer. Businesses face a value debate. Some of our values are ethical.

According to Byars and Kurt, “throughout the years 2008 and 2009, numerous unethical companies went bankrupt. Nevertheless, those businesses that evaded the “quick buck,” dangerous and unethical investments, and other unethical business practices often thrived. If nothing else, customer comment on social media sites such as Yelp and Facebook can damage an unethical company’s prospects”( Byars and Stanberry21).

Case of Ford motors

With its vision of being a good corporate citizen, Ford has been named one of the world's most respected research centers by the Ethisphere Institute for the 8th consecutive year, one of the world's most ethical companies. Ford is one of the most ethical companies in the world; Sustainable supply chain practices, responsible resource management and its collaborations for a clean environment played a major role in the vision of being a good corporate citizen. In addition, Ford, the only company among the automotive manufacturers to be awarded this award for the 8th consecutive time, achieved another important first in the sector.

The grandfather of the aforementioned Henry Ford, Henry Ford I, adhered to other ethical standards, who not only became famous as the "father" of the American auto industry, but also proved to be a visionary sociologist who put a lot of effort into creating a middle class in America. Henry Ford, I immortalized his name not only with his success in creating a mass car, but also with an ethical attitude towards the employees of his company. In 1914, he introduced wages in the amount of five dollars a day, which was twice the standard daily wage. This was an amazing event in America and company faced, 2008 economic crisis and survived because company never left its core values and ethical standards. (Brenkert 917).

As we can see from the above examples, the position of businessmen in relation to ethics, moral standards diverges, each has its own scale of reference values. They differently (even being members of the same family) perceive the concept of duty, decency to colleagues, society. The problem of creating "normal" business relations in our unstable political and socio-economic situation is, of course, a difficult matter and requires careful development.

To be ethically sustainable, a business must be profitable. This can lead to well-being that is shared between different stakeholders. Capital is only of value in a prosperous human community and ecological environment. The company's interest is to promote the existence and well-being of its operating environment. Ethics is part of a successful business.

Work cited

Byars, Stephen M., and Kurt Stanberry. Business Ethics. OpenStax College, Rice University,


Brenkert, George G. "Mind the gap! The challenges and limits of (Global) business ethics."

Journal of Business Ethics 155.4 (2019): 917-930.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Answer Questions

Your Name

Instructor Name

Course Number


Answer Questions: Business Ethics Cases

Case 1

In the given case, the human resource manager is quite impressed by the performance of Tim; the marketing representative. Although, Tim's resume was impressive but had misled the HR department of the company while hiring Tim for this position. In this situation, the human resource manager should not proceed with the termination of Tim and appreciate Tim for telling the truth. Along with revoking his termination, the Human resource manager must warn Tim about the breach of integrity at the workplace which poses a negative impression of the employee and makes the future expectations ambiguous and uncertain. Moreover, Tim should be guided about business ethics and personal integrity which determines one's behavior in different interactions with his peers, colleagues and the management within the organization. He should be warned that in the future if any such breach or fraudulent activity is observed during the course of Tim's job, he will be terminated.

However, the human resource manager should also appreciate him for telling the truth. He might have chosen to hide the truth as he was already appointed for the job. This portrays that Tim has a sense of guilt and ethical values which he realized lately. Such employees who have consciousness towards business ethics should be retained and trained to enhance their morals and loyalty towards their organizations.

Case 2

In this case, the director of advertising should not accept the ad offer of Ashley Madison who is currently facing a backlash, although profitable but has lawsuits due to the data breaches which led to great societal damage. Although the ad of Ashley Madison will earn profits to Cotton Bowl magazine, it will be ethically wrong and might pose a negative imprint of the advertising company. Moreover, ethics and law are more important to be compliant within the long term perspective. The ad will earn profits to the company but in the short run because as a consequence, the Cotton Bowl magazine company might face any lawsuit against the Ashley Madison ad which will impose more losses to the company economically as well as on the reputation of the company. In order to make the advertising company profitable, the director should accept other offers that do not cause damage to the ethical values of the society and make the company retain its reputation and success in the long run.

Case 3

Organizations always prefer those employees to be kept retained those who are highly productive and have been able to maintain a good performance record considering the behavior and overall work ethics. John has been a good employee since the beginning, but the incident that is informed by Mrs. Deer is quite depressing and of high concern. If a person is this much frustrated and is unable to maintain balance in life then he must visit a psychologist for this purpose. According to my opinion, there must be high pressure on Mr. John's end to attain the position of 'Regional Manager'. In this regard, the company must take care of its employees and offer them services of work psychologist, who could guide them and find out the concerns the employees face at work. The kind of aggression shown by John Deer is not even good for the company, as he can even show such behavior at work with his colleagues and that would become even more difficult for the company. As the company would have to pay for the damages and would also have to answer the legal authorities for his employment. I cannot accept the recommendation made by Mrs. Deer right away i.e. to offer him the position, as this position is very critical for the company and if something goes wrong at the regional level the company could face a huge loss in terms of reputation. At this very point, the company must offer psychological services to Mr. John Deer, so that he could overcome his anxiety and must not go for termination over this personal family incident.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600



[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]


Apple is an American multinational company. It develops various electronics, computers’ software and hardware, and online services. It is the top brand in the mobile industry. The reason for Apple being so appealing is its marketing strategies. It is not true that other competitive firms like Samsung are unable to develop advanced technology like Apple, but the reason for being successful for the brand is that Apple attracts customers through their promotions, and emotion is stronger than information in inspiring action ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"emkqtIjO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}What Makes Apple So Appealing? | SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“What Makes Apple So Appealing? | SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":431,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/VH5XDFGN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/VH5XDFGN"],"itemData":{"id":431,"type":"webpage","title":"What Makes Apple So Appealing? | SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont","URL":"https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa14/2014/09/19/what-makes-apple-so-appealing/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“What Makes Apple So Appealing? | SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont,” n.d.). In other words, Apple understands all the aspects of psychology related to marketing which enables them to be the face of technology. The most legendary and appealing focus of Apple is their customer. Apple do not value product or price, they keep their focus on the customer experience.

Pricing Strategies:

Premium Pricing:

It is the strategy when firms set prices of their product higher than the other firms. It influences promotional strategies because when brands increase their prices, the consumer usually take it as a luxury product. Therefore, the demand for the product increases from consumers who get attracted to luxury items or status symbol products. For instance, Vita coca works on premium pricing as it is the first coconut water brand. Its product price is double than the price of the competitor's product.

Penetration Pricing:

It is the pricing which is usually used by the new firms to enter the market. It influences the promotion strategy by attracting consumer due to the low price of the product. For instance, Netflix was the best example of penetrating pricing. When it entered the market, Netflix offered many low prices and discount packages. It helped Netflix to grow and today it is a market leader.

Economy Pricing:

Economy pricing tries to attract consumers who are price conscious. For economy pricing, firms keep their costs of production, promotion, and marketing low to make prices down For instance, 1 dollar shops. The concept behind the 1 dollar shop was to attract the consumers who prefer low or prices which are in their budgets. These shops keep their product cost lower and sell different items in just one dollar.

Psychological Pricing:

Psychological pricing varies over the emotions rather than logical facts. It makes customers respond toward the product on the emotional level. In other words, psychological pricing develops an illusion of value ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7sMciOMh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}The 7 pricing strategies every business owner has to know,\\uc0\\u8221{} 2017)","plainCitation":"(“The 7 pricing strategies every business owner has to know,” 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":433,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/G226EJAS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/rVaVAHaF/items/G226EJAS"],"itemData":{"id":433,"type":"webpage","title":"The 7 pricing strategies every business owner has to know","container-title":"Startups.co.uk: Starting a business advice and business ideas","abstract":"Examples of penetration pricing, price skimming and more, as used by businesses to set prices - to help YOU create a successful business pricing strategy.","URL":"https://startups.co.uk/pricing-strategies-price-skimming-penetration-pricing-and-premium-pricing/","language":"en","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017",6,13]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",4,1]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“The 7 pricing strategies every business owner has to know,” 2017). For instance, "99 effect" is among the oldest and successful strategy of the retail trade. It is also true that almost every brand use psychological pricing as its promotional strategy.

Promotional pricing:

These prices are temporary and artificial. Firms increase the value of their product artificially and create the perception of time-based scarcity. For instance, Black Friday sales where many brands lower their product's price to attract consumers.

Apple Pricing Strategy:

The brand Apple uses two pricing strategies at the same time that are premium pricing and psychological strategy. These both pricing strategy are the strength of the brand. For instance, through premium pricing apple product, iPhone successfully gained the attention of the consumers and it promoted the product. Consequently, revenue of the Apple products accelerated. Although the price of Apple products is higher than the other products of competitors, still Apple also uses psychological pricing. Apple keeps its focus on the experience of the consumers and provides the service on emotion level rather than product or logical level.

The pricing strategy of Apple is aligned with the messaging strategy in the promotions. For instance, through premium strategy, Apple made its product as a status symbols and luxury items. Many other companies are providing similar technology but Apple successfully promotes their product through customer experience and values to gain the high value of the brand.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY The 7 pricing strategies every business owner has to know. (2017, June 13). Retrieved April 1, 2019, from Startups.co.uk: Starting a business advice and business ideas website: https://startups.co.uk/pricing-strategies-price-skimming-penetration-pricing-and-premium-pricing/

What Makes Apple So Appealing? | SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont. (n.d.). Retrieved April 1, 2019, from https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa14/2014/09/19/what-makes-apple-so-appealing/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Apple In The News

Apple in the News

Your Name (First M. Last)

School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State)

Apple in the News


Apple Inc. is a multinational company that produces computer software, electronics, and online services. It is US Technology Company whose headquarter located in California. It is well known due to the size and revenue ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1s0uvrat2a","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Apple,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Apple,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1179,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/K48I6U4L"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/K48I6U4L"],"itemData":{"id":1179,"type":"webpage","title":"Apple","URL":"https://www.apple.com/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Apple,” n.d.). High and profitable production made apple world largest IT Company. Apple was losing its market value and stocks due to some serious issues like Brexit and US-China trade war. Apple is once again in the news as the stock is witnessing momentum. The news article published on January 2019 shows that positive development of Apple through the different graph and analytical data ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2c26lcudnn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}A Top-Down Analysis Of Apple\\uc0\\u8217{}s Next Big Opportunity - Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) | Seeking Alpha,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“A Top-Down Analysis Of Apple’s Next Big Opportunity - Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) | Seeking Alpha,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":1177,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/7KTB8YFY"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/ccgWoSRn/items/7KTB8YFY"],"itemData":{"id":1177,"type":"webpage","title":"A Top-Down Analysis Of Apple's Next Big Opportunity - Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) | Seeking Alpha","URL":"https://seekingalpha.com/article/4234332-top-analysis-apples-next-big-opportunity","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",1,19]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“A Top-Down Analysis Of Apple’s Next Big Opportunity - Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) | Seeking Alpha,” n.d.). Some crucial details about the company are as follows:

Competitive Intelligence:

Complete competitive intelligence of Apple includes:

Industry: Apple is a multinational technology company. It's work for more than one industry that are consumer electronics, semiconductors, computer hardware and software, online services, digital distribution, and corporate venture capital.

Competitors: The main competitors are Samsung, PayPal, Amazon, Dell, and Sony.

Products: Famous products of Apple are iPhone, IPad, iPod, Apple watch, tvOS, Logic Pro, Macintosh, etc.

Employees: More than one lakh

Revenue: 265.595 billion US dollars.

Net Income: 59.531 billion US dollars.


Apple demographics if divided into two, i.e., market demographics and workforce demographics.

Market Demographics: Purchasing ratio man vs. women is 2:1 where the average age of consumer is 35-44. Age demographics of age between 18-34 25% consumers show interest only in Apple product during the period of six months. Apple consumers are more affluent than other users that use devices on a regular basis.

Workforce Demographics: Workforce demographics shows that Apple company staff consist of seventy percent male and thirty percent female workers. The disparity with the technology-related designation is about eighty percent male and twenty percent female.

Porter's 5 Forces:

New entry threats: Apple has a strong market where existing companies are unable to compete. The supply chain is the great defense by the company to the new entries.

Substitution threats: It is not necessary that the competitors produce the same product, but the product that offered the product with the same features can be a threat to the company.

Supplier power: It is determined through the uniqueness of products. Apple reduced the power of chip makers, manufacturers, and distributors.

Competitive rivalry: Apple always avoids price-based competition. They focus on the production of superior goods with a quality check and a unique ecosystem.

Buyer power: Buyer power is not much in Apple case due to a large number of customers.

Value chain analysis:

Apple operation:It is divided into the following segments:





Australia and Asia.

Marketing and sales:



Online stores


Value-added resellers

Resource-Based View:

The resource-based view is the model which analyzes the company sources related to its competitive advantage. Apple has a competitive advantage because it is costly to copy the apple products as well as other firms unable to exploit apple’s opportunities. Three main factors strengthen the resource-based view of the company it includes:

Brand Reputation

The advantage of being the first mover

Customer loyalty

Balanced Scorecard:

Apple balanced scorecard helps to elevate the company to increase the performance by supporting the leader in making decisions. Apple uses 5 main performance indicators.

Core competencies

Value of shareholders

Satisfaction of customer

Market share

Commitment of employee

Human Capital:

Apple Company is now focusing on the new ways to handle the difficulties without withdrawing from the initial goals. Apple confronts the social, economic changes and environmental risks.

Social Capital:

Social capital includes non-economic resources. Apple uses advertisement and social media to enhance their productivity. All the knowledge and skills are making Apple product more famous, and market share of the company is going up.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY A Top-Down Analysis Of Apple’s Next Big Opportunity - Apple Inc. (NASDAQ:AAPL) | Seeking Alpha. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2019, from https://seekingalpha.com/article/4234332-top-analysis-apples-next-big-opportunity

Apple. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2019, from https://www.apple.com/

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Application For A Scholarship In School Of Business

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The Director of Finance Add name in place of designation if you know

Add College Name here

Add City, State, Zip code

Date April 23, 2019

Subject Application for Scholarship for 4 years Business Degree Program

Respected Sir,

Intention behind writing this letter is to share my concerns regarding my financial situation which requires me to consult your scholarship program eagerly. I have been studying an Associate Degree in Business for two years and aspiring for continuing my education further at your prestigious institution. There might be a bulk of students requiring financial assistance for continuing their education and for that matter tending to attain this excellent opportunity but my performance in the previous academic degree is what might make you consider me for this scholarshipthe 3.973 CGPA.

Despite devastating economical hardships, I have always made my best possible efforts to further my education because only higher education has the potential to nurture my self esteem and empower my future economical development I am writing this application under the same thread. It would be an incredible opportunity for me if you award me with the chance to study Business Management at your college add college name that I would intend to seize wholeheartedly without reservation.

I have opened my story up and hoping for the best to come. I would finish my degree and attempt to attain desirable job in corporate sectorpresenting the best of my services and your institution if I am fortunate enough to avail this financial aid. It would highly be appreciated if you evaluate my application openly and consider me as a prospective candidate. I am looking forward to arrive at your institution.

Thanking you in anticipation.

Yours sincerely,

Add your name here

Add your contact number here

Add your email here

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Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Application Paper


Teacher’s Name:



Blue Ocean strategy

Blue Ocean strategy is one where company tries to follow differentiation and low-cost strategies at the same time. The purpose is to open up a fresh space for market and build new demand for a product. The efforts are mad to build a market place where no other competitor can compete and competition is effectively irrelevant. The company believes that market boundaries and industry structure are not much important if a company has the capabilities to rebuild these aspects. Blue ocean strategy has been developed after studying a large number of strategic steps taken by different companies over a period of 100 years. The common factors were studied which led to creation of blue ocean strategy. Generally, this strategy is pursued successfully by technological companies having very strong background. An example of such strategy is iTunes which helped Apple to unlock a blue ocean of a new market in the area of digital music which it has now dominated for more than 10 years now. It all started when Apple observed that there was a large quantity of illegal music file sharing starting in the late 90’s, helped by programs for file sharing. By 2003, there were approximately 2 billion music files which were illegally traded each month. This affected the music industry badly. There was a clear trend towards digital music and was accompanied by fast growing demand of MP3 players which played the digital music. The company filled all the aspects of this trend by offering iTunes with a very clear strategy. The company made agreement with all major music companies to legally use and download the music. The customers were allowed to buy individual songs and at a price that was much reasonable than past. In the past, customers had to buy a full CD whereas they wanted to get only one or two songs from it. The quality of these songs was much higher as compared to past services and there were much more options of navigating, search and browsing in it. The offers made by iTunes attracted huge number of customers from all over the world as well as recording companies and artists also benefitting. The companies or artists received 70 % of the price paid for downloading songs. The copyright protection policy was devised to protect the music companies but did not hurt the people in terms of ability to download.

Another example for the blue ocean strategy is given by Bloomberg which has grown in a little over 10 years as one of the largest and most profitable financial information providers in the world. The company did not follow normal routine of choosing the customers in financial services and created a blue ocean in this industry. When these services were launched in 1980s, this industry was led by Reuters, Dow Jones and Telerate, providing related information in the real time to all the concerned parties. There was a major focus on people who actually purchased the system and wanted standardized systems so that their lives were made easier. Bloomberg analyzed that traders and analysts were the people who made or lost huge amounts of money for the companies or employers. In a busy market, decisions have to be made very fast so that no single second is wasted. The system developed by Bloomberg gave an opportunity to the traders to increase their value, there were terminals which were easy to use and keyboards with familiar financial terms. There were also screens which allowed people to see all information at once and analysis option was also available with a single key stroke. The focus on users allowed Bloomberg to create Blue ocean strategy resulting in strong and profitable growth. Bloomberg noticed that traders and analysts were not able to spend much time with their families, there were flowers, clothes, jewelry and similar offerings made by the company online so that people can buy them as ease. By focusing users instead of purchasers, the company was able to create value which was different from the offerings of other companies and industry. Traders and analysts used their influence in companies so that Bloomberg terminals are purchased.

There are six paths in the blue ocean framework, each of which may result in successful application of this strategy.

The organizations have to look across alternative industries to create blue ocean impact for themselves. Organizations compete in a single industry but they are challenged by organizations from other industries in terms of competition. These challengers produce different products and services in their industries. Organizations assume that their competitive environment will remain unchanged with a narrow view of industry as a whole. Organizations have to find different industries for their products to be successful in blue ocean strategy. Substitutes are products which have distinct forms but offer same utility. Alternates are products which have different functions but their purpose is the same. The entertainment industry aims to relax, rewind and de-stress people. Substitutes to this industry are CDs, TV and alternatives are visiting a mall or a hobby center. A practical example of a product working across industries is the pro-biotic drink Yakult which competes with health drinks and juices but at the same time it competes with the Pharma industry. Both health drinks and pharma industries do not consider it as their competitor thus Yakult has created a blue ocean for itself across industries.

There are a large number of firms in an industry which try and accomplish similar strategies. These groups are generally based on price and performance. Companies have to find the reasons for trading up or down by the buyers. TATA did not want to compete with entry level strategic groups in India. It filled a gap by providing cars in less than a hundred thousand rupees in India. It got hold of the factors for which Maruti 800 buyers will come down and two-wheeler users will go up.

In most industries, there is a set definition of target buyer for almost all companies. There are chains of buyers who are directly or indirectly involved in buying decisions such as purchasers who pay for the service, actual users of products and influencers who have a role to play in the buying decision. In the above examples, Bloomberg was the on that affected the people who were actually using the financial information for their decision making. These users then forced their IT staff members to purchase Bloomberg services so that their work is facilitated. The blue ocean strategy was formed by finding the actual buyers in an industry and which buyer group is the major focus of your industry. If a company shifts its focus from one buyer group to another, how can it increase the value delivered. Another good example of adoption of this path is NoVo disk which is a leading producer of Insulin and it focused on diabetic patients as opposed to the doctors and nurses who were targeted as a tradition. Their products were pen like instruments which were fancy looking and easy to use.

An organization needs to care for what happens before, during and after the product is used by their consumers. Mostly, competitors use the same context for the usage of their products and services. The company has to identify the points where customers are pained before, during and after the use of their products. This strategy was successfully implemented by iTunes which identified that the consumers had to buy a full CD even if they needed only one or two songs from it. They further noticed that the prices were too high and after the purchase, they noticed the inconvenience faced by the companies and artists. By introducing iTunes, Apple catered all three issues with a single product. Another example is Philips which saw that the biggest issue in tea making from kettle is the lime scale present in the tap water and company solved this issue by adding a filter on the mouth of kettle so that all the lime scale remains inside of the kettle.

Emotional appeal to purchasers relates to the emotional satisfaction that is taken by them from the use of product or service. Organizations consider the factors which increase the cost of their product without enhancing its functionality. Competition focuses on one or two possible bases of appeal. Functional appeal refers to the functional benefits which purchasers take out of their decision to purchase a specific product. Companies may have options to compete on emotional appeal by improving functionality or on functional appeal by using some emotional aspects. A good example of this aspect is provided by Subway which competes on the emotional appeal which was not a common ground to compete in the fast-food industry.

Many organizations respond to trends in an industry when they have already making an impact. Organizations which are trend setters in this regard will be able to implement blue ocean strategy most effectively. The trend should be critical to the business, cannot be reversed and must have a clear trajectory. iTunes is again the appropriate example for this path.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Application Software Programs

Business and Management

Assignment: Application Software Programs

What are your 5 favorite application software programs? Explain why you selected each program.

Following are my favorite application software programs and the reasons why I have selected each of them:

Proofhub:- It is a very powerful application software for the management of the business. Necessary features that are crucial for effective supervision of business are included in it. It offers real-time administration of ongoing projects and other tasks, Gantt charts, reports according to the management requirement, and ultimately helps to keep track of time taken by projects.

QuickBooks Pro:- It addresses the requirements of small businesses and it is a very wide choice. It can handle the day to day accounting, receivables, payables, inventories, payroll, taxes, and other issues. Moreover, there is an ease of creating a budget for the upcoming periods. All these features combined and included in a single package makes it a best and preferred choice for small businesses.

Microsoft Office:- Microsoft office has been in use by home-based users and businesses. We can say that it is the most necessary feature that is to be installed on a computer after the Operating System i.e. Windows. It provides services such as Word Processing, Spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations, Email services (outlook), Notepads, Publisher, etc. Nearly every kind of personal and business writing and composing needs can be fulfilled using Microsoft Office. Nowadays it has gained popularity on mobile devices and there is no more need to have a computer system to use it. It can be used at any time and anywhere to view and edit our documents.

Google Chrome:- It has a very meek, straightforward design to provide ease of use. Moreover, it is freely downloadable and has been the most widely used web browsing application software in the world. Using it increases the browsing speed tremendously, and the loading and displaying of webpages become very quick using it. It provides an option to open many web pages using multi tabs and switching between them. An important feature of google chrome is that when browsing the internet on someone other’s computer we can use the incognito tab to not let the other person see our browsing history. Google Chrome has also been very popular and mostly used browsing application on mobile devices providing fast and secure access to websites.

VLC Media Player:- It is available free of cost and can play almost every format of videos. So, there is no need of having other multimedia players when VLC is installed. It is capable of being installed on all version of windows. It has the capability of recording live videos from internet or other sources. It is guaranteed virus free because it doesn’t allow add-ons or other miscellaneous types of additional software, those could contain malicious viruses. VLC Media Player is also available for use on mobile devices offering the same features as for computer systems.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300


Application Write-up # 1

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Application Write-up # 1

Organizational behavior is a very important and integral part of Human Resource practices. The concept of Organizational behavior is not narrow and much of the work has been done on it since the past many years. Scholars and experts have been working on the various aspects of this field and constantly trying to improve organizational practices. One of the proofs of such efforts is an article published in the New York Times by the title “Why Are Young People Pretending to Love Work?” (Griffith, 2019). The article has been intelligently penned down by famous expert and researcher in Human Resource area Erin Griffith.

Definitions of OB are many. However, three features need to be emphasized in any definition:

OB is the study of human behavior

The studies about behavior in organizations

Knowledge about human behavior would be useful in improving organization effectiveness

Combining the above three features, OB may be understood to be the study of human behavior in organizational settings, of the interface between human behavior and the organization and of the organization itself. Knowledge gained from such a study is useful in improving organizational effectiveness. OB is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. It looks at employee behavior, decisions, perceptions, and emotional responses. It examines how individuals and teams in organizations relate to each other and to their counterparts in other organizations. OB also encompasses the study of how organizations interact with their external environments, particularly in the context of employee behavior and decisions. OB researchers systematically study these topics at multiple levels of analysis, namely, the individual, team (including interpersonal), and organization.

The biggest issue is that we are still clinging to old irrelevant structures that make any kind of change very painful. We are still running our behavior on carrot or stick schemes, using an old model of mission and vision that is as useless as it is uninspiring. Worse of all, we still make the awful strategic plans that last 3, 4, 5 or even 10 years. In this changing world we have no idea what is going to happen in the next 6 months, how can we plan for 10 years? So changing the base structures of our organizations, from hierarchical power-based models, into more adaptable, learning and purpose-oriented systems, would be the biggest challenge we must face in order to nudge behavior in the right direction.

By “emerging issues in organizational behavior” It can also be assumed that “How can we design to deal with these issues”. The emerging issue that is most prominent is related to the issues of a human being in a ‘purpose-driven” organization. These “emerging issues” are really the issues that have been with us since the industrial age. Neither human nature nor organization structures have changed much. Human beings fundamentally value the same things. Organizations fundamentally ignore these things. The great question is, “Why is this so little changed after a century or two?”

One big factor is the rigid hierarchies based in command and control that are intended to control results are not a match for independently thinking and choosing human beings. The dissonance is huge. This is so because there has been no other way to coordinate action to produce results when success and financial resources combine to grow organizations beyond a human scale. This history is the basis of all inherited organizational structure and design. However, the possibility of new organizational design based in recognition of the nature of human cooperative action and technological breakthroughs in information and communication structures is upon us.

The old basis won’t survive long. But merely throwing it out or rebelling will fail just as miserably. We need to bring the technologies and traditional human social values together in new ways to enrich human productive experience and to gain energy and power of individuals working together for common ends. Most of the jobs of this century have not been invented. We have already witnessed a significant shift in the types of employees engaged in a company. They are better educated and have less experience than their parents. Those differences lead to different trends that OB practitioners and researchers will want to understand.

Certainly, OB is obsessed with the mindset of different generations. Much has been written about this but very little accomplishment can be seen in the workplace using the impressive findings. Pairing organizational strengths and weaknesses for expanded knowledge is a no-brainer. Knowledge Management and Learning Organizations are still very hot topics and will continue to be since the pace of change is continuous today. It is extremely interesting how consumerism will play out among the Millennials. Tiny homes, electric cars, ride share, public transport demand, simple living, renting for mobility…..these trends all have huge consequences for businesses around the globe. There is a great number of Millennials who have mastered good clinical educations and travel in their occupations, making a boatload of money in their youth. No family or kids, they spend half the year traveling. They invest in real estate but live in rentals to make leaving easier.

Some of the major reasons for behavioral issues in an organization lies with the Management itself. One major factor is the lack of coherence in the objectives of various teams of the organization. The conflicts arising out of this between teams lead’s behavioral issues. Secondly the hygiene factors of the organization if not addressed adequately. Some of the hygiene factors are:


Quality of supervision

Company rules

Physical working conditions

Co-worker relationships

Job security

If these are not adequately addressed causes dissatisfaction among employees and causes distrust, inadequate co-operation with peers, etc. Thirdly the individual's mindset depending on his background and his mental baggage causes behavioral issues with his peers and maybe bosses even. These may be hiding information, inadequate cooperation with peers, one-upmanship, etc. This affects team performance.

The article also points out that one of the main reasons there are organizational behavior issues is partly due to the socialization process or lack of one depending on the organization. The process of socialization can be described as the learning and adjustment process that allows an employee to create a role in the organization that both fits organizational and personal needs. The process involves learning the organizational culture and values of the organization as well as acquiring the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are acceptable within the organization. So because the organizational behaviors have already been established, the problem lies in passing those behavioral norms to each new employee.

According to the article, one of the other main issues is out-ethics on top of the company, which may spread out until the last worker at the bottom. The result you see when the company has to pay fines in million and billion dollars. If a co-worker is inflow oriented, that means, he is only on a big salary interested, then he is not a wrathful co-worker. The contrary is an outflow oriented co-worker. Command-and-control is a walking corpse that hasn’t realized it’s dead yet. There are many reasons for this, & Dee Hock lays them out in his “Birth of the Chaordic Age” far better than I can. However, there is one absolutely foundational issue which renders c-&-c impossible. One of the premises of c-&-c is the ability to control the flow of information. Our technology has rendered that impossible. When anyone within an organization (or outside of it, for that matter) who has the time, inclination, knowledge, & computing power can gain access to any information that exists anywhere in the organization, then it becomes impossible to make c-&-c work.


Griffith, E. (2019). Why Are Young People Pretending to Love Work?. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/26/business/against-hustle-culture-rise-and-grind-tgim.html [Accessed 27 Sep. 2019].

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

APPLICATION WRITE-UP #2:Organizational Behavior

Application Write-Up #2: Organizational Behavior

[Author’s name]

[Institute’s name]

Application Write-Up #2: Organizational Behavior

Article Summary

           This article on the organizational issue presented by Neil Irwin in 2019. This piece of information is adapted from the book, “How to Win in a Winner-Take-All World.” The focal point of the author is this research article to identify specific organizational approaches that can be helpful to establish the necessary balance between organizational success and employees’ overall satisfaction. The author of the article comprehensively explained the practical approach of Brett Ostrum who was performing his managerial services for Microsoft in the form of in charge of the company’s computing devices. The statistics of the Microsoft business explicitly indicates that Ostrum and his managerial team was doing incredibly well in the market by grabbing a huge share of the market in early 2018. It is noteworthy to mention that besides the outstanding organizational approach in the market, employees of the department mainly facing the concern of low job satisfaction ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QwLXqvIl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Irwin, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Irwin, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1478,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/6C77NKEB"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/6C77NKEB"],"itemData":{"id":1478,"type":"webpage","title":"The Mystery of the Miserable Employees: How to Win in the Winner-Take-All Economy","container-title":"The New York Times","author":[{"family":"Irwin","given":"Neil"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Irwin, 2019). A deep analysis of the inner environment of the organization explicitly revealed that workers were facing chronic organizational problems in the form of their inability of developing a work-life balance. 

           The growing unsatisfaction of skilled employees was one serious concern for the management because it can potentially threaten the strategic domain of the company. It was important for the management to find the main causes of this growing problem to offer possible solutions. Critical analysis of the entire organizational situation indicates that employees mostly facing the issue of overburden by middle managers that eventually create work performance issues for them. The growing issue of miserable employees can be observed in many other forms considering the environmental issues in organizational settings. Currently, there is a need for providing better working opportunities to the employees so they become to successfully address the growing phenomenon of organizational change. The establishment of power-driven technological advances is the significant perspective of organizational change that is eventually linked with the performance level of employees. 

Application of Relevant Organizational Behavior (OB) Models

           It is significant to critically discuss the organizational issues identified by the author under the spectrum of OB. This specific approach is vital to explore possible organizational solutions when it comes to providing a better organizational environment to all the workers. Application of suitable OB framework according to the changing organizational needs is important to measure to create a necessary balance between organizational performance and overall well-being of the employees. The decreasing rate of job satisfaction is one ingoing organizational aspect that influences the overall domain of the organizations in a great manner. Application of suitable OB ideas and theoretical perspectives in an organizational setting is important to offer a better working environment for the workers. 

           People working on managerial positions play an important role in successfully deals with the growing issue of workers’ declining job satisfaction. The first proposed practical step for the managers to obtained complete information to recognize the actual aspect of consideration. The adoption of a suitable organizational behavior model or framework is vital to examine the main cause behave adopted by people within the organizational environment. The supportive model of OB can be considered to examine different dimensions of the issue of unsatisfaction of employees in an organization ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"jJEVbuKn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Boiral, Talbot, & Paill\\uc0\\u233{}, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Boiral, Talbot, & Paillé, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1479,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/G7NPLTQS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/G7NPLTQS"],"itemData":{"id":1479,"type":"article-journal","title":"Leading by example: A model of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment","container-title":"Business Strategy and the Environment","page":"532-550","volume":"24","issue":"6","author":[{"family":"Boiral","given":"Olivier"},{"family":"Talbot","given":"David"},{"family":"Paillé","given":"Pascal"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Boiral, Talbot, & Paillé, 2015). The theoretical framework of the support model can be useful to identify potential causes that eventually increase the risk of miseries of employees highlighted by the author in the selected. 

           A specific OB concept in the form of a supportive model is a possible solution to successfully address the problems appears due to improper working association between managers and the employees. The core foundation of the supportive model of OB is the establishment of a useful leadership domain with the proper managerial alignment of support. The application of this theoretical model in an organizational context eventually becomes the reason for the growing form of higher job performance and participation by the employees working on different organizational levels. It is crucial to mention that the basic foundation of a supportive model as an OB framework is leadership. It is important for the leader or the manager to adopt an appropriate managerial leadership style in order to provide better working conditions to all the employees. Successful application of a flexible leadership style can be helpful for the manager and employees to build strong communication and association. The flexible perspective of leadership adopted by managers ultimately helps workers to appropriately behave according to the actual organizational needs. The open working environment also encourages workers to start learning from their mistakes and adopt better performance strategies for the future to meet organizational objectives and standards. 

           The broad idea of a supportive model of OB can be helpful for all the workers characterized by the author of the article as the miserable workforce. The supportive role of the manager can be helpful for the stressed workers to communicate their performance issues clearly to the management. This form of consideration can be helpful to find possible solutions to the strict organizational environment and help workers to meet organizational and personal performance goals in an appropriate manner. This specific concept can be applied in the particular situation mentioned in the article where strict rules of internal transfers made it difficult for workers to concentrate on their job tasks. In this particular organizational situation, there is a need for applying a supportive OB model to align the behavioral domains of all the shareholders according to actual organizational requirements.

           Consideration of group and individual performances within an organizational context is the basic theme of the OB. Understanding the behavioral perspectives of employees in the forms of their attitudes and motivations is essential for the managers to explore the root-causes of the miserable situation of the workers. Identification of the actual attitudes of workers ultimately helps managers of the business organizations to explore the actual areas of workers’ performance that require necessary attention. Networking is another significant concept of OB that can be applied to increase the overall engagement of employees in an organizational setting. It is important for managers to adopt different channels of networking to enhance interaction with all the employees. This form of consideration helps to identify the potential issues in the form of behavior of the workers. Identification of the main reason for improper job performance is necessary to offer possible solutions. 

           The framework of networking is illustrated as the goal-directed behavior which occurs in both forms of inside and outside contexts. The active role of the manager as the leader in the organizational environment is vital in the form of properly creating, cultivating, and appropriately developing interpersonal associations. The adoption of the instrument is important when people are working in groups and the behavior of one individual greatly influenced the working prospects of other group members. Integrated information is one crucial practical aspect of consideration for all the employees to successfully understand their job roles and responsibilities. The broad idea of networking in the context of organizational behavior is comprised of goal-directed behavior that helps all the stakeholders to meet their organizational and personal objectives according to actual requirements. It is important for the manager to successfully deliver important information to employees about their tasks to avoid growing ambiguities for them. The practical implications of organizational networking analysis (ONA) are one suitable practical approach that determines the active delivery of information by focusing on flexible communication approaches. 


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Boiral, O., Talbot, D., & Paillé, P. (2015). Leading by example: A model of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(6), 532–550.

Irwin, N. (2019). The Mystery of the Miserable Employees: How to Win in the Winner-Take-All Economy. Retrieved from:


Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

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